Lecture Notes for the Week of 2/1/15
Lecture Notes for the Week of 2/1/15 PSY-P 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Kahn on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
PERSONALITY NOTES Introduction What is Personality 0 Definition of Personality 0 an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and behaving 0 an individuels unique and relatively consistant paterning of thinking feeling and behaving best definition 0 Personality Theory 0 attempts to describe and explain how people are similar and how they are different and whey every individual is unique 0 Four basic perspectives o psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the importance of unconscious process and the inflated of early childhood expenences o humanistic perspective represents an optimistic look at human nature emphasizing the self and fulfillment of a person s unique potential 0 social cognitive perspective emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes including the importance of beliefs about self goal setting and selfregulation o trait perspective emphasizes description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals Psychoanalytic Approach and Sigmund Freud 0 developed by Sigmund Freud o psychoanalysis is both an apron to theory and a theory of personality 0 major contributions by Freud o frist psychotherapy 0 first theory of the unconscious mind 0 first to researchanalyze dreams 0 first theory of childhood development 0 defense mechanisms 0 first comprehensive theory of personality 0 the life of Sigmund Freud o born in 1856 in what is today Pribor Czech Republic 0 studied medicine became a physician and outstanding physiological researcher amount first investigators of a new drug that ad anesthetic moodaltering properties cocaine prospects for an academic career in scientific research were very poor especially for a Jew in Vienna which was intensely antiSemitic at that time o influences in the development of Freud s ideas 0 one influence was Joseph Breuer hypnosis patients with psychological symptoms Freud developed his own technique of free association 1900 his most important work The Interpretation of Dreams 1904 the Psychopathology of Everyday Life described how unconscious thoughts feelings and wishes are often reflected in acts of forgetting inadvertent slips of tongue accidents and errors 0 Freud s Dynamic Theory of Personality psychoanalytic approach 0 O O psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality emphasizes unconscious motivation the main causes of behavior lied buried in the unconscious mind Freud 1940 saw personality and behavior as the result of a constant interplay among conflicting psychological forces these psychological forces operate at three different levels of awareness conscious preconscious unconscious unconscious material seeps through to the conscious level in distorted disguised or symbolic forms can be revealed by free association dreams slips of the tongue Freudian slip etc Freud s Model of Personality Structure the drives and instincts of a human being motivated by sex and aggression this component is irrational and illogical Superego the moralistic component of your mind this component wants you to follow all of the rules and wants you to behave o Ego rational part of your conscious that is trying to balance the ld Superego and the external world 0 Techniques to Reveal the Unconscious 0 Free Association a psychoanalytical technique in which patient spontaneously reports all thoughts feelings and mental images as they come to mind 0 Dream Analysis dreams contain manifest content surface meaning latent content true unconscious meaning 0 The Structure of Personality 0 Id instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish reality from fantasy operates according to pleasure principle motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort this is the most fundamental human motive and guiding principle of id immune to logic energy comes from Eros selfreservation or life instinct Libio psychological and emotional engr associated with expression of sexuality seX drive Thanatos death instinct reflected in aggressive and destructive actions 0 Superego at age 5 or 6 child develops an internal parental voice that is partly conscious internalization of parental and society s moral standards responsible for guilt praises and admonishes Ego ldeal enhances self esteem for moral behavior Conscience produces guilty feeling for morally inappropriate behavior wants you to operate within the moralistic principle 0 Ego Latin for l the partly conscious ration component of personality develops out of the id in infancy understands reality and logic most in touch with the demands of the external world Mediator between id and superego and the external worlds Reality principle the ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of external world can repress desires that cannot be met in an accentual manner 0 The Ego Defense Mechanisms o if demands of the id or superego threaten to ovenvhelm the ego anxiety results 0 if a realistic solution or compromise is not possible the ego may temporally reduce anxiety by distorting thoughts or precepts of reality though ego offense mechanisms 0 by restoring to this largely unconscious selfdeceptions the ego can maintain an integrated sense of self while searching for a more acceptable realistic solution to a conflict between the id and the superego o Repression is the most fundamental ego defense mechanism Others are used if repression fails o the shortterm use of defense mechanisms can be helpful long term use is problematic o 3 Types of Anxiety 0 Neurotic Anxiety originates from the ID fear of being ovenvhelmed by instinctual drives 0 Moral Anxiety originates from the Superego fear of being ovenvhelmed by guilt 0 Reality Anxiety originates from the Ego fear of consequences from the external world from inappropriate behavior or thoughts 0 Six Defense Mechanisms 0 Regression reaction formation projection rationalization displacement denial o chart with definitions is in the book or online 0 Psychosexual Stages 0 Freud s five stages of personality development each associated with and center around particular erogenous zone 0 each zone is a part or area of the body in which the libido releases energy though the nervous system 0 Freud though that these areas produced physical sensation 0 Personality Development in terms of Psychosexual Stages Fixation at each psychosexual stage the child is faced with a developmental conflict that must be successfully resolved child may be frustrated or overindulged in stage s expression of pleasurable feelings if frustrated child will be left wit feelings of unmet meeds characteristic of that stage if overindulged child may be reluctant to move on to the next in either case result of an unresolved developmental conflict is fixation 0 Oral Stage birth1 year mouth is associated with sexual pleasure and satisfying a biological drive necessary from survival weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctily fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood oral aggressive oral receptive 0 Anal Stage 1 3 years anus is associated with pleasure child is forced to control a biological drive toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly too harsh or to lax fixation can lead to anal retentive or angel expulsive heavers in adulthood o Phallic Stage 35 years this stage centers on the genital areas in boys and girls one sign of this new stage is that both boys and girls may being to touch themselves this stage culminates in clnflics in both sexes as the child become of aware of anatomical sex differences develops a gender identity the conflict in boys is called the Oedipus complex and in girls it is called the Electra complex The Oedipus Complex Child s unconscious sexual desire for the oppositesex parent usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward samsex parent Boys confrontation with father for the affections of mother boy feels hostility and jealousy toward his father realizes that father is more physically powerful boy experiences castration anxiety or fewer that farther will castrate him to resolve boy uses identification imitates and internalizes father s values attitudes and mannerisms Girls little girls discover that little boys have a penis and that she does not feels a sense of deprivation and loss penis envy attempts to taker her mother s place with her father she also identifies with her mother one of the most crated ideas of Freud
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