Notes and Book Summary for Experience Psychology
Notes and Book Summary for Experience Psychology PSY12000
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by 123 on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY12000 at Purdue University taught by Jill E. Gulker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Chapter 1 Outline Notes 1Psychologica1 Frame of Mind Attitudes of scienti c approach Critical thinking Curiosity Skepticism Objectivity Empirical method gaining knowledge through the observation of events the collection of data and logical reasoning Science of All Human Behavior Diverse eld Understanding truths of human life in all dimensions Includes people s best and worst experiences Historical Perspective Western philosophy Biology and physiology Sigmund Freud Wilhelm Wundt anol structuralism Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 German philosopherphysician First psychology laboratory 1879 Structuralism Identify elements or structures of mental processes quotwhatquot lntrospection William James and functionalism William James 18421910 American psychologist and philosopher Functionalism Identify purposes or functions of the mind HWhyH Why is human thought adaptive Natural flow of thought or stream of consciousness Charles Charles Darwin 18091882 British naturalist Natural selection is adaptive and functional Nature favors traits that promote reproduction and survival Successful characteristics become dominant 2 Contemporary Approaches Biological Focus on brain and nervous system Neuroscience Structure function development genetics biochemistry of nervous system Brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior thought and emotion Behavioral Emphasis on observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants Notable behaviorists John B Watson 18781958 BF Skinner 19041990 Psychodynamic Emphasis on Unconscious impulses Con ict between biological drives and society s demand Early childhood family experiences Founding father Sigmund Freud 18561939 Now cultural or social experiences as determinants of behavior Humanistic Emphasis on Positive human qualities Capacity for positive growth Freedom to choose any destiny Notable humanistic psychologists Carl Rogers 1961 Abraham Maslow 1971 Cognitive Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing How we Direct attention Perceive remember think Solve problems Evolutionary Use of evolutionary ideas such as Adaptation Reproduction Natural selection Used as a basis for explaining speci c human behaviors Uni ed the diverse elds of psychology Sociocultural Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments in uence behavior Focus on comparisons of behavior across Countries Ethnic and cultural groups within countries 3lSCienti c Method Observe some phenomenon Choose a variablePhenomenon studied by scientists Anything that can change Develop a theory ldea that attempts to explain observations Seeks to explain why something happened Can be used to make predictions Falsi able Scientists who believes that a theory is true must be able to generate ideas about research that would prove the theory wrong Formulate hypothesis and predictions Hypothesis a testable prediction that drives logically from a theory more hypotheses are true theory gain more credibility Test through empirical research Establish an operational de nition objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study Objective description of variable Collect and analyze data apply math procedures to understand what numerical information means Number crunching Conclusions D Draw conclusions ls theory supported Should theory be changed E Evaluate conclusions Publication and review Ongoing research process never ends 4Types of Psychological Research A Descriptive research Determine basic dimensions and de ne what this thing is how often it occurs and so on Can t prove what causes some phenomenon Reveal important information about behaviors and attitudes Get a sense of sth but cannot answer questions about how and why things are the way they are Methods include a Observation b Surveys and interviews Problem pple tend to answer the way others wished For questionnaires Items must precisely probe the specific topic of interest and not some other characteristic 0 Case studies An indepth look at a single individual Performed by clinical psychologists B Correlational research Discovering relationships between variables Exam whether and how variables are related and change together Correlation Coefficient the degree of relationship btw two variables 100 s r s 100 i Strength Number ii Direction Sign a Correlation Causation b Third variable problem Some other variable accounts for relationship between two variables Third variables also called confounds 0 Longitudinal Designs i Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time ii Can suggest potential causal relationships iii Causal variable would come rst in time iv Causal relationships are not completely clear Experimental research a Determining whether causal relationship exists between variables Experiment Manipulation of one or more variables that are believed to in uence some other variable Random Assignment Researchers assign participants to groups by chance Random assignment helps establish causation Independent variables manipulated Dependent variables ljljljljljmeasured Experimental groups Experience manipulation Control groups Serve as baseline for comparison External validity Do experimental results apply or generalize to real world lnternal validity Are changes in dependent variables due to independent variables Experimenter bias occurs when the experimenter39s expectations in uence the results of the study Demand characteristics are any aspects of a study that communicate to the subject how the researcher wants them to behave 0 Research participant bias occurs when the participant39s behavior during an experiment is in uenced by how the participant believes he or she is supposed to be behaving 0 A placebo effect occurs when the participant39s expectations produce an experimental outcome even though the participant did not receive any manipulation 0 placebo is an innocuous inert substance that has no effect on the behavior of the participants However participants are kept unaware of this so that they believe they actually received the manipulation 0 double blind experiment One method to control for both experimenter and participant bias is to conduct a double blind experiment In this type of experiment neither the experimenter nor the participant is aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group 5lResearCh Samples and Settings 0 Samples population The researcher wants to be able to draw conclusions from the results that will apply to a larger group of people or animals Sample The group that the study uses It is a subset of the population random sample as a way to more closely resemble the population Choosing a random sample means that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected 0 Laboratory research takes place in a controlled environment from which the complex factors of the real world are removed Drawbacks to conducting laboratory research the participants know that they are being studied the laboratory setting is unnatural the participants who go to a university setting to take part in laboratory research may not be representative of the general population some aspects of the mind and behavior are dif cult to examine in a laboratory Naturalistic observation When research is conducted in a natural setting In such research people39s behaviors are being observed in realworld situations 6DCOIId11Ct Ethical Research History World war II Research participants have certain rights Human participants Animal research Institutional review board IRB APA Ethics Guidelines Informed consent Researchers must obtain the that of the participants prior to the start of the experiment participants must know in advance what will be involved in the experiment and What if any risks there might be Con dentiality Researchers are responsible for the maintaining the of all the data collected from the participants in the experiment Debne ng After an experiment has been conducted the researcher is responsible for the participants Part of ethical guideline Where the participants are informed of the experiment39s purpose and the methods that were used in the experiment Deceonn allowed in an experiment if telling the participants in advance about the expected outcome of the study could potentially alter the participants39 behavior and therefore invalidate the results of the experiment ethical guidelineSubjects in a research study should be no worse off after participating in the study The American Psychological Association APA This has developed guidelines for researchers to follow when conducting research involving human participants 7 Psychology and You Avoid generalizing based on little information Distinguish between group results and individual needs Look for answers beyond a single study Avoid attributing causes where none have been found Consider source of psychological information Chapter 2 Outline Notes Nervous System lElectrochemical communication circuitry Neuroscience Neuroscientists Billions of communicating cells Nervous System Characteristics Complexity Integration Adaptability Pasticitythe brain s capacity for change Electrochemical Transmission Nervous System Pathways Afferent Nerves Sensory nerves Information to brain and spinal cord Efferent Nerves Motor nerves Information out of brain and spinal cord Neural Networks Integration of sensory input and motor output Nervous System Primary Divisions Central Nervous System CNS Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS Network of nerves connecting CNS to body Two subdivisions Somatic nervous system Sensory information from skin and muscles to CNS sensory nerves motor nerves Autonomic nervous system Messages to and from internal organs sympathetic branch parasympathetic branch arousing calming Stress quotFight or ightquot reactionthe response to stressor Function of sympathetic nervous system Corticosteroids Stress hormones release it when undergoing stress Acute stress is momentary Chronic stress is continuous break down immune system Neurons Nerve cells chemicas electrical impulses transmit information Nerve ces Glial cesprovide support nutritional bene ts and other functions Neurons handle the information processing function Cell Structure neurons are created early in life but can change Cell body Contains nucleus DEM Dendrites Fibers projecting from neuron H Axon Carries information from cell body toward other cells H Myelin sheath Layer of fat cells encasing and insulating most axons ll disorder multiple scerosisMSburry and double vision Neural Impulse Resting potential Stable negative charge of inactive neuron Dani Action potential Brief positive electrical charge or ring man quotbe ringquot a neuron sends an action potential Movement of sodium Na and potassium K polarize and depolarize Abides by the allornothing principle Once the electrical impulse reaches its threshold it res and moves down the axon without losing any of its intensity Synapses SynapsesSpace between neurons ll Synaptic gap the gap btw neurons Neurotransmitters stored in synaptic vesicles sacs H H within terminal buttons Chemica signals which allow electrical impulses to cross synaptic gaps Receptor with binding site H Neuroehemieal Messengers HEIDI Neurotransmitters are excitatory inhibitory or both Acetylcholine ACh HEIDI Stimulates ring of neurons Involved in action of muscles learning memory Alzheimer disease ACh de ciency decline in memory Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA Keeps many neurons from ring control the precision of the signal Anxiety Low levels of GABA Norepinephrine Inhibits ring of neurons in CNS Excites heart muscle intestines urogenital tract Stress stimulates its release Depression Too little norepinephrine Agitated manic states Too much norepinephrine Dopamine lljlj Heps to control voluntary movement A ects sleep mood attention learning rewards Parkinson disease Low levels of dopamine Schizophrenia High levels of dopamine Serotonin DEM lnvolved in regulation of sleep mood attention learning Depression Lowered levels of serotonin Endorphins Natura opiates that mainly stimulate ring of neurons Shied body from pain Eevate feelings of pleasure Oxytocin DEM Hormone and neurotransmitter lmportant role in experience of love and social bonding reated to onset of lactation breast feeding tendency to form bonds with baby and parents Drugs and Neurotransmitters Drugs in uence behavior by interfering with neurotransmitters Agonist Drug that mimics or increases effects of neurotransmitter Antagonist Drug that blocks effects of neurotransmitter Studying the Brain and Their Functions Cerebral cortex Four ways to study brain and nervous system 1 Staining 2 Brain esioning Abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease 3 Electrical recording electroencephalograph EEG Detects brain wave activity 4 Brain Imaging Xray 2D CT or CAT scan 3D provides information about the location and extent of damage involving stroke language disorder or loss of memory PET scan based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity Measures the amount of glucose EDD in areas of the brain and then sends information to computer to analyze MRI involves creating a magnetic eld around a person39s body and using radio waves to construct images of the person39s tissues and biochemical activities Brain structure fMRI Brain function show correlation TMS brain function and allow for causal inferences Maj or region of the brain Hindbrain Adjacent to top part of spinal cord Midbrain Rises above hindbrain Forebrain Uppermost region of brain Hindbrain Medulla Controls vital functions Breathing and heart rate Regulates re exes Cerebellum consists of two rounded structures Motor coordination Leg and arm movements are coordinated by the cerebellum Pons connects cerebellum and brain stem Brain stemregion that Includes much of hindbrain but not cerebellum and midbrain Deterrnines alertness Regulates basic survival functions breathing heartbeat blood pressure Sleep and arousal Midbrain Reticular formation Relay information btw brain and eyes and ears Involved in stereotyped patterns of behavior such as walking sleeping and tending to attend to a sudden noise Forebrain its important structures are Limbic system a loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex Important in both memory and emotion Two principal structures Amygdala Discrimination of objects necessary for survival food mate social rivals related to intense emotions Hippocampus Has special role in storage of memories Thalamus H Serves as relay station for information sort information and send it to the appropriate places in the forebrain for further integration and interpretation Ex Soundearthalamusauditory cortexauditory association cortex BasalgangHa Works with cerebellum and cerebral cortex Controls and coordinates voluntary movements Enable people to engage in habitual behaviors Hypothalamus DEM Monitors Eating drinking and sex Emotion stress and reward Helps direct endocrine Dun system Regulator of body s internal state Involved in pleasurable feelings Cerebral COFtEX a forebrain structure that covers hindbrain and midbrain Neocortex the outermost part of the cerebral cortex Lobes the wrinkled surface of the cerebral cortex is divided into two halves called hemispheres each of which is subdivided into four regionslobes 39 Occipital lobes DDDResponding to visual stimuli Temporal lobes ljljleearing language processing memory Frontal lobes lPersonality intelligence control of voluntary muscles important part is prefrontal cortex involved in cognitive functions planning reasoning self control 39 Parietal lobes ll Registering spatial location attention motor control Somatosensory cortex m Located at front of parietal lobes Processes information about body sensations Motor cortex uni Located just behind frontal lobes Processes information about voluntary movement Association cortex DUDE Embedded in the brain s lobes Makes up 75 of cerebral cortex Integrates information Highest intellectual functions thinking problem solving occur Cerebral Hemispheres Broca s area aphasia Wernicke s area say but don39t understand Corpus callosum EDD Large bundle of axons connecting brain s two hemispheres Relays information between two sides Left Hemisphere Receives information from right side of body Language processing such as speech grammar sing Right Hemisphere Receives information from left side of body Processing nonverbal informationsimpe comprehension such as spatial perception visual recognition and emotion Endocrine System Endocrine system Set of glands that regulate activities of certain organs Glands Organs or tissues that create chemicals that control bodily functions consists of pituitary gland Thyroid and parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Hormones Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands Hypothalamus connects the nervous system and the endocrine system Pituitary glandggg Controls growth and regulates other glands Thyroid and parathyroid glands mammal Adrenal glands Dun Regulate mood energy level and ability to cope with stress Pancreas ll Performs digestive and endocrine funcUons Ovaries and testes Produce hormones related to sexual development and reproduction Brain Damage Plasticity and Repair Collateral sprouting Axons of healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches Substitution of function Damaged region39s function is taken over by another brain area Neurogenesis New neurons are generated Genetics and Behavior Chromosomes Threadlike structures containing DNA DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Complex molecule that carries genetic information Genes Units of hereditary information Genome Complete set of genetic instructions for making an organism Human genome project International research program mapping human genome The Study of Genetics Dominantrecessive genes principle Dominant gene overrides recessive gene Polygenic inheritance In uence of multiple genes on behavior Molecular genetics Manipulation of genes using technology to determine their effect on behavior Selective breeding Genetic method used to demonstrate importance of genetic in uence on behavior Reared in one of two environments An impoverished environment An enriched environment Behavior genetics Study of degree and nature of heredity s in uence on behavior Twin Studies Identical vs fraternal twins Minnesota study of twins reared apart 1996 Genes and the Environment Genotype Genetic heritage Phenotype Observable characteristics In uenced by genotype and environmental factors Genetic expression Activity of genes is affected by their environment Chapter 3 Outline Notes 1lSense and Perceive the World Processes Sensation the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy biologival processing that occurs between sensory system and environment Perception organizing and interpreting sensory information experience of processes in action BottomUp Processing Information about external environment Sensory receptors lBrain Take in information and make sense of information TopDown Processing Starts with cognitive processing at higher levels of brain Some sense of what is happening apply the framework to information from the world Purpose Ada ptation Improves a species chances for survival An organism must be able to sense and respond quickly Sensory Receptors and the Brain Sensory receptors Specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory afferent nerves and brain receptor varies the frequency of action potentials sent to the brain selective and have different neural pathways specialized to absorb particular type of energy and convert it into action potential Openings through which the brain and nervous system experience the world Sensation involves in detecting and transmitting information about different kinds of energy Sense organs and sensory receptors fall into several main classes based on the type of energy that is transmitted The function of classes include Photoreception Detection of light Perceived as sight Mechanoreception Detection of pressure vibration and movement Perceived as touch hearing and equilibrium Chemoreception Detection of chemical stimuli Perceived as smell and taste Confused Senses Synaesthesia One sense induces experience in another sense Phantom Limb Pain Reported pain in amputated arm or leg Extrasensory perception ESP Perception in absence of concrete sensory input telepathyprecognition Thresholds Absolute threshold Minimum amount of detectable stimulus energywhen the energy of the stimulus rises above the absolute threshold we detect the stimulus when the energy falls below we cannot detect the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 of the time The lower the absolute threshold the greater the sensitivity DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDD AT Difference threshold Just noticeable difference Degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before difference is detected the smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time Weber39s Law Principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different the difference thresholdJND is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being made and can be expressed as a Weber fraction Subliminal Perception Detection of information below level of conscious awareness Signal Detection Theory Theory of perception which focuses on decisionmaking about stimuli in presence of uncertainty Possible outcomes Hit correct ZZZZampll Miss mistake llamp False alarm mistake amp Correct rejection correct lljamp Perception of Sensory Stimuli two important factors in perceiving sensory stimuli 1 Attention Selective Cocktail party effectfocus on one Shiftable Novelty size color movement shift attention lnattentional blindness failure to detect unexpected events when attention is engaged by a task Culture in uences which stimuli we attend to as we perceive the world 2 Perceptual set Predisposition or readiness to perceive something a particular way Sensationljstimulus is received by sensory reception receptors translate stimulus properties into nerve impulses transduction feature detectors analyze stimulus features lstimulus features are reconstructed into neural representation lneural representation is compared with previously stored information in brain l perception Sensory adaptation Change in responsiveness of sensory system based on average level of surrounding stimulation 2lThe Visual Stimulus Light Form of electromagnetic energy Wavelength Hue or colorvisible light 400700 Amplitude Brightness of the stimulus Purity Saturation or richness of a visual stimulus Structure of the Eye Sclera H White outer part of eye Helps maintain shape of eye Protects eye from injury lris ll Colored part of eyecontains muscles that control the size of the pupil and regulates the amount of light that enters the eye Pupil Opening in center of iris Size controlled by muscles in iris Cornea Clear membrane just in front of eye Lens Transparent somewhat exible disklike structure The cornea and the lens both bend light falling on the surface of the eye just enough to focus it on the retina Retina DEM Multilayered lightsensitive surface at back of eye Converts visual stimuli to neural impulses Visual Receptor Cells Cels on retina which convert electromagnetic energy into electrochemical impulses two kinds Rods Sensitive to lightNot very useful for color vision Function well under low illumination Cones Used for color perception Require more light than rods operate best in daylight or under high illumination Structure of the Eye Retina Fovea Tiny area in center of retina at which vision is best Contains only cones Rods amp conesBipolar cellsleanglion cells Optic nervemade up of axons of the ganglion cells Blind spot Place on retina containing neither rods nor cones Where optic nerve leaves eye on its way to the brain Visual Processing Optic Nerve Optic Chiasm Visual Cortex Optic nerve bers divide at optic chiasm Left Visual Field Right Hemisphere Right Visual Field Left Hemisphere Feature detectors Neurons in primary visual cortex that respond to particular features of a stimulus Parallel processing Simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways make sensory information travels quickly through brain Binding bring together and integration of what is processed by different pathways or cells Color Vision how color Vision occurs in the retina Trichromatic Theory Three types of cones sensitive to different but overlapping ranges of wavelength Color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina that are particularly sensitive to different but overlapping ranges of wavelength Support includes Color matching Color visionColor blindnessthe nature of color blindness depends on which of the three kinds of cones is inoperative Ex green cone system malfunctions in some way rendering green indistinguishable from certain combinations of blue and red Trichromate Dichromate Color blind ll Color Vision how color Vision occurs in the retina OpponentProcess Theory Afterimages Sensations that remain after stimulus is removed Not explained by trichromatic theory Explained by opponentprocess theory Visual system treats colors as complementary pairscells in the visual system respond to red green and blue yellow colors a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green where another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue Ex stare at red your red green system seems to quottirequot when u look away it rebounds and gives you a green afterimage Conclusion Both theories are correct Perceiving Shape Depth Motion and Constancy Perceiving Shape Contour Location at which sudden change of brightness occurs Figureground relationship Principle by which perceptual eld is organized into stimuli that stand out gure and those left over groundbackground is a gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology Schoo of thought interested in how people naturally organize perception according to certain patterns DDDDDDDDDDDContimity Main principle 39Whole is different from sum of its parts Perceiving Depth Ability to perceive objects threedimensionally We use two kinds of informationcues to see depth Binocular Cues depth cues that depend on the combination of images from two eyes and on the way the two eyes work together Disparity image differs when only open one eye because image is in a slightly different place on the left and right retinas use to determine depth distance Convergence a binocular cue to depth and distance in which the muscle movements in an individual s two eyes provide information about how deepfar away the object is an DIZIIZIIZIIZIIJIJIJIJDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD MonocularDepth Cues Available from image in one eye provide a compelling impression of depth under normal circumstances by using one eye Examples of monocular cues Familiar size based on previous experience about the standard sizes of object Height in eld Of VieW other things equal objects positioned higher in the pic are seen as farther away Linear perspective and relative size object farther away take up less space on the retina things appear smaller are perceived to be farther away Overlap DDDDDDDDD Shading involves changes in perception due to the position of the light and the position of the viewer Texture gradient texture becomes denser and finer the farther away it is from the viewer Cia rity see clearly then things that are far away Perceiving Motion Retinas of humans cannot detect movement only frog s retina can How human perceive motion Neurons specialized to detect motionl Feedback from body to tell we move or others move Environment rich in cues tell us information about movement Real movement Apparent movement Perception of stationary object as moving Perceiving Constancy Recognition that objects are constant even though sensory input is changing Size constancy Same size despite retinal image Cha 995DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD Shape constancy Same shape despite orientation Changes DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD Color constancy Same color despite light changes u DEIDDIJIZI We receive objects as having particular characteristics regardless of the retinal image The cues we use to visually perceive the world can lead to optical illusions 3lThe Auditory System The Nature of Sound Sound Vibrations in air processed by auditory system Wavelength determinesDFrequency Pitch the perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound fl pitch l Amplitude Pressure Loudness amount of pressure sound wave produces relative to a standard Complexity Saturation Timbre is the tone saturationperceptual difference a sound Structure of the Ear Outer Ear Collects and channels sound Pinna lcollect sound and channel into interior of the ear External Auditory Canal Middle Ear Channels sound through eardrum hammer anvil and stirrup to inner ear Eardrumtympanic membrane separate the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound Hammer Anvil amp Stirrup an intricately connected chain of very small bones They vibrate to transmit sound waves to uid lled inner ear The muscles of the middle ear can maneuver the hammer anvil and stirrup to amplify the sound waves can decrease the intensity of sound waves to protect inner ear lnner Ear Converts sound into neural impulses and sends them onto brain stirrup I Oval Window sound waves cochlea Cochea a tubular uid lled structure that is coiled up like a snail H Basiar Membrane narrow at the base wide and exible at the top Hair Cells line the basilar membrane movement against Tectoria Membrane generate impulse that brain interprets as sound Tectoria Membrane Basilar Membrane gives the frequency pitch and complexity of the sound Cochlear implants devices use electronic impulses to directly stimulate whatever working auditory nerves and recipient has in his or her cochlea gunman Theories of Hearing How inner ear registers the frequency of sound Place theory Each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot Explains highfrequency not lowfrequency sounds Frequency theory Perception of frequency depends on how often auditory nerve res Limits Single neurons have maximum ring rates so does not apply to tones with frequencies that would require a neuron to re more rapidly Volley principle DDDD Modi cation of frequency theory Clusters of nerve cells can re neural impulses in rapid succession Auditory Processing Hair cell transform physical stimulation of sound wave to action potential of neural impulses Of the Inner Earleuditory NerveTemporal Lobe Most bers cross over midline between hemispheres Left EarRight Hemisphere Right EarLeft Hemisphere Some bers go directly to sameside hemisphere Looalizing Sound Each ear receives somewhat different stimuli DistanceTimingsoonerlater in 2 ears jjjjjjjjj Sound Shadowljlntensity left receive more intense if sound comes from leftsound shadow provides a barrier that reduces the sound s intensity 4lOther Senses Skin Cutaneous Touch Mechanical energy or pressure against skin Temperature ThermoreceptorsWarm and cold sensory nerve endings under skin Warm thermoreceptors respond to the warming of the skin Cold thermoreceptors respond to the cooling of the Skin Warm and cold receptors that are close to each other in the skin are stimulated simultaneously experience hotness Pain sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies Widely dispersed receptors with much higher thresholds for different types of physical stimuli eg pressure heat ProstaglandinsStimulate pain receptors and cause experience of pain Neural pathways to brain Fast Pathway Directly to thalamus then to the motor and sensory areas of cerebral cortex sharp localized pain a warning system Slow Pathway Through imbic system remind brain that injury occurred and we need to restrict normal activity and monitor the pain Endorphins Neurotransmitters involved in turning pain signals onoff Women experience more clinical pain and suffer more painrelated distress Chemicalsense Smell Why smell decide what to eat track Detecting airborne chemicals Olfactory epithelium Dunn Lines roof of nasal cavity DD Contains sheet of receptor cells Receptors are covered with antennae that project through the mucus in the top of the nasal cavity and make contact with air on its way to the throat and lungs Neural pathway Olfactory areas of temporal lobeLimbic system Superhighway to emotion amp memory Interpersonal attraction amp MHC genes major histocompatibility complex Chemical sense Taste Detecting chemicals dissolved in saliva an PapMae Bumps on surface of tongue Contain taste buds receptors for taste Four taste qualities sweet sour bitter salty Taste bers leading from a taste bud to the brain respond to range of chemicals spanning multiple taste elements Umami Kinestheticlnformation about movement posture orientation Vestibular lnformation about balance movement Proprioceptive feedbacklnformation about relative position of limbs and body Semicircular canalsContain sensory receptors to detect head motion caused when we tilt or move our heads andor bodies gunman Chapter 4 Outline Notes 1The Nature of Consciousness Consciousness William James amp Stream of Consciousnessl A continuous flow of changing sensation images thoughts and feelings Consciousness Awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal awarenessamparousal Awareness awareness of the self and thoughts about one s experience Metacognition Thinking about your thoughts Involves cerebral cortex Association areas amp frontal lobes Arousal Physiological state of being engaged with the environment Determined by reticular activating system Consciousness and the Brain Awareness and arousal are associated with different parts of the brain Awareness is an occurring in a global brain workspace that involves various brain areas working in parallel Location include prefrontal cortex anterior cingulate association areas Widereaching brain workspace is an assembly of neurons that are thought to work in cooperation to produce the subjective sense of consciousness Areas of the prefrontal cortex appear to be involved in the ways that awareness goes beyond the input of sensory information Arousal is determined by the reticular activating system a network of structures including the brain stem medulla and thalamus Theory of Mind lndividuals understanding that they and others think feel perceive and have private experiences essential to valuable social capacities empathy and sympathy Levels of Awareness Higherlevel consciousness Controlled process the most alert states of human consciousness individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal require selective attention slower than automatic processes Lowerlevel consciousness Include automatic process amp daydreaming Automatic process require little attention and don39t interfere with other ongoing activities we can be aware of stimuli on some level without paying attention to them Daydreaming ies btw active consciousness and dreaming while asleep Begins spontaneously when we are doing sth The most obvious type Mind wandering Altered states of consciousnessawareness ranges from losing one s sense of self consciousness to hallucinating Produced by drugs trauma fever Subconscious awareness Waking subconscious awareness processes going on below the surface of our awareness Incubation the subconscious processing that leads to a solution to a problem after a break from conscious thought about a problem Information being processes even if we are unaware of that processing Subconscious awareness during sleep and dreams low levels of consciousness No awareness Sigmund Freud unconscious thought is a reservoir of unacceptable wishes feelings and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness store house for vile thoughts and impulses 2Sleep And Dreams Biological Rhythms Sleep A natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness Biological rhythms Periodic physiological uctuations in body quotBiological Clocksquot Circadian rhythms Daily behavioral or physiological cycle Sleepwake body temperature blood pressure blood sugar Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN Small brain structure using retinal input to synchronize its rhythm with daily lightdark out put from the SCN allows the hypothalamus to regulate daily rhythms of sleep and wakefulness Body monitors the change from day to night by means of Desynchronizing the Biological Clock Can get thrown off regular schedules Jet travel changing work shifts insomnia Resetting the Biological Clock Bright light Melatonin a hormone that increase at night Can reduce jet lag by advancing the circadian clock useful for eastward not westward Why Do We Sleep Evolutionary perspective For protection To conserve energy Restoration sleep restores replenishes and rebuilds the brain and body which the day s waking activities can wear out Cells show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep protein molecules help cell growth and repair damage from factors like stress Brain plasticity sleep enhances synaptic connections btw neurons consolidate memories Because cerebral cortex is free to conduct activities that strengthen memory associations so short term memories long term Sleep Deprivation sleep deprivation decreased brain activity in the thalamus and the prefrontal cortex 0 Trouble paying attention to tasks and solving problems Decreased brain activity Can in uence moral judgment Yet many of us do not get sufficient sleep Americans in general Adolescents in particular Sleep patterns change into middlelate adulthood Stages of Wakefulness amp Sleep Stages of sleep correspond to massive electrophysiological changes occur throughout the brain The fast irregular and lowamplitude electrical activity of wakefulness is replaced by the slow regular high amplitude waves of deep sleep Wakefulness Stages use EEG to monitor brain s electrical activity Beta waves Re ect concentration and alertness Highest in frequency lowest in amplitude More desynchronous or inconsistentdon39t form consistent pattern Alpha waves Relaxed and drowsiness but still awake Brain waves slowed down increased in amplitude More synchronous or regular Sleep Stages Stage 1 Drowsy sleep Myoclonic jerks sudden muscle movements EEG characterized by slow highamplitude theta waves Differences between just being relaxed and stage 1 is gradual Stage 2 Decreased muscle activity No conscious awareness of environment Theta waves interspersed with sleep spindles a sudden increase in wave frequency Stages 3 amp 4 delta waves the slowest and highestamplitude brain waves during sleep stage 3 delta waves occurring less than 50 of the time stage 4 delta waves occurring more than 50 of the time Referred to as delta sleep the deepest sleep Bedwetting sleep walking and sleep talking NonREM sleepStages 1 through 4 REM rapid eye movement Sleep Active stage of sleep during which dreaming occurs Fast wave activity similar to relaxed wakefulness Eyeballs move up and down left to right People Wake up during this period are more likely to have dreams Longer REM more likely to dream Likely plays a role in memory Sleep Cycles One sleep cycle Five stages of sleep 90 to 100 minutes Recurs several times a night REM stages become progressively longer rst REM 10mins nal 1h Sleep and the Brain Reticular Formation plays crucial role in sleep and arousal i Core of brain stem Distinct pattern of neurotransmitter activity during each sleep stage The levels of neurotransmitters sent to the forebrain from the reticular formation start dropping drop until the lowest during stage4 REM initiated by a rise in acetylcholine which activates the cerebral cortex while the rest of the brain remains inactive REM sleep ends when a rise in serotonin and norepinephrine which increase the level of forebrain activity nearly to the awakened state Neurotransmitters involved in sleep Serotonin Norepinephrine Acetylcholine Sleep and Disease Stroke and asthma l change in hormones heart rate Obesity and heart disease l sleeplessness Immune system and infection Cytokines produced when we ght an infection are sleepinducing Mental disorders Depression Alzheimer disease stroke cancer Sleep Disorders Insomnia Common among women and older adults and thin stress depressed people Mild insomnia can be reduced by practice good habit Serious one can be treat by therapy melatonin supplements ii Sleepwalking deepest stages of sleep sleep talking somniloquy and sleep eating iii Nightmares Night terrors Sudden arousal from sleep intense fear Reactions rapid hear rate and breathing loud screams heavy perspiration and movements Occur during slow wave nonREM sleep iv Narcolepsy Sudden overpowering urge to sleep Sleep while standing talking Be triggered by extreme emotional reactions lnvolve problems with the hypothalamus and amygdala vSeep apnea lndividuas stop breathing and awaken to breathe better Treated by weightloss program side sleeping propping the head on a pillow or wearing a device SIDS sudden infant death syndrome Dreams Freud Dreams symbolize unconscious wishes and Meng Qi s hidden desires Manifest contentsurface contentsymbos Latent contenthidden contenttrue meaning 0 Recent Dreams are mental events that come from various sources Cognitive theory Dreams as subconscious cognitive processing that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind Dreams are dramatizations of general life concerns that are similar to relaxed daydreams Default network collection of neurons that are active during mind wandering and daydreaming essentially whenever we are lack of attention to roles of brain structures and activity in dreaming Activationsynthesis theory Dreams as result of cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain Dream resulted from the brain s attempts to nd logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep Conscious experience is driven by internally generated stimuli that have no apparent behavioral consequence Neural networks in other areas of the forebrain play a signi cant role in dreaming Random neural ring in various areas of the brain leads to dreams that are the brain s attempts to make sense of the activity 3Psychoactive Drugs Uses of Psychoactive Drugs Act on the nervous system to Alter consciousness Modify perceptions Change moods Tolerance l continued use of psychoactive drugs the need to take Increasing amounts for same effect Physical dependence l continuing drug use Physical Need that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when stopped Psychological dependence Strong desireto repeat the use for emotional reasons Addiction Physical or psychological dependence or both on drugs How brain becomes addicted Psychoactive drugs increase dopamine levels in brain s reward pathways located in the VTA ventral tegmental area and NAC nucleus accumbens only the limbic and prefrontal areas of the brain are directly activated by dopamine which comes from VTA Activation of limbic and prefrontal areas of brain Psychoactive Drugs Depressants jjj Psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity Widely used Alcohol Barbiturates Tranquilizers Opiates Alcohol slow down brain activities Excitedl loosen up ljudgment impaired lfall asleepljcommadie Effects vary from person to person body weight amount of alcohol metabolize alcohol absencepresence of tolerance Alcohol goes to VTA and NAc increase concentration of the neurotransmitter GABA affect frontal cortex in judgment and impulse control basal ganglia lead to a greater demand for alcohol Alcoholisma disorder that involves longterm repeated uncontrolled compulsive and excessive use of alcohol and that impairs health and social relationship Barbiturates such as Nembutal and Seconal depressant drugs that decrease central nervous system activity Sleep aids l impair memory and decision making l with alcohol can be lethal Replaced by tranquilizer as treatment of insomnia Tranquilizers such as Valium and Xanax depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation Smallinduce calm high drowsiness and confusion Tolerance develop within weeks have withdrawal symptoms ls part of the lethal cocktail of drugs OpiatesNarcotis consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the central nervous system s activity painkillers morphine heroin use endorphins as their neurotransmitter when they leave the brain the affected synapses become understimulated ljljljljljfeel euphoric and painfree and has an increased appetite for food and sex Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants Psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system s activity Caffeine a stimulant and a natural component of the plants that are the sources of coffee tee cola Caffeinism overindulgence in caffeine characterized by mood changes anxiety sleep disruption symptoms insomnia irritability headaches ringing ears dry mouth increased blood pressure and digestive problems Nicotine Stimulates the brain s reward centers by raising dopamine levels Behavioral effects of nicotine include improved attention and alertness reduced anger and anxiety and pain relief Withdrawal produces irritability craving inability to focus sleep disturbance and increased appetite Amphetamines quotUppersquot stimulant drugs to boost energy stay awake or lose weight increase the release of dopamineenhances activity level and pleasurable feelings Crystal meth release dopamine damdages dopamine receptors Cocaine illegal drug that comes from the coca plant Produce euphoric feelings oods the bloodstream rapidly producing a rush of euphoric feelings Rush depletes the brain 395 supply of neurotransmitters dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine and agitated depressed mood usually follows as the drug s effects decline Crack a potent from of cocaine consisting of chips of pure cocaine that are usually smoked MDMA EcstasyXXTC synthetic drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties empathogen users tend to feel warm bonds with others Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens psychedelic Modify a person s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real Marijuana dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa Dried resin is known as hashish active ingredient is THC disrupts the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones LSD lysergic acid diethylamide lljlljl 4 Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness Psychological state of altered attentionexpectation people are in a relaxed waking state predominant by alpha and beta waves Nature of hypnosis The four steps Minimizing distractions maximizing comfort Concentration on something speci c Inform the person about what to expect in hypnotic state Suggestion of events or feelings already occurring Individual variations in hypnosis Hypnotizability extent to which a person s responses are changed when he is hypnotized Explaining Hypnosis Hypnosis as a divided state of consciousness hypnosis involves a special state of consciousness in which consciousness is split into separate components One component follows the hypnotists commands while another component acts as a quotHidden Observerquot Social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he belies that a hypnotized person should behave Individuals being hypnotized surrender their responsibility to the hypnotist and follow the hypnotist s suggestions and they have expectations about what hypnosis is supposed to be like Frames the questions about hypnosis around Cognitive factors Attitudes Expectations Beliefs Social Context Uses of Hypnosis To dampen brain processes experimentally Helps in understanding The effects of hypnosis The brain s functioning Help reduce the experience of pain The subcortical brain areasthe brain stem and midbrain of the hypnotized patients responded the same as ljljljljljlj sensory cortex was not activated I sense pain but not conscious Most effective when combined with psychotherapy 5 Meditation Attaining peaceful state of mind Mindfulness meditation For depression panic attacks and anxiety For chronic pain stress psoriasis Focus on painljisolate pain from emotional response to it and to her cancer diagnosis lbear pain Increase activation in the left hemisphere which associated with happiness Conscious minds may have a role to play in enhancing our psychological and physical health better immune system response to a u vaccine Meditative state of mind Hypnogogic reverieFeeing of wellnesssense everything is going to work out Increased activation in basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex Decreases in anterior cingulatea brain area that is associated with acts of will
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