Abnormal Psych Notes
Abnormal Psych Notes Psyc 3330 - 01
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3330 - 01 at Tulane University taught by Constance Patterson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Chapter 9 Physical Disorders and Health Psychology Physical disorders and health • Throughout the course we have been talking about the interplay of genetic/biological, psychological, behavioral, and social factors and how they contribute to mental wellbeing and mental illness. • These also contribute in huge ways to illness and disease • Effective disease prevention and treatment now include attention to these multiple factors Pp pic • Engaging in risky behaviors can undermine resilience and the immune system and allow damage to bodily systems • The disruption of biological processes make people more vulnerable to disease and illness • PsychologicalApproaches ◦ Behavioral medicine = Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of medical illness - interdisciplinary ◦ Health psychology = Psychological factors in promotion of health; analyze and recommend improvement in health care • DSM-V and Physical Disorders ◦ Coded onAxis III as a separate issue impact mental health ◦ Psychological factors can and do affect medical conditions The influence of psychological and social factors • Two Primary Paths ◦ Psychological factors influence biological processes ◦ Behavior patterns increase disease risk • Example:AIDS – ▪ IV drug use and homosexuals; in most of the world it's hetero ▪ Risky sexual behaviors • 50% of the leading causes of death in the U.S. are linked to behavioral / lifestyle patterns ◦ Smoking ◦ Poor eating habits ◦ Lack of exercise ◦ Insufficient injury control • Use of seatbelts, child safety seats in cars Stress and stress response • Stress—Physiological response of an individual • Stressor—Event that evokes the stress response • Stress Response & GeneralAdaptation Syndrome (GAS) ◦ Phase 1 –Alarm response ◦ Phase 2 – Resistance ◦ Phase 3 – Exhaustion = over time the body has no resilience left to deal with the stressor How do you adapt/cope with stress? • In the face of stressful situations, I tend to..... • Take some kind of action to try to solve the problem • Take time to consider my options and do some planning • Make myself wait for an opportune time to do something • Find out what other people would do in a similar situation • Talk to and get emotional support from others • Try to focus on the positive aspects of what is happening • Accept what is happening and learn to live with it • Seek guidance from God or my higher power • Get upset and vent my emotions • Deny a problem exists and refuse to believe it is happening • Give up trying to get what I want • Try to take my mind off the problem by turning to work or other activities • Use alcohol or other drugs to avoid thinking about the problem • Indulge myself by means of food, drugs, spending money, etc. The physiology of stress • The Biology of Stress ◦ Sympathetic Nervous System activation – activates the body for “flight or fight” ◦ Neuromodulators and neuropeptides ◦ HPAaxis activation • Cortisol- stress hormones are dumped directly into the blood • Many ppl are so full of it; dumped into blood system ◦ Limbic system activation • Hippocampus –turns off the stress response; gets damaged when theres high stress ◦ Chronic stress may damage cells in the hippocampus, thus maintaining the HPA loop D S T P • • Dementia Pp pic Psychological and social factors in stress physiology • Primate research: Social Status ◦ Low vs. high status • High cortisol • Less HDL cholesterol • Weak immune system ◦ Predictability ◦ Controllability • Pp pic • Psychosocial Vulnerabilities ◦ Chronic stress ◦ Perceived uncontrollability ◦ Low level of social support ◦ Negative affect (sad, angry, anxious) • Perceptions of the situation and response ◦ Poor self-efficacy = I cannot do anything to change this. Stress and immune response • Immune system branches ◦ Humoral = Blood and other bodily fluids ◦ Cellular = Protects against viral / parasitic infections • Function—identify and eliminate antigens ◦ Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) An overview of the immune system • T cells = killer T cells destroy viral infection and cancer; Memory T cells create immunity to the same pathogen; other T cells regulate immune system • White blood cells (leukocytes: macrophages destroy; lymphocytes =B cells produce antibodies and memory B cells; T cells work in the Cellular branch ) • Pp pic Immune system • Autoimmune disease ◦ Imbalance in cell types ◦ Overactivity means cells attack normal cells • Ex: HIV • Immune response is affected by psychological factors ◦ Psychoneuroimmunology = study of the psychological influences on the neurological response implicated in our immune response Autoimmune diseases - a small sample • Allergies – estimated 54% of people in U.S. • Crohn’s disease • Psoriasis • RheumatoidArthritis • Celiac Disease - digestive system • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) • Lupus - manifests early as exhaustion and joint pain Acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) • Nature ofAIDS ◦ Course from HIV is variable • Median time from infection to disease 7.3 to 10 years ◦ Most die within 1 year of diagnosis ◦ 15% survive 5+ years ◦ Stress of diagnosis can be devastating ◦ HAART – HighlyActiveAntiretroviral Therapy • Powerful combinations of medications, but not a cure • Can have severe side effects AIDS - Stress reduction programs Exacerbation ofAIDS progression High stress Low levels of social support Goals: Reduce stress Boost immune system Outcomes: Increased T-helper cells Lower antibodies Enhanced psychological adjustment Cancer: psychological and social influences Psychoncology = study of psychological factors and their relation to cancer Psychological and Behavioral Contributions Perceived lack of control over stressors Poor coping responses (e.g., ongoing denial) Stressful life events Risky life-style behaviors (e.g., smoking) Impacts: Immune function Viral activity DNArepair processes Gene expression Psychosocial treatments improve: Understanding of control of situation Health habits Treatment adherence Endocrine function Stress response/coping PP PIC If cancer, what level of prevention? Angelina Jolie 2013, revealed she had a double mastectomy as preventative measure Cardiovascular diseases: hypertension Cardiovascular Disease Heart, blood vessels, and regulatory mechanisms Hypertension = High Blood Pressure Increases risk for: Stroke or cerebral vascular accidents (CVAs) Heart disease Kidney disease Taxes the blood vessels which lose elasticity Associated Features Prevalence = 27.6% of U.S.Adults (age 35 to 64) AfricanAmericans = 2x greater risk Risks: High salt intake Fluid volume Ease of Sympathetic Nervous System arousal Chronic stress level Expressed anger Hostile attitudes and behaviors Cardiovascular diseases: coronary heart disease (CHD) Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)—blockage of arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle Angina pectoris = Chest pain from partial obstruction Atherosclerosis =Artery plaque (i.e., fatty substances Ischemia = Deficiency of blood supply (too much plaque) Myocardial infarction = Heart attack, death of heart tissue
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