Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Business
This 109 page Document was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday December 20, 2015. The Document belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
Reviews for Corporate-Governance-and-International-Business
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/20/15
David Crowther & Shahla Seifi Corporate Governance and International Business Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 2 Corporate Governance and International Business © 2011 David Crowther, Shahla Seifi &Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 978-87-7681-737-4 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 3 Corporate Governance and International Business Contents Contents 1 Introduction to Corporate Governance 10 1.1 Introduction 10 1.2 Governance 10 1.3 Corporate Governance 11 1.4 Governance systems and corporate social responsibility 12 1.5 Relating corporate governance and corporate social responsibility 13 1.6 References 15 1.7 Further reading 15 1.8 Self-test questions 16 2 Development of codes of governance and international comparisons 17 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Systems of governance 17 2.3 Developing a framework for corporate governance 20 2.4 Company management 21 2.5 References 23 2.6 Further reading 23 2.7 Self-test questions 24 The next step for top-performing graduates Masters in Management in Management provides specific and tangible foundations for a successful career in business.s This 12-month, full-time programme is a business qualification with impact. In 2010, our MiM work in consulting or financial services.f graduation*; the majority of graduates choosing to As well as a renowned qualification from a world-class business school, you also gain access to the School’s network of more than 34,000 global alumni – a community that offers support and opportunities throughout your career. For more information visit www.london.edu/mm, email firstname.lastname@example.org or give us a call on +44 (0)20 7000 7573. *Figures taken from London Business School’s Masters in Management 2010 employment report Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 4 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Contents 3 The principles of corporate governance 25 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 The principles of governance 25 3.3 Good governance and corporate behaviour 28 3.4 Corporate Governance Principles 29 3.5 Good Governance and Sustainability 31 3.6 References 32 3.7 Further reading 32 3.8 Self-test questions 33 4 Stakeholders & the social contract: a broader view of corporate governance 34 4.1 Introduction 34 4.2 The Social Contract 34 4.3 What is a stakeholder? 35 4.4 Multiple stakeholdings 36 4.5 The classification of stakeholders 36 4.6 Stakeholder Theory 37 4.7 Governance and stakeholders 41 4.8 Relating corporate governance and corporate social responsibility 42 4.9 Relating social responsibility with governance: the evidence 43 4.10 Conclusions 44 Join EADS. A global leader in aerospace, defence and related services. Let your imagination take shape. EADS unites a leading aircraft manufacturer, the worldlearning and development opportunities, and all the support you need, helicopter supplier, a global leader in space programmyou will tackle interesting challenges on state-of-the-art products. worldwide leader in global security solutions and systems to form Europe’s largest defence and aerospace group. More thaWe take more than 5,000 interns every year across disciplines 140,000 people work at Airbus, Astrium, Cassidian and ranging from engineering, IT, procurement and ﬁnance, to in 90 locations globally, to deliver some of the indusstrategy, customer support, marketing and sales. Positions are exciting projects. available in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. An EADS internship offers the chance to use your theoretical knowledge and apply it ﬁrst-hand to real situations and assignmentsre and apply, visitwww.jobs.eads.com. You can also during your studies. Given a high level of responsibilﬁnd out more on our EADS Careers Facebook page. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 5 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Contents 4.11 References 44 4.12 Further Reading 45 4.13 Self-test Questions 45 5 Issues concerning Sustainability 46 5.1 Introduction 46 5.2 Defining sustainability 46 5.3 The Brundtland Report 47 5.4 Critiquing Brundtland 48 5.5 Sustainability and the Cost of Capital 50 5.6 Redefining sustainability 50 5.7 Distributable sustainability 52 5.8 Summarising Sustainability 53 5.9 ISO 26000 54 5.10 Conclusions 55 5.11 References 55 5.12 Further reading 56 5.13 Self-test Questions 57 6 Ethics, corporate governance and corporate behavior 58 6.1 Introduction 58 6.2 Defining ethics 58 6.3 Ethical philosophies 59 Excellent Economics and Business programmes at: “The perfect start of a successful, international career.” CLICK HERE to discover why both socially and academically the University of Groningen is one of the best places for a student to be www.rug.nl/feb/education Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 6 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Contents 6.4 Corruption 61 6.5 Culture 62 6.6 The Gaia Theory 62 6.7 Corporate Behaviour 64 6.8 Governance, Ethics and Corporate Behaviour 65 6.9 Corporate Reputation 66 6.10 Conclusion 66 6.11 References 67 6.12 Further Reading 67 6.13 Self-test Questions 67 7 Risk Management and Corporate Governance 68 7.1 Introduction 68 7.2 Attitudes to risk 69 7.3 Managing risk 69 7.4 Risk Management Strategies 70 7.5 Risk probability profiles 72 7.6 A Typology of risk 72 7.7 Risk analysis: the cost of capital 74 7.8 The Capital Asset Pricing model 77 7.9 The cost of capital for a business 78 7.10 Summary 78 Teach with the Best. Learn with the Best. Agilent offers a wide variety of affordable, industry-leading electronic test equipment as well as knowledge-rich, on-line resources —for professors and students. We have 100’s of comprehensive web-based teaching tools, lab experiments, application notes, brochures, DVDs/ See what Agilent can do for you. CDs, posters, and more. www.agilent.com/ﬁnd/EDUstudents www.agilent.com/ﬁnd/EDUeducators © Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2012 u.s. 1-800-829canada: 1-877-894-4414 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 7 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Contents 7.11 References 79 7.12 Further reading 79 7.13 Self-test questions 79 8 The Audit function and the role of regulation 80 8.1 Introduction 80 8.2 The role of audit 80 8.3 The Audit Committee 81 8.4 Agency theory and asymmetric power 81 8.5 Agency Theory 82 8.6 Conclusions concerning the theory 84 8.7 Rating Agencies 84 8.8 Regulation 85 8.9 The 2008 financial crisis 86 8.10 Failures in regulation 87 8.11 Conclusions 87 8.12 References 87 8.13 Further reading 88 8.14 Self-test questions 88 Need help with your dissertation? Get in-depth feedback & advice from experts in your topic area. Find out what you can do to improve the quality of your dissertation! Get Help Now Go to www.helpmyassignment.co.uk for more info Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 8 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Contents 9 Corporate Governance in non-commercial organisations 89 9.1 Introduction 89 9.2 Definitions 90 9.3 The role of NGOs 90 9.4 Inflation and NGOs 91 9.5 Distinguishing features of sector 91 9.6 Types of NFP organisation 91 9.7 Motivation for NFPs 92 9.8 Implications for managers 93 9.9 Available resources 94 9.10 Structure of a charity 94 9.11 Accounting issues 95 9.12 Governance issues in NFPs 96 9.13 Conclusions 97 9.14 References 97 9.15 Further reading 97 9.16 Self-test questions 97 10 Globalisation and corporate governance 98 10.1 Introduction 98 10.2 Globalisation 99 10.3 The concept of global governance 102 10.4 Global perspectives 103 10.5 How Globalisation Affects Governance 103 10.6 Globalisation, Corporate Failures and Corporate Governance 105 10.7 Conclusion 106 10.8 References 106 10.9 Further Reading 107 10.10 Self-test Questions 107 Endnotes 108 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 9 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance 1 Introduction to Corporate Governance 1.1 Introduction The concept of governance is not a new one but nowadays we hear words as corporate governance, organizational governanceorgoodgovernancefrequently.Actuallycorporategovernanceor,asdefinedinISOFDIS26000,organizational governance is the system by which an organization makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). And according to ISO FDIS 26000, it is the most crucial factor in enabling an organization to take responsibilityfortheimpactsofitsdecisionsandactivitiesandtointegratesocialresponsibilitythroughouttheorganization and its relationships. Communities and their environments are increasingly impacted by any kind of organization including small, medium, large-sized, domestic or multinational, private or governmental enterprises. Some people tend to relate the prominence and importance of social responsibility to issues raised by international organizations although social responsibility has ever been important for the world business long before the emergence of multinational companies. However in this book we are trying to focus on the effects related to international business. 1.2 Governance The concept of governance has existed as long as any form of human organisation has existed. The concept itself is merely one to encapsulate the means by which that organisation conducts itself. Recently however the term has come to the forefront of public attention and this is probably because of the problems of governance which have been revealed at both a national level and in the economic sphere at the level of the corporation. These problems have caused there to be a concern with a re-examination of what exactly is meant by governance, and more specifically just what are the features of good governance. It is here therefore that we must start our examination. When considering national governance then this has been defined by the World Bank as the exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage society’s problems and affairs. This is a view of governance which prevails in the present, with its assumption that governance is a top down process decided by those in power and passed to society at large. In actual fact the concept is originally democratic and consensual, beingtheprocess bywhich any group of people decide to manage their affairs and relate to each other. Such a consensual approach is however problematic for any but the smallest of groups and no nation has actually managed to institute governance as a consensual process. With the current trend for supra-national organisations then this seems even more of a remote possibility; nor is it necessarily desirable. Thus a coercive top down form of governance enables a society to accept leadership and to make some difficult decisions which would not otherwise be made . Equally of course it enables power to be usurped and used dictatorially – possibly 3 4 beneficially but most probably in a way in which most members of that society do not wish . Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 10 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance This top down, hierarchical form of governance is the form of governance which normally takes place in large monolithic organisations such as the nation state. Conversely the consensual form tends to be the norm in small organisations such as local clubs. There are however other forms of governance which are commonly found. One of these is governance through the market (see Williamson 1975). The free market is the dominant ideology of economic activity, and the argument of courseisthattransactioncostsareloweredthroughthisformoforganisation.Fromagovernanceperspectivehoweverthis is problematic as there is no automatic mechanism and negotiation is therefore used. The effect of this is that governance is decided according to power relationships, which tend to be coercive for the less powerful (eg consumers). Consequently there is a need to impose some form of regulation through governments, or supra-national organisations such as the World Trade organisation, which thereby re-imposes the eliminated transaction costs. The argument therefore resolves into an ideological argument rather than an economic one. An increasing number of firms rely upon informal social systems to govern their relationship with each other, and this is the final form of governance. This form is normally known as network governance (Jones, Hesterly & Borgatti 1997). Withthisformofgovernancethereisnoformalrules–certainlynonewhicharelegallybinding.Insteadsocialobligations are recognised and governance exists within the networks because the different organisations continue to engage with each other, most probably in the economic arena. This form of governance can therefore be considered to be predicated in mutual self interest. Of course, just as with market governance, power relationships are important and this form of governance is most satisfactory when there are no significant power imbalances to distort the governance relationships. Although in some respects these different forms of governance are interchangeable they are, in reality, suited to different circumstances. Whichever form of governance is in existence, however, the most important thing is that it can be regarded as good governance by all parties involved – in other words all stakeholders must be satisfied. For this to be so then it is important that the basic principles of good governance are adhered to. 1.3 Corporate Governance Corporate governance can be considered as an environment of trust, ethics, moral values and confidence – as a synergic effort of all the constituent parts – that is the stakeholders, including government, the general public etc, professional, service providers, and the corporate sector. One of the consequences of a concern with the actions of an organisation, and the consequences of those actions, has been an increasing concern with corporate governance. Corporate governance is therefore a current buzzword the world over. It has gained tremendous importance in recent years. There is a considerable body of literature which considers the components of a good system of governance and a variety of frameworks exist or have been proposed. One of the main issues, therefore, which has been exercising the minds of business managers, accountants and auditors, investmentmanagesandgovernmentofficials–againallovertheworld–isthatofcorporategovernance.Oftencompanies main target is to become global – while at the same time remaining sustainable – as a means to get competitive power. But the most important question is concerned with what will be a firm’s route to becoming global and what will be necessary in order to get global competitive power. There is more than one answer to this question and there are a variety of routes for a company to achieve this. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 11 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance Probably since the mid-1980s, corporate governance has attracted a great deal of attention. Early impetus was provided by Anglo-American codes of good corporate governance . Stimulated by institutional investors, other countries in the developed as well as in the emerging markets established an adapted version of these codes for their own companies. Supra-national authorities like the OECD and the World Bank did not remain passive and developed their own set of standard principles and recommendations. This type of self-regulation was chosen above a set of legal standards (Van den Barghe, 2001). After big corporate scandals, corporate governance has become central to most companies. It is understandable that investors’ protection has become a much more important issue for all financial markets after the tremendous firm failures and scandals. Investors are demanding that companies implement rigorous corporate governance principles in order to achieve better returns on their investment and to reduce agency costs. Most of the times investors are ready to pay more for companies to have good governance standards. Similarly a company’s corporate governance report is one of the main tools for investor’ decisions. Because of these reason companies can not ignore the pressure for good governance from shareholders, potential investors and other markets actors. Ontheotherhandbankingcreditriskmeasurementregulationsarerequiringnewrulesforacompany’screditevaluations. Newinternationalbankcapitaladequacyassessmentmethods(BaselIIandBaselIII)necessitatethatcreditevaluationrules are elaborately concerned with operational risk, which covers corporate governance principles. In this respect corporate governance will be one of the most important indicators for measuring risk. Another issue is related to firm credibility and riskiness. If the firm needs a high rating score then it will have to pay attention to corporate governance rules also. Creditratingagenciesanalysecorporategovernancepracticesalongwithothercorporateindicators.Eventhoughcorporate governance principles have always been important for getting good rating scores for large and publicly-held companies, they are also becoming much more important for investors, potential investors, creditors and governments. Because of all of these factors, corporate governance receives high priority on the agenda of policymakers, financial institutions, investors, companies and academics. This is one of the main indicators that the link between corporate governance and actual performance is still open for discussion. In the literature, a number of studies have sought to investigate the relation between corporate governance mechanisms and performance (eg Agrawal and Knoeber, 1996; Millstein and MacAvoy, 2003). Most of the studies have showed mixed result without a clear cut relationship. Based on these results, we can say that corporate governance matters to a company’s performance, market value and credibility, and therefore that the company has to apply corporate governance principles. But the most important point is that corporate governance is the only means for companies to achieve corporate goals and strategies. Therefore companies have to improve their strategy and effective route to implementation of governance principles. So companies have to investigate what their corporate governance policy and practice needs to be. 1.4 Governance systems and corporate social responsibility MostpeoplewouldsaythatcorporatesocialresponsibilityisanAnglo-Saxonconceptwhichhasbeendevelopedprimarily in the UK and the USA. Critics however would say that it is only under the Anglo-Saxon model of governance that there could ever be a need for CSR. They would argue that the Cartesian dichotomy is a peculiarly Anglo-Saxon development which led directly to the notion of a free market as a mediating mechanism and the acceptance of the use of power for one’s own end, in true utilitarian style. This has led to the loss of a sense of community responsibility which removed any sense of social responsibility from business. This therefore necessitated its reinvention in the form of corporate social Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 12 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance responsibility, just as it necessitated the development of codes of corporate governance. The Latin model of governance however is founded in the context of the family and the local community and is therefore the opposite of the Anglo Saxon model, being based on a bottom up philsophy rather than a hierarchical top down approach. Thus this model is based on the fact that extended families are associated with all other family members and therefore feel obligated. In such a model of governance the sense of social responsibility remains strong and is applied to firms just as much as individuals. This sense of social responsibility has never therefore been really lost and consequently there has been no need for its reinvention. The Anglo Saxon system of governance is of course the dominant model throughout the world and, as a consequence, the concernwithcorporatesocialresponsibilityhasspreadtoothersystemsofgovernance.Itwouldbereasonablethereforeto argue that the concept now permeates all business models and all systems of governance, no matter what the antecedents or the necessity might be. Consequently we are able to address global perspectives on the issues of corporate governance and corporate social responsibility in this volume without fear of being regarded as Anglo-centric. 1.5 Relating corporate governance and corporate social responsibility It is of course no longer questioned that the activities of a corporation impact upon the external environment and that therefore such an organisation should be accountable to a wider audience than simply its shareholders. This is a central tenet of both the concept of corporate governance and the concept of corporate social responsibility. Implicit in this is a concern with the effects of the actions of an organisation on its external environment and there is a recognition that it is not just the owners of the organisation who have a concern with the activities of that organisation. Additionally there are a wide variety of other stakeholders who justifiably have a concern with those activities, and are affected by those activities. Those other stakeholders have not just an interest in the activities of the firm but also a degree of influence over the shaping of those activities. This influence is so significant that it can be argued that the power and influence of these stakeholders is such that it amounts to quasi-ownership of the organisation. Central to this social contract is a concern for the future which has become manifest through the term sustainability. This term sustainability has become ubiquitous both within the discourse of globalisation and within the discourse of corporate performance. Sustainability is of course a controversial issue and there are many definitions of what is meant by the term. At the broadest definitions sustainability is concerned with the effect which action taken in the present has upon the options available in the future. If resources are utilised in the present then they are no longer available for use in the future, and this is of particular concern if the resources are finite in quantity. Thus raw materials such as coal, iron or oil are finite in quantity and once used are not available for future use. At some point in the future therefore alternatives will be needed to fulfil the functions currently provided by these resources. This may be at some point in the relatively distant future but of more immediate concern is the fact that as resources become depleted then the cost of acquiring the remaining resources tends to increase, and hence the operational costs of organisations tend to increase. Sustainability therefore implies that society must use no more of a resource than can be regenerated. This can be defined in terms of the carrying capacity of the ecosystem and described with input – output models of resource consumption. Viewing an organisation as part of a wider social and economic system implies that these effects must be taken into account, not just for the measurement of costs and value created in the present but also for the future of the business itself. Such concerns are pertinent at a macro level of society as a whole, or at the level of the nation state but are equally Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 13 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance relevant at the micro level of the corporation, the aspect of sustainability with which we are concerned in this book. At this level, measures of sustainability would consider the rate at which resources are consumed by the organisation in relation to the rate at which resources can be regenerated. Unsustainable operations can be accommodated either by developing sustainable operations or by planning for a future lacking in resources currently required. In practice organisations mostly tend to aim towards less unsustainability by increasing efficiency in the way in which resources are utilised. An example would be an energy efficiency programme. One view of good corporate performance is that of stewardship and thus just as the management of an organisation is concernedwiththestewardshipofthefinancialresourcesoftheorganisationsotoowouldmanagementoftheorganisation be concerned with the stewardship of environmental resources. The difference however is that environmental resources are mostly located externally to the organisation. Stewardship in this context therefore is concerned with the resources of society as well as the resources of the organisation. As far as stewardship of external environmental resources is concerned then the central tenet of such stewardship is that of ensuring sustainability. Sustainability is focused on the future and is concerned with ensuring that the choices of resource utilisation in the future are not constrained by decisions taken in the present. This necessarily implies such concepts as generating and utilising renewable resources, minimising pollution and using new techniques of manufacture and distribution. It also implies the acceptance of any costs involved in the present as an investment for the future. Not only does such sustainable activity however impact upon society in the future; it also impacts upon the organisation itself in the future. Thus good environmental performance by an organisation in the present is in reality an investment in the future of the organisation itself. This is achieved through the ensuring of supplies and production techniques which will enable the organisation to operate in the future in a similar way to its operations in the present and so to undertake value creation activity in the future much as it does in the present. Financial management also however is concerned with the management of the organisation’s resources in the present so that management will be possible in a value creation way in the future. Thus the internal management of the firm, from a financial perspective, and its external environmental management coincide in this common concern for management for the future. Good performance in the financial dimension leads to good future performance in the environmental dimension and vice versa. Thus there is no dichotomy between environmental performance and financial performance and the two concepts conflate into one concern. This concern is of course the management of the future as far as the firm is concerned. Similarly the creation of value within the firm is followed by the distribution of value to the stakeholders of that firm, whetherthesestakeholdersareshareholdersorothers.Valuehowevermustbetakeninitswidestdefinitiontoincludemore than economic value as it is possible that economic value can be created at the expense of other constituent components of welfare such as spiritual or emotional welfare. This creation of value by the firm adds to welfare for society at large, althoughthiswelfareistargetedatparticularmembersofsocietyratherthantreatingallasequals.Thishasledtoarguments concerning the distribution of value created and to whether value is created for one set of stakeholders at the expense of others. Nevertheless if, when summed, value is created then this adds to welfare for society at large, however distributed. Similarly good environmental performance leads to increased welfare for society at large, although this will tend to be expressed in emotional and community terms rather than being capable of being expressed in quantitative terms. This will be expressed in a feeling of wellbeing, which will of course lead to increased motivation. Such increased motivation will inevitably lead to increased productivity, some of which will benefit the organisations, and also a desire to maintain the pleasant environment which will in turn lead to a further enhanced environment, a further increase in welfare and the reduction of destructive aspects of societal engagement by individuals. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 14 Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance 1.6 References Agrawal, A & Knoeber C R (1996), “Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems between Managers and Shareholders”, Journal of Financial andQuantitative Analysis, 31(3) pp.377–398. Jones C, Hesterly W S & Borgatti S P (1997); A general theory of network governance: exchange conditions and social mechanisms; Academy of Management Review, 22 (4), 911-945 Millstein. I.M. and MacAvoy. P.W.(2003), “The Active Board of Directors and Performance of the Large Publicly Traded Corporation’, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1283-1322 Williamson O E (1975); Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Anti-trust Implications; New York; The Free Press. 1.7 Further reading Crowther D (2000); Corporate reporting, stakeholders and the Internet: mapping the new corporate landscape; Urban Studies Vol 37 No 10 pp 1837-1848 Crowther D (2002); A Social Critique of Corporate Reporting; Aldershot; Ashgate Crowther D (2004); Limited liability or limited responsibility; in D Crowther & L Rayman-Bacchus (eds), Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility; Aldershot; Ashgate; pp 42-58 Mallin C (2004); Corporate Governance; Oxford; Oxford University Press Free online Magazines Click here to download SpeakMagazines.com Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 15 Click on the ad to read more Corporate Governance and International Business Introduction to Corporate Governance Van den Berghe L.A.A. and Abigail Levrau (2003), “Measuring the Quality of Corporate Governance: In Search of a Tailormade Approach?, Journal of General Management Vol. 28 No. 3 Spring. Van den Berghe, L.(2001), “Beyond Corporate Governance”, European Business Forum, Issue 5, Spring . 1.8 Self-test questions 1. What is meant by governance? 2. What is meant by corporate governance? 3. Which is the dominant model of governance? 4. What is the relationship between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility? 5. What has caused the current interest in corporate governance? Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 16 Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons 2 Development of codes of governance and international comparisons 2.1 Introduction Every organization has its own decision-making processes and structures according to its structure and objectives which mayrangefromformalandsophisticatedonessubjecttolawsandregulations,toinformalonesrootedinitsorganizational culture and values. The world has now realised the importance of harmonised codes of governance and considerable effort has been put into developing such codes. In this chapter we consider the various approaches. 2.2 Systems of governance It is probably true to say that there is a considerable degree of convergence on a global scaleas far as systemsof governance are concerned, and this convergence is based on the dominance of the Anglo Saxon model of the state, the market and of civil society. As a consequence there tends to be an unquestioning assumption (see for example Mallin 2004) that discussions concerning governance can assume the Anglo Saxon model as the norm and then consider, if necessary, variations from that norm (see Guillen 2001). It is important however to recognise that there are other models so in this chapter we state that there were historically 3 significant approaches to governance. Each has left its legacy in governance systems around the world. The Anglo Saxon model is important but just one of the 3 models we wish to examine. The other two we have described as the Latin model and the Ottoman model. We start by outlining the salient features of each. 2.2.1 The Anglo Saxon model of governance The Anglo Saxon model of governance is of course familiar to all readers of this book. It is founded on rules which must be codified and can therefore be subject to a standard interpretation by the appropriate adjudicating body. It has a tendency to be hierarchical and therefore imposed from above; and along with this imposition is an assumption of its efficacy and a lack therefore of considerations of alternatives. In this model therefore the issues of governance, politics and power become inseperably intertwined The abuses which have been revealed within this system of governance have exposed problems with the lack of separation of politics from governance. This has led to the suggestion that there should be a clear distinction between the two. The argument is that politics is concerned with the processes by which a group of people, with possibly divergent and contradictory opinions can reach a collective decision which is generally regarded as binding on the group, and therefore enforced as common policy. Governance, on the other hand, is concerned with the processes and administrative elements of governing rather than its antagonistic ones (Solomon 2007). This argument of course makes the assumption that it is actually possible to make the separation between politics and administration. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 17 Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons For example both the UK and the USA have governance procedures to make this separation effective for their national governments – and different procedures in each country – but in both countries the division is continually blurred in practice. Many would argue that the division is not possible in practice because the third factor of power is ignored whereas this is more important. Indeed it is our argument that it is the operation of this power in practice that brings about many of the governance problems that exist in practice. We discuss this in greater detail later in the chapter but part of our argument is that theories and systems of governance assume that power relationships, while not necessarily equal, are not too asymmetric. If the relationship is too asymmetric then the safeguards in a governance system do not operate satisfactorily whereas one of the features of globalisation is an increase in such power asymmetries. The Anglo Saxon model is hierarchical but other forms of governance are allowed and even encouraged to operate within this framework. Thus the market form features prominently in the Anglo Saxon model while the network and consensual forms can also be found. It is therefore apparent that it is not the form of governance which epitomises the Anglo Saxon model; rather it is the dependence on rules and adjudication which distinguishes this system of governance. You’re full of energy and ideas . And that’s © UBS 2010. All rights reserved. just what we are looking for. Looking for a career where your ideas could really make a diﬀerence? ▯UBS’s Graduate Programme and internships are a chance for you to experience for yourself what it’s like to be part of a global team that rewards your input and believes in succeeding together. Wherever you are in your academic career, make your future a part of ours by visiting www.ubs.com/graduates. www.ubs.com/graduates Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 18 Click on the ad to read more Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons 2.2.2 The Latin model of governance 8 The Latin model of governance tends to be less codified than the Anglo Saxon model and finds less need for procedures for adjudication. This is because it is founded in the context of the family and the local community. In some respects thereforeitistheoppositeoftheAngoSaxonmodel,beingbasedonabottomupphilosophyratherthanahierarchicaltop down approach. Thus this model is based on the fact that extended families are associated with all other family members and therefore feel obligated. And older members of the family are deemed to have more wisdom and therefore assume a leadership role because of the respect accorded them by other family members. As a consequence there is no real need for formal codification of governance procedures and the system of adjudication does not need to be formalised – it works very satisfactorily on an informal basis. Moreover this model is extended from the family to the local community and works on the same basis. InmanywaysthenetworkformofgovernancedescribedinChapter1isbasedonthisLatinmodel,insofarasitispredicated in informal relationships of mutual interest, and without the need for codification: this need is not required because of the interest of all parties in maintaining the working relationships which exist. Thus tradition can be said to play a part in this model of governance – trust based on tradition because it has worked in the past and can be expected to continue working into the future. The network form however is based on a lack of significant power inequalities whereas the Latin model definitely does have a hierarchy and power is distributed unequally. The power is distributed according to age however and therefore it is acceptable to everyone because they know that they will automatically rise up the hierarchy – thereby acquiring power – as they age. The process is therefore inevitable and deemed to be acceptably fair. 2.2.3 The Ottoman model of governance The Ottoman Empire existed for 600 years until the early part of the twentieth century. Although the empire itself is well known, few people know too much about it. Throughout Europe, at least, the reality is obscured by the various myths which abound – and were mostly created during the latter part of the nineteenth century – primarily by rival states and for political propaganda purposes. The reality was of course different from the myths and the empire had a distinct model of governance which was sufficiently robust to survive for 600 years, although much modern analysis suggests that the lack of flexibility and willingness to change in the model was one of the principle causes of the failure of the empire. We do not wish to enter into this debate and will restrict ourselves to an analysis of this distinct model of governance. Accordingtothefifteenthcenturystatesman,TursunBeg,itisonlystatecraftwhichenablestheharmoniouslivingtogether of people in society and in the Ottoman empire there were two aspects to this statecraft – the power and authority of the rule (the Sultan) and the divine reason of Sharia (via the Caliph) (Inalcik 1968). In the Ottoman Empire these two were combined in one person. The Ottoman Empire was of course Islamic, but notable for its tolerance of other religions. It has been argued (Cone, 2003), that the Islamic understanding of governance and corporate responsibility shares some fundamental similarities with the Rawlsian concept of social justice as mutual agreement among equals (motivated by self interest). All parties must be fully aware of the risks attendant on a particular course of action and be accepting of equal liability for the outcomes, good or bad. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 19 Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons Muslims see Islam as the religion of trade and business, making no distinction between men and women and seeing no contradictionbetweenprofitandmoralacts(Rizk2005). Thegovernancesystemwaseffectivelyaformofpatronagewhich operated in a hierarchical manner but with the systems and procedures being delegated in return for the benefits being shared in an equitable manner. This enabled a very devolved form of governance to operate effectively for so long over such a large area of Asia, Europe and Africa. It is alien to the Anglo Saxon view because the systems involved payment for favours in a way that the Anglo Saxon model would interpret as corrupt but which the Ottoman model interprets simply as a way of devolving governance. It is interesting to observe therefore that the problems with failure of governance in the current era could not have occurred within the Ottoman model because there was no space left for the necessary secrecy and abuse of power. 2.3 Developing a framework for corporate governance The first report which set out a framework for corporate governance was the Cadbury Report which was published in 1992 in the UK. Since then there have been a succession of codes on corporate governance each making amendments from the previous version. Currently all companies reporting on the London Stock Exchange are required to comply with the Combined Code on Corporate Governance, which came into effect in 2003. It was revised in 2006 and became the UK Corporate Governance Code in 2010. It might be thought therefore that a framework for corporate governance has already been developed but the code in the UK has been continually revised while problems associated with bad governance have not disappeared. So clearly a framework has not been established in the UK, and an international framework looks even more remote. One of the problems with developing such a framework is the continual rules versus principles debate. The American approach tends to be rules based while the European approach is more based on the development of principles – a slower process.Ingeneralrulesareconsideredtobesimplertofollowthanprinciples,demarcatingaclearlinebetweenacceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Rules also reduce discretion on the part of individual managers or auditors. In practice however rules can be more complex than principles. They may be ill-equipped to deal with new types of transactions not covered by the code. Moreover, even if clear rules are followed, one can still find a way to circumvent their underlying purpose - this is harder to achieve if one is bound by a broader principle. There are of course many different models of corporate governance around the world. These differ according to the nature of the system of capitalism in which they are embedded. The liberal model that is common in Anglo-American countries tends to give priority to the interests of shareholders. The coordinated model, which is normally found in Continental Europe and in Japan, recognises in addition the interests of workers, managers, suppliers, customers, and the community. Both models have distinct competitive advantages, but in different ways. The liberal model of corporate governance encourages radical innovation and cost competition, whereas the coordinated model of corporate governance facilitates incremental innovation and quality competition. However there are important differences between the recent approach to governance issues taken in the USA and what has happened in the UK. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 20 Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons 2.4 Company management In the USA a corporation is governed by a board of directors, which has the power to choose an executive officer, usually known as the chief executive officer (CEO). The CEO has broad power to manage the corporation on a daily basis, but needs to get board approval for certain major actions, such as hiring his / her immediate subordinates, raising money, acquiring another company, major capital expansions, or other expensive projects. Other duties of the board may include policy setting, decision making, monitoring management’s performance, or corporate control. Potential ENGINEERS, UNIVERSITY forexploration GRADUATES & SALES PROFESSIONALS Junior and experienced F/M Total will hire 10,000 people in 2013. Why not you? Are you looking for work in engineering, R&D, sales & marketingof or support professions such as information technology? We’re interested in your skills. Join an international leader in the applying atd chemical industry by www.careers.total.com More than 600 job openings are now online! Potential Copyright : Total/Corbis forrdeeveeloppme entt Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 21 Click on the ad to read more Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons The board of directors is nominally selected by and responsible to the shareholders, but the articles of many companies makeitdifficultforallbutthelargestshareholderstohaveanyinfluenceoverthemakeupoftheboard.Normallyindividual shareholders are not offered a choice of board nominees among which to choose, but are merely asked to rubberstamp the nominees of the sitting board. Perverse incentives have pervaded many corporate boards in the developed world, with board members beholden to the chief executive whose actions they are intended to oversee. Frequently, members of the boards of directors are CEOs of other corporations – in interlocking relationships, which many people see as posing a potential conflict of interest. The UK on the other hand has developed a flexible model of regulation of corporate governance, known as the “comply or explain” code of governance. This is a principle based code that lists a number of recommended practices, such as: • the separation of CEO and Chairman of the Board, • the introduction of a time limit for CEOs’ contracts, • the introduction of a minimum number of non-executives Directors, and of independent directors, • the designation of a senior non executive director, • the formation and composition of remuneration, audit and nomination committees. PubliclylistedcompaniesintheUKhavetoeitherapplythoseprinciplesor,iftheychoosenotto,toexplaininadesignated part of their annual reports why they decided not to do so. The monitoring of those explanations is left to shareholders themselves.ThebasicideaoftheCodeisthatonesizedoesnotfitallinmattersofcorporategovernanceandthatinsteadof a statutory regime like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the U.S., it is best to leave some flexibility to companies so that they can make choices most adapted to their circumstances. If they have good reasons to deviate from the sound rule, they should be able to convincingly explain those to their shareholders. A form of the code has been in existence since 1992 and has had drastic effects on the way firms are governed in the UK. A recent study shows that in 1993, about 10% of the FTSE 350 companies were fully compliant with all dimensions of the code while by 2003 more than 60% were fully compliant. Nowcomplianceismoreorless100%.OfcourseallfirmsreportingontheLondonStockExchangearerequiredtocomply with this code, and so these firms are doing no more than meeting their regulatory obligations. Many companies regard corporate governance as simply a part of investor relationships and do nothing more regarding such governance except to identify that it is important for investors / potential investors and to flag up that they have such governance policies. The more enlightened recognise that there is a clear link between governance and corporate social responsibility and make efforts to link the two. Often this is no more than making a claim that good governance is a part of their CSR policy as well as a part of their relationship with shareholders. Clearly the code is not yet fully complete – hence the continued revisions – and has not succeeded in eliminating all of the problems. Indeed governance issues have been considered to be one source of the recent crisis. Thesamesuccesswasnotachievedwhenlookingattheexplanationpartfornoncompliantcompanies.Manydeviationsare simplynotexplainedandalargemajorityofexplanationsfailtoidentifyspecificcircumstancesjustifyingthosedeviations. Still, the overall view is that the U.K.’s system works fairly well and in fact is often considered to be a benchmark, and therefore followed by a number of other countries. Nevertheless it still shows that there is more to be done to develop a global framework of corporate governance. Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 22 Development of codes of governance Corporate Governance and International Business and international comparisons In East Asian countries, the family-owned company tends to dominate. In countries such as Pakistan, Indonesia and the Philippines for example, the top 15 families control over 50% of publicly owned corporations through a system of family cross-holdings, thus dominating the capital markets. Family-owned companies also dominate the Latin model of corporate governance, that is companies in Mexico, Italy, Spain, France (to a certain extent), Brazil, Argentina, and other countries in South America. Corporate governance principles and codes have been developed in different countries and have been issued by stock exchanges, corporations, institutional investors, or associations (institutes) of directors and managers with the support of governments and international organizations. As a rule, compliance with these governance recommendations is not mandated by law, although the codes which are linked to stock exchange listing requirements will tend to have a coercive effect. Thus, for example, companies quoted on the London and Toronto Stock Exchanges formally need not follow the recommendations of their respective national codes, but they must disclose whether they follow the recommendations in those documents and, where not, they should provide explanations concerning divergent practices. Such disclosure requirements exert a significant pressure on listed companies for compliance. 2.5 References Cone,M(2003);CorporateCitizenship: TheRoleofCommercialOrganizationsinanIslamicSociety;JournalofCorporate Citizenship; Vol. 9; pp 49-66. Guillen M F (2001); Is globalisation civilising, destructive or feeble? A critique of six key debates in the social science literature; Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 235-2
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'