Week 10 Biology : Genes and Reproductive (4/6 and 4/8)
Week 10 Biology : Genes and Reproductive (4/6 and 4/8) BIO 151-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Week 10: Biology (4/6, 4/8) Reproduction and Genetics: Section 4 It all starts with the structure of DNA o Double helix o Base pair: A and T, C and G o Ribose sugars + phosphate groups Every little detail determines you- why you have brown eyes, or black hair, or fair skin….. DNA structure: o Adenine and Thymine (always) same goes for Cytosine and Guanine o Hydrogen are weak so you can take it apart and put back together o Every piece of DNA comes in pieces of chromosomes o Sequence of 3 bases of triplet genetic code- that code corresponds to particular amino acids Chromosomes: o Double stranded DNA wraps around the Histones Histones: regulate gene expression (turn genes on or off) Maybe our diet may affect the regulatory process o 46 chromosomes in humans o These are linear arrangement of genes o Get 1 from paternal and the other from maternal=Homologous o Everything is specific to our genes: even the length of a chromosomes is code for our genes Genes: o Genomes = all of our genes contained in he nucleus genome splits between chromosomes contains genes and the instructions for protein o Functions of Protein: 1. Structure for a body 2. Allow functions of physiology to occur (catalysts) o Process of Protein and DNA DNA in a nucleus needs to gets it’s info to the ribosomes to make the necessary protein Messenger RNA take that DNA info form the nucleus and send it to the ribosome to make the protein 1. Replication 2. Transcription 3. Translation RNA structure: (Transcription) o replace T (thymine) with U o Single strand o RNA preliminary attaches to top of gene and through transcription to remove and add in sections Transfer RNA: (translation) o Have a triplit code to act as a complement Cell Cycle Mitosis: division of somatic cells = all cells except sex cells or hat makes sex cells Meiosis: germ cells: gametes: have 1 set of chromosomes -> haploid because a haploid + haploid = diploid o 2 divisions of germ cells but only 1 copy (2 rounds) Meiosis I Meiosis II Interphase - chromosomes Interphase – NO replication replicate Prophase I Prophase II Metaphase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Telophase I 4 steps in this process: so these chromosomes literally cross over by splitting in half and matching with the other chromosome pair = Diverse Collection of Genes with paternal and maternal chromosomes Sexual Reproduction: A. in what way is sexual reproduction costly in comparison to asexual reproduction??? o In humans there is a higher risk for mutation, requires to find a partner, need genetic variation B. What are benefits of sexual reproduction??? a. Diverse genes, constant raw materials to adapt to changing environment Male reproductive system: o 2 testes-> with gonads -> descend into the scrotum = sperm o Testes Functions: Produce sperm via spermatogenesis Secrete testosterone Seminiferous tubules Know the Structure of a Sperm o Head piece: acrosome and nucleus o Mitochondria in mid piece: ATP to propel sperm forward o Flagellum
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