New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Marine Policy Notes: Week 3

by: Leigh

Marine Policy Notes: Week 3 ENVS 17

Marketplace > Dartmouth College > Environmental Studies > ENVS 17 > Marine Policy Notes Week 3

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

- These notes cover the materials for Week 3. - Topics include Invasive species and Commercial Fishing I
Marine Policy
Dr. D.G. Webster
Class Notes
Environmental Studies, marine policy, fishing, invasive species, commercial fishing, environmental science
25 ?




Popular in Marine Policy

Popular in Environmental Studies

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leigh on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 17 at Dartmouth College taught by Dr. D.G. Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Marine Policy in Environmental Studies at Dartmouth College.

Similar to ENVS 17 at DC

Popular in Environmental Studies


Reviews for Marine Policy Notes: Week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/08/16
INVASIVE SPECIES 10/02/2015 ▯ ▯ INVASIVE SPECIES ▯ ▯ Types of Invasive Species  Define invasive: non-native, introduced, detrimental by being reproductively successful and creating negative env. Impacts  Exotic species o Not all necessarily invasive (may die or not outcompete native species)  Introduced species o Put into ecosystems for a specific reason or accidentally o May or may not grow out of control  Endemic species o Species that are only found in certain (small) places o Rarely invasive o May be threatened by invasive species  Think of it as being analogous to squares and rectangles ▯ Example of Invasive species  Crown of thorns starfish o Go through population explosions when predator numbers fall causing coral erosion and algal blooms o Considered invasive even though it is a native species ▯ Jellyfish Problems  Populations dependent on: o Water temperature o Lack of predators o Increased prey o Shift of currents o Nutrient pollution o Biological advantage  Lionsmane jelly o Currents shifted and now they go into the fjords towards the coast  causing them to pile up  can’t survive because they can’t get out  Are they invasive? – dependent on scale of invasive species?  Terminology changes the public’s perception and it may fall under different laws ▯ Thresher and Kuris 2004  Ex. Jellyfish o Method o Effectiveness  Often people accept options that are less effective! o Acceptable criteria  Perceptions of policymakers  Rationale: What do we fear going out of control and if we do nothing will cause it do go away!  deep perception that action is associated with risk— must be a strong invasion or people won’t want to take action ▯ ▯ COMMERCIAL FISHING I 09/30/2015 ▯ ▯ INVASIVE SPECIES ▯ ▯ Thresher and Kuris  Method  Effectiveness  Acceptability Criteria  Commercialization was missed in paper o Lionfish commercialization attempts example  Help alleviate invasive species pressures  Very little meat and toxic spines but high prices o Jellyfish markets in Gulf of Mexico  Selling them to China ▯ Prevention  Ornamental trade o Responsible for lionfish (native to Pacf. And function well there because of predators; put into Atlantic by aquarium owners and considered invasive because they are decimating populations)  Example of aquarium trade being responsible—usually get out trans-shipment or when owners release/place back into the ocean o Invasive algae  Used in aquaria o Need to educate the public through media and entertainment  Marine pollution- people need to be educated in order to change habit of disposal  Ballast water/hull o Major source of contaminations o Ballast water= water in front of ship to balance weight but it can be taken up somewhere and then released in the next port  Provides trade microscopic particles which can become invasive o Hull contamination- mollusks attaching to a ship and being transported to other places o Open ocean often has much less life in it so it would be more ideal to take up and release ballast water here  Also can treat ballast water with chemicals (but they may be very harsh, harmful chemicals) o Plastic coating to repel organisms that attach onto ships  Plastics o Transport organisms, not just a pollutants o Floats with currents with organisms attached and microorganisms that are transported on small micro-plastics o Solving invasive species problem here will involve stopping pollution problems  Currents/climate o Invasions due to climate change can be prevented by reducing climate change o Must accept/deal with to a certain extent o Ex. Jellyfish invasions like the fjords  Obstacles o What prevents prevention?  Convenience with items like plastics  Treats money to treat ballast water  Lack of support and understanding  Availability of information  Accidents and risks  What policies would limit these and their impacts  Perception of the problem is skewed  These are all chain-reactions!  Caring about the problems at hand (saliency)  Non-point sources of movement instead of point sources of movement  Dependence on the public to change their behavior  Public goods problem issue  Free-rider problem  If some people are throwing away their aquarium overflow, then why shouldn’t I? Oceans: Espisode 1: Sea of Cortez  Importance of maintaining ecosystem balance o Includes controlling fishing  Taking away predators and/or prey can alter/skew the balance  How are the oceans represented? o Need to entertain can outweigh the need to educate  Recognition is important because the public takes this at face value  Backfire when the “truth” on the show is proven false  Watch with a skeptical mind: what is important? Scientifically grounded and true? Policy questions? Making the gov’t take action? ▯ ▯ COMMERCIAL FISHING I ▯  Coastal fisheries o Artisanal fisheries; local fisheries o Mostly small-scale  Small, efficient vessels o Large range in coastal fisheries  Still possible to overfish (mostly smaller, endemic species though)  Types of fishing o Trawler  Net dragged along the bottom of the ocean  Scoops up everything o Pelagic Longline  Baited hooks on snoods on a mainline that drags behind a boat  Buoys along the line o Purse Net  Large net taken in a circle and drawn up like a purse  Most commercial fisheries use this o Trap fishing  Mostly for lobster, crustacean, octopi  Have escape vents for animals that are too small for the minimum legal requirements  Very different from other fisheries o Gill nets  Trap fish by the gills  Long net that fish “swim” through  Ban on drift nets (huge, unattended nets) ▯ Fishery Background  Global Production o Increase in aquaculture production o Capture production has leveled out  Limited stocks  Overfishing of stocks  Changing regulations o Small scale/subsistence  Small scale fishermen catch most of the fish in the world  Common Property Resource (CPR) o Fisheries are treated as these o Other side of public goods (non-rival)- closely related, don’t get them confused! o Open Access (most fisheries are not open anymore, they are regulated)  Anyone can use it o Rival  If I take that fish, you don’t get that fish o Results in the Race for fish!  Who could catch the most fish first and capitalize the fish population in an area  Like 2 kids sharing a milkshake, you’re going to want more right?  Don’t trust other people to leave fish in there so I’ll take that fish first o Tragedy of the Commons  Overexploitation  Increased risk of collapse/extinction  Environmental degradation  Taking out too much of one species disables the ecosystem and the balance  Overcapitalization  Inefficiency  Not maximizing potential profits  Spending too much on getting the fastest boats  Poverty  Not making any profits  Because fishermen aren’t making money, a financial crisis comes along and decimates fishing towns o Gordon-Schaefer Model (not very useful but still widely used!)  Renewable but still scarce  Under open-access, effort increases until C=R  Smaller stock, higher level of effort and no profit  See paper notes for diagram o Cooperation  Collective action/management of local commons (these 4 things are absolutely necessary!!)  Agree on sharing  Willingness to make concessions and cooperate  Monitor usage  Ensure that people are abiding by the set rules and agreements  Punish rule breakers  Exclude outsiders  More and more important in last 100 years  Decimating local management attempts  Lobster gangs in Maine  Called gangs, b/c excluded other fishermen  Difficult to get into the industry  Use legal and illegal methods  Specific areas  Use violence to control these areas  Developed increasing stair-stepping set of rules  Ex. Verbal warming  destroying trafts  put a hole in your boat  attempting to physically harming individuals  Violent Action!!  Gangs have been mostly replaced; entry of canneries pulled apart the gangs because there were too many of them to target  People working together for the group interest  Key: communication and reciprocity are crucial  Certain amount of give and take needed  Common occurrence all over the world to help manage small fisheries o Regulations  Subsidies  +/- buy backs  attempt to reduce capitalization  taxation, technology, limits  designed to increase cost of fishing  less new entrants  stock size will increase as cost increases and effort decreases  reduces open access yield  quotas, effort limits, rationing  about decreasing efforts while keeping the same cost curve  total allowable catch for quotas  limits on fishing days or boats owned  licenses and permits  trying to limit number of fishermen while potentially increasing their costs  individual transferable quotas (ITQ)  marine protected areas  MPA= oceanic national park essentially  Limits on activities that can be done  Hope that protecting fish in these areas will improve the stock and then they can move to different places and help replenish the fishing stock  Can increase total harvests by sheltering fish o Non-selective harvesting  Naturally occurring (not cultivated) renewables are usually found in mixed groups  Lower-proved species are often harvested with higher-priced species  Larger predators get caught during swarms  At times, lower-priced species are discarded and left to rot  Issues with “bycatch”  Fish caught but will not make very much money  Difference of the times, valued fish to the trashed fish  Highgrading- when fishermen discard lower value fish  Gear restriction and limiting fishing areas to try and help alleviate the issue ▯ ▯


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.