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Week 10 Biology : Genes and Reproductive (4/6 and 4/8)

by: Regan McGillick

Week 10 Biology : Genes and Reproductive (4/6 and 4/8) BIO 151-001

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire > Biology > BIO 151-001 > Week 10 Biology Genes and Reproductive 4 6 and 4 8
Regan McGillick

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Beginning this unit with the general structure and functions of DNA, chromosomes, and gens and how that plays in to sexual reproduction
Biology of Humans
Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Week 10: Biology (4/6, 4/8) Reproduction and Genetics: Section 4  It all starts with the structure of DNA o Double helix o Base pair: A and T, C and G o Ribose sugars + phosphate groups  Every little detail determines you- why you have brown eyes, or black hair, or fair skin…..  DNA structure: o Adenine and Thymine (always) same goes for Cytosine and Guanine o Hydrogen are weak so you can take it apart and put back together o Every piece of DNA comes in pieces of chromosomes o Sequence of 3 bases of triplet genetic code- that code corresponds to particular amino acids  Chromosomes: o Double stranded DNA wraps around the Histones  Histones: regulate gene expression (turn genes on or off)  Maybe our diet may affect the regulatory process o 46 chromosomes in humans o These are linear arrangement of genes o Get 1 from paternal and the other from maternal=Homologous o Everything is specific to our genes: even the length of a chromosomes is code for our genes  Genes: o Genomes = all of our genes  contained in he nucleus  genome splits between chromosomes  contains genes and the instructions for protein o Functions of Protein:  1. Structure for a body  2. Allow functions of physiology to occur (catalysts) o Process of Protein and DNA  DNA in a nucleus needs to gets it’s info to the ribosomes to make the necessary protein  Messenger RNA take that DNA info form the nucleus and send it to the ribosome to make the protein  1. Replication 2. Transcription 3. Translation  RNA structure: (Transcription) o replace T (thymine) with U o Single strand o RNA preliminary attaches to top of gene and through transcription to remove and add in sections  Transfer RNA: (translation) o Have a triplit code to act as a complement  Cell Cycle  Mitosis: division of somatic cells = all cells except sex cells or hat makes sex cells  Meiosis: germ cells: gametes: have 1 set of chromosomes -> haploid because a haploid + haploid = diploid o 2 divisions of germ cells but only 1 copy (2 rounds) Meiosis I Meiosis II Interphase - chromosomes Interphase – NO replication replicate Prophase I Prophase II Metaphase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Telophase I  4 steps in this process: so these chromosomes literally cross over by splitting in half and matching with the other chromosome pair = Diverse Collection of Genes with paternal and maternal chromosomes  Sexual Reproduction: A. in what way is sexual reproduction costly in comparison to asexual reproduction??? o In humans there is a higher risk for mutation, requires to find a partner, need genetic variation B. What are benefits of sexual reproduction??? a. Diverse genes, constant raw materials to adapt to changing environment  Male reproductive system: o 2 testes-> with gonads -> descend into the scrotum = sperm o Testes Functions:  Produce sperm via spermatogenesis  Secrete testosterone  Seminiferous tubules  Know the Structure of a Sperm o Head piece: acrosome and nucleus o Mitochondria in mid piece: ATP to propel sperm forward o Flagellum


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