Nutrition Notes Week 12
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Nutriton Notes Week 12 Calcium (Ca) A. Most abundant mineral in the body B. 99% of body calcium is in the bone 1. Integral part of bone structure 2. Storehouse for calcium in the blood C. Adults absorb about 25% of the calcium in foods eaten D. Increases in infants and during pregnancy (60%) Serum Calcium (functions) A. Regulates transport of ions across cell membrane (important in nerve transmission) B. Helps maintain blood pressure C. essential for muscle contractions D. Essential for secretion of hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters, etc. E. Essential for blood clotting Possible Health Beneﬁts A. Possible links between calcium intakes and risks of certain cancers, kidney stones, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, and obesity B. Osteoporosis- decreased bone mass related to aging, genetic background, and poor diet; leads to 1.5 million bone fractures per year just in the U.S., bones become brittle Bone Density A. Reaches a peak in 20s B. Levels off in 30s C. Lose after 40s D. Need to build up bone density when you are young E. How to maintain adequate bone density: 1. Adequate amount of calcium and vitamin D in your diet 2. Exercise 3. Estrogen Calcium in foods A. AI- 1000-1200 mg per day B. Foods such as dairy products (milk, cheese yogurt), breads, rolls, leafy vegetables (kale, collards, turnips, mustard greens), calcium fortiﬁed products, supplements (calcium-based antacids) C. UL- 2500 mg per day (risk of kidney stones) Sodium (Na) A. Absorb about 100% of Na consumed B. 30-40% found in bone C. The major positive ion found in extracellular ﬂuid D. Functions- ﬂuid balance between compartments, nerve impulse conduction, absorption of glucose Sodium Deﬁciency A. Very rare- excessive perspiration, persistent vomiting, diarrhea B. Leads to muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, coma Sodium Sensitivity A. For most people, the body will adjust to higher sodium intake by increasing urine output B. 10-15% of adults are sodium sensitive C. High sodium intake leads to increased blood pressure D. UL- 2300 mg per day Chloride (Cl) A. An ion of chlorine B. Major negative ion for extracellular ﬂuid C. Used in producing stomach acid (HCl) during immune response of white blood cells Potassium (K) A. Postive ion in a intracellular ﬂuid compartment B. 95% of bodys potassium C. Like sodium, potassium is important in ﬂuid balance and nerve impulse transmission D. Unlike sodium, increasing potassium intake is associated with lower blood pressure E. Increased risk of deﬁciency-people on diuretics to treated high blood pressure, alcoholics, certain eating disorders F. Can lead to heart failure G. Too much- due to kidney failure, can stop heart H. AI- 4700 mg per day I. Foods include unprocessed foods, potatoes, plums, avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, raisins Trace Minerals A. Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Copper, Chromium, Fluoride, Chromium, etc. B. All are toxic in excess Iron (Fe) In every cell of the body B. Absorb about 18% of that present in food C. Most iron associated with hemoglobin (RBC) and myoglobin (muscle)- heme iron D. Other types are called non-heme iron E. When RBCs die, iron is recycled F. Therefore, we lose very little, except during bleeding Iron Absorption A. Heme iron is more readily absorbed than non-heme iron B. Vitamin C (75 mg) enhances absorption of non-heme iron C. Tannins in tea and phytates in grain inhibit iron absorption Iron Deﬁciency A. Anemia- decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood 1. Lower number of RBCs 2. Less oxygen to the cells 3. Present in about 30% of the world population 4. Half of which is due to low iron B. Neurological dysfunction called Pica, cravings for odd things such as ice, dirt, etc. C. Result is impaired physical and mental activity 1. Fatigue, loss of appetite 2. Decreased learning ability 3. Decreased attention span Iron Toxicity A. Hemochromatosis B. Bronzing of the skin C. Iron builds up in the liver and the blood D. Will lead to organ damage, especially in the liver and heart E. UL- 45 mg/day F. Somach irritation, toxicity can be life threatening Zinc A. About 40% of dietary Zn is absorbed B. Zinc is a cofactor for up to 200 different enzymes C. Functions: 1. Growth, would healing 2. Sexual maturity 3. Taste perception 4. Immune system, indirect antioxidant Zinc Deﬁciency A. First recognized in the 1960s in boys from the middle east B. Diet low in animal protein, exclusive use of unleaded bread C. Had a severe impact on their growth/maturity D. Symptoms include acne-like rash, diarrhea, lack of appetite, delayed wound healing, impaired immunity, reduction of sense of taste and smell, hair loss E. RDA men: 11 mg F. RDA women 8 mg G. Average Americans consume 10-14 mg/day H. Absorption depends on body needs 1. Phytic acid binds to zinc and limits availability 2. High calcium intake decreases zinc absorption 3. Zinc competes with copper and iron for absorption How to Avoid Too Much Zinc A. UL: 40 mg B. Excess interferes with copper metabolism C. Toxicity interferes with copper metabolism D. Toxicity can occur from supplementation or overconsumption of zinc-fortiﬁed foods E. If your intake is over 100 mg, you may experience diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite Selenium A. Indirect antioxidant, works with vitamin E to help protect cell membranes from oxidizing agents B. Binds to enzymes- protects against oxidation C. May have anticancer properties Selenium Deﬁciency A. Found in some areas of China B. People developed characters muscle and heart problems associated with inadequate selenium intake C. RDA- 55 micrograms per day D. 400 micrograms per day (hair loss) E. Foods include eggs, ﬁsh, shellﬁsh, grains, seed grown in soils containing selenium Iodide A. Ion of iodine B. Used in the production of thread hormone C. Thyroid hormone helps regulate metabolic rate and promotes growth/development Iodide Deﬁciency A. Deﬁciency- cells of thyroid enlarged in attempt to trap more iodine (goiter) B. People are sluggish and gain weight C. During pregnancy, deﬁciency can cause extreme and irreversible mental and physical retardation of developing baby (cretinism) Getting Enough Iodide A. RDA and DV 150 micrograms B. Half teaspoon od iodide-fortiﬁed salt supplies this amount C. Most North Americans consume more than RDA (iodized salt, dairy products, grain products) D. UL: 1.1 miligrams E. High amounts may appear can inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and may be more commonly seen in individuals consuming a lot of seaweed Copper (Cu) A. 12-75% of Copper is absorbed B. Involved in: 1. The metabolism of iron by functioning in the formation of hemoglobin and transport of iron 2. The formation of connective tissue 3. Is a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes C. Sources include: liver, legumes, seeds, whole grains breads and cereals, cocoa D. Form found in supplements not readily absorbed E. Absorption highly variable- higher intakes associated with lower absorption efﬁciency F. Phytates, ﬁber, excess zinc and iron supplements interfere with absorption G. Average intake: 1 mg men, 1.6 g men H. Single dose greater than 10 milligrams can cause toxicity, and include symptoms such as GI distress, vomiting blood, tarry feces, damage to liver and kidney I. Toxicity cannot occur with food, only supplements J. Wilson’s disease-a genetic disorder that results in accumulation of copper in tissues, characterized by damage to the liver Should You Take A Supplement? A. There is evidence to support the widespread use or multivitamin and mineral supplements is mixed 1. Little risk of harm from consuming a multivitamin 2. Most studies indicate no discernible advantage 3. NIH concluded that the present evidence is insufﬁcient to recommend for or against B. Only a few studies of vitamin and mineral supplements prevent deﬁciencies or chronic disease 1. High dosage of one nutrient can affect the absorption and metabolism od other nutrients 2. Some supplements can interfere with medications C. Safest and healthiest way to obtain it is from your food D. Fortiﬁed foods can help ﬁll gaps Which supplement should you choose? A. Choose a nationally recognized brand B. Be sure not to exceed UL from supplements and fortiﬁed foods C. Look for UA Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) label D. Excess can cause damage to the lover, nervous system, and other organs Dietary Supplements A. Who regulates them? 1. Dietary Supplement Health and education Act (1994) (DHSEA) 2. Established by Congress 3. Gives FDA authority to “regulate” them 4. Established the Ofﬁce of Dietary Supplements under the DIH 5. DSHEA deﬁnition: a. Vitamin, mineral, herb, or other botanical amino acid b. A dietary substance to supplement the diet, which could be an extract or a combination of the ﬁrst four ingredients on the list B. Who needs them? 1. Use of dietary supplements is a common practice among North Americans and generates about $35-36 billion annually 2. Can be sold without proof that they are safe or effective 3. Supplement makers can make broad “structures of function” claims about their products, but cannot claim to prevent, treat, or cure a disease Homeopathic Remedies A. Regulated by the FDA B. The FDA doesn't look or evaluate them for safety or effectiveness C. There is little evidence to support homeopathy as an effective treatment for any speciﬁc condition D. Must contain active ingredients that are listed in the homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the US (HPUS)
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