Week 2 Lecture Notes
Week 2 Lecture Notes PSY:3320:001
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Guevara on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY:3320:001 at University of Iowa taught by Alan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Abnormal Psychology Notes Week 2 Chapter 3 Models of Abnormality The Bioloqical Model Adopts a medical perspective Reductionistic Mechanistic Disease focused Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism Typically point to problems in brain anatomy or brain chemistry abnormality brought by some malfunctioning parts of the organism brain anatomy and brain chemistry other parts of the body may play a role but not often How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain Anatomy The brain is compose of 100 billion nerve cells called neurons and thousands of billions of support cells called glia Within the brain large groups of neurons form distinct areas called brain regions neurons make up part of the brain may ask about neurons on test the biological model directs attention to difference in brain anatomy difference in different brain regions Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior Clinical researchers have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders and differences in speci c brain areas Example Enlarged ventricles in schizophrenia plaques between neurons in AD Huntington s disease and changes in basal ganglia and cortex individuals who tried to study if there are brain differences in the structure of the brainstructural differencesthe structure of the brain a scientist would look at the brainthis person would have delusionsso they would compare this persons brain to another persons brain ook for things that are obvious Alzheimers look like neurons get plaque on them structural things of having a disorder doesn t necessarily distinguish between cause and effect Ventricles quot i r 39 lSchizophrenia the space between the ventricles look different Very Basic Brain Chemistry nformation is communicated throughout the brain in the form of electrical impulses that travel from one neuron to one or more others An impulse is rst received by a neuron s dendrites travels down the axon and is transmitted through the nerve endings to other neurons Functionalintroducing the idea of actually trying to treat something brain functions different different parts function different than other parts that have the disorder The brain communicates through impulses r sites on Cell body Dendrites 1 7 W f39 A Neurotransmitters I 39 31513 Ell ti i l 7 EC l39lC IITIPU SE Re mease of neurotransmitters Hund reds of neurons exist in brain and communicate with each other synaptic space the way these neurons communicate deals with what happens in that space release NT Some NT activate excitory or deactivate inhibitory the neuron Don t change the number of neurons or the health of the neuron all they change is affecting the release or uptake of NT Brain Chemistry Neurons do not actually touch each other they are separated by a space the synapse across which a message moves When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve ending the ending is stimulated to release a chemical called a neurotransmitter NT that travels across the synaptic space to receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons some MTs tell receiving neurons to re other NTs tell receiving neurons to stop ring Brain Chemistry and abnormal behavior Researchers have identi ed dozens of NTs Examples serotonin dopamine and GABA Studies indicate that abnormal activity in certain NTs can lead to speci c mental disorders For example depression has been linked often indirectly to low activity of serotonin and norepinephrine some medications increase the effect by increasing certain NT gt SSRI keeps serotionin in synaptic cleft the biological model cease Someone accidently found these results of medications that were used for other causes help mental disorders Sources of Biological Abnormalities Genetics Abnormalities in brain anatomy or chemistry are sometimes the result of genetic inheritance Studies suggest that inheritance plays a part in mood disorder schizophrenia and other mental disorders appears that in most cases several genes combine to produce our actions and reactions Genes that contribute to mental disorders May be intraindividual mutations May be inherited after a mutation in the family line May be the result of normal evolutionary principles Got shared genes but no understanding that the genetic structure can change after birth can change when still a fetus the older you get the more set your genetic structure is can have mutations can start with the same genes but don t end with the same genes Sources of Biological Abnormalities Evolution Evoutionary theorists argue that human reactions and the genes responsible for them have survived over the course of time because they have helped individuals thrive and adapt Example The fear response In today s world however those genes and reactions may not be so adaptive Sources of Biological Abnormalities Viral Infections Another possible source of abnormal brain structure or biochemical dysfunction is viral infections leading to intraindividual mutation Exampe Schizophrenia and prenatal viral exposure lnterest in viral explanations of psychological disorders has been growing in the past decade Example Depression and virus exposure and in ammatory processes notion of fundamental germ theory disease Prenata viral exposure Chidren that were born during a high in uenza time mother was more exposed to the Flu have a higher chance of getting schizophrenia Biolodical Treatments Biological practitioners attempt to pinpoint the physical source of dysfunction to determine the course of treatment Three types of biological treatment Drug Therapymost commonmost have the effect of manipulating the effect of a NT Eectroconvulsive therapy ECT Psychosurgery Drug Therapy 1950 s advent of psychotropic medications greaty changed the outlook for a number of mental disorders Four major drug groups Antianxiety drugs anxiolytics minor tranquilizers Antidepressant drugs Antibipoar drugs mood stabilizers Antipsychotic drugs Eectroconvulsive therapy ECT Used primarily for depression particularly when drugs and other therapies have failed this treatment is used on tens of thousands of depressed persons annuaHy Psychosurgery or neurosurgery Historica roots in trephination 1930 s rst Iobotomy Much more precise today than in the past Considered experimental and used only in extreme cases Assessing the Biological Model Strengths Enjoys considerable respect in the eld Constantly produces valuable new information Treatments can bring great relief Weaknesses Can limit rather than enhance our understanding Too simplistic Treatments produce signi cant undesirable negative effects moved from just looking at the structure of the brain to know some differneces in how parts of the brain are functioning can help a lot too simplistic doesn t always tell us cause and effect The Psychodynamic Model Oldest and most famous psychological model Based on belief that a persons behavior whether normal or abnormal is determined largely by underlying dynamic that is interactingpsychological forces of which she or he is not consciously aware Abnormal symptoms are the result of con ict among these forces Father of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic therapy Sigmund Freud 18561939 How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning Shaped by three unconscious forces 1 ld guided by the Pleasure Principle lnstinctua needs drives and impulses Sexual fueled by libido sexual energy 2 Ego guided by the Reality Principle Seeks grati cation but guides us to know when we can and cannot express our wishes Ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxietygt tells you what you can and cannot do Caused by three UNCONSCIOUS forces 3 Superegoguided by the Morality Principle Conscience unconsciously adopted from our parents These three parts of the personality are often in some degree of con ict A healthy personality is one in which an effective working relationship exists among the three forces If the id ego and superego are in excessive con ict the person s behavior may show signs of dysfunction tattle 31 The Defense Meyer Rests Defense Mechanisms to the Rescue Defense Repression Denial Proiectian Rationalization Displacement Intelllectualiza tion Regression Operation Person avoids anxiety by simply not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious Person simply refuses to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety Person attributes own unacceptable impulses motives or desires to other individuals Person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action tlhat actua ly reflects unacceptable motives Person displaces hostility away from a dangerous obtect and onto a safer substitute Person re resses emotional reactions in favor of overly logical response to a problem Person retreats from an upsetting confllct to an early develo mental stage at w ich no one is expected to ehave maturety or responsibly Psychodynamic Therapies Example An executive s desire to run amok and attack his boss and colleagues at a board meeting is denied access to his awareness You are not prepared for tomorrow s final exam but rou tell yourself that it s not actually an important exam and t at there39s no good reason not to go to a movie tonight The executive who repressed his destructive desires may protect this anger onto his boss and claim that it is actually the boss who is lhostile A student explains away poor grades by citing the importance of the total experiencequot of going to college and claiming that too much emphasis on grades would actually interfere with a welterounded education After a perfect parking spot is talken by a person who cuts in front of your car you release your pentup anger by starttng an argument with your roommate A woman who has been beaten and raped gives a detached methodical description of the effects that such attacks may have on victims A boy who cannot cope with the anger he feels toward his rejecting mother rtegrasses to infantile behavior soiling his clothes and no longer taking care of his basic needs Range from Freudian psychoanalysis to modern therapies Al seek to uncover past trauma and inner con icts Therapist acts as a quotsubtle guidequot Utiize various techniques Free Association ask someone what rst comes to mind when you ask about an object or word Therapist interpretation Resistance Transference relevant to other therapies when you are in therapy you are indentifying with the therapist with whatever issue you are talking about exampe have bad relationship with boyfriend when talking to a therapist of male gender might think of him as your boyfriend Dream interpretation talk about dreams unconscious con icts that come out in dreams Catharsisgt venting out emotion Assessing the Psychodynamic Model Strengths First to recognize importance of psychological theories and treatment Saw abnormal functioning as rooted in the same processes as normal functioning First to apply theory and techniques systematically to treatment monumental impact on the eld Weaknesses Unsupported ideas dif cult to research nonobservabe lnaccessibe to human subject unconscious did come along at a time when ppl haven t thought of the idea of helping someone played an important role The Behavioral Model Like psychodynamic theorists behavioral theorists believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences but in a very different way Concentrates wholly on behaviors and environmental factors Bases explanations and treatments on principles of learning Behavior is a function of its correlates and consequences Focuses on 1 Persons behavioral actions behavior is a function of its correlates and consequences based on learning theory behaviors are learned and reinforced the correlates behavior is what is going on around you when in the behavior Consequences refers to what happens after a reinforcement The model began in laboratories where conditioning studies were conducted Several forms of conditioning Operant Conditioning Cassica Conditioning Modeling All may produce normal or abnormal behavior Operant Conditioning Humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of the consequences contingencies associated with the behavior eg receiving rewards contingencies receiving that reward is contingenet on pressing that lever Positive Applies Stimulus Mega ve Removes Stimulus ll l Reinforcement Increases the frequency of desirable behavior Reinf f ement Punishment Decreases ilhe freq uehcy of undesirable behavior Punishment quot IT rlf E l 3939r Ir39f 7x u i i if Reinforcement Negative Punishment 4 different ways you can modify someones behavior to shape their reinforcement 1 Positive Reinforcement applying something to the person and having it be positive reinforcement rat pressing lever and getting fruit loopapplying stimulus and increases behavior 2 Negative Reinforcement Removing the stimulus and increase the behavior taking something away putting on seatbelt and the car stops beeping made babies cry that is aversive pick the baby up and do something for it 3 Positive Punishment applying something and decreasing the frequency of undesirable behavior in icting something on someone pain punishment slapping someone when you don t want them to do something 4 Negative punishment taking away a toy How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Classical Conditioning Learning by temporal association When two events repeatedly occur close together in time they become fused in a person s mind before long the person responds in the same way to both events Father of classical conditioning lvan Pavlov 18491936 Cassic study using dogs and meat powder Explains many familiar behaviors both normal and abnormal Learning to things being associated with time Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimuluslb Unconditioned ResponseSalivate Unconditioned Stimulusmeat Unconditioned ResponseSalivate Conditioned StimulusT Conditioned Response Salivate lnnate never had to learn it unconditioned stimulus never had to be learned put meat in front of doggt it salivates lf introduced a stimulus that will not usually make a response Presented the mean and closely follow with ringing the begt the dog salivates When ring the begt the dog salivates Behavior but also a physiological function More examples of classical conditioning UC gt 039quot U 5 9 u K b LN why M 55 f C hmm Lewi nw CaraMy Parkquot Another example pavlov example and putting into real world of humans When present food have a craving when present food its being presented by a certain person a certain time and certain place When walk in kitchen you smell and are hungry Everything occurs in an environmental context jigs e emu Q icoHMQ crown nkin armHy fj c j Cw m 39 g If 2c I La yamHu C m C5 395 M acidquot 9411 Disflafg C 59 QMff quot W W nicotine is addictive and exposure to nicotine a few time you have a craving when in context associated with nicotine might start that craving for nicotine Behavioral Therapies Cassical conditioning based treatment can focus on controlling the presence of the stimuli eg removing cues from the environment Cassical conditioning treatments may be used to change abnormal reactions to particular stimuli Exampe systematic desensitization for phobia stepbystep procedure earn relaxation skills construct a fear hierarchy Confront feared situations Stimulus control if want to stop drugs take out all drug related things in house out can try to produce a new conditioned association that is desirable Systematic desensitizationidentify what they are afraid of and expose them to it Assessing the Behavioral Model Strengths Has parallels in basic and animal research Can be tested in the laboratory Signi cant research supports for behavioral therapies Weaknesses Limited evidence that symptoms are ordinarily acquired through conditioning Too simplistic New focus on selfef cacy social cognition and cognitive behavioral theones The Cognitive Model This model proposes that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking at cognitive processes essentially thought automatic or conscious and appraisals of situations Argues that clinicians must ask questions about assumptions attitudes and thoughts of a patient and helps the patient refute those that are maladaptive Refers to the idea that our behavior can best be understood by what we think about things how we think of them consciously What causes us to stress to impairment is not what s happening to us but how we think about what is happening to us Becks C0gnitive Triad Negative views about the world quotEverybody hates me because I am worthlessquot Negative views about Negative views about oneself the future quotI39ll never be good at anything because everyone hates mequot quotI am worthless Beck father of cognitive therapy for depression How do Cognitive Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Abnormal functioning can result from several kinds of cognitive problems Fauty assumptions and attitudes ogica thinking processes Exampes overgeneralization catastrophizing Coqnitive Therapies People can overcome their problems by developing new ways of thinking Main model Beck s Cognitive Therapy The goal of therapy is to help clients recognize and restructure their thinking Therapists also guide clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts try out new interpretations and apply new ways of thinking in their daily lives Widey used in treating depression ppy can change the way they think about stressors identify what the symptoms are Assessing the Cognitive Model Strengths Very broad appeal Cinically useful and effective Theories lend themselves to research Therapies effective in treating several disorder Weaknesses Precise role of cognition in abnormality has yet to be determined primacy of cognition Therapies do not help everyone Some changes may not be possible to achieve Integration of the Models Today s leading models vary widely and none of the models has proved consistently supenor none of the models have been superior to each other A growing number of clinicians favor explanations of abnormal behavior that consider more than one cause at a time These are sometimes called biopsychosocial theories Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic biological developmental emotional behavioral cognitive social and societal in uences Many biopsychosocial theorists favor a diathesisstress approach Diathesispredisposition bio psycho or social vunerabiity not all about vulnerability but vulnerability occurring in some context to develop a condition lntegrative therapists are often called quoteclecticquot taking the strengths from each model and using them in combination Theoretical Orientations of Today s Clinical Psychologists Behavioral 10 V 0th 3 lPsychoclynamicl lc fo v 7 er v interpersonal 4 16 Fa mlin systems 3 Clientcentered 1 Existential 1 Gestalt 1 Eclectic 2900 Cognitive 2800 Eclectic combine more than one
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