Unit Two Reading Week 2
Unit Two Reading Week 2 10320
Popular in Appreciation of Architecture II
Popular in Architecture
This 12 page Reader was uploaded by Nicole Caparas on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Reader belongs to 10320 at University of Washington taught by Ann Marie Borys in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Elizabethan Country Houses Inigo Jones 0 Wollaton Hall in Nottinghamshire O Symmetrical square plan wcorner pavilions medieval ancillary accommodation long gallery for lodging of courtiers built of masonry parapets 0 upper clerestory levels of Great Hall protrude above roofline Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire O symmetrical arrangement of main hall amp contiguous exterior colonnades 0 reflect contemporary ltalian design 0 more interested in light amp warmth from sun 0 O O O Queen s House at Greenwich 0 introduced Palladian ideas to England 0 mirrored architecture of late sixteenthcentury Italy 0 bridge spanned road at secondfloor level and acted as portecochere covered drivethrough for vehicles 0 building divided in two from Deptford to Woolwich O circular stair without newelcentral post 0 balcony across cube room connecting secondfloor rooms including Queen s with bridge 0 garden facade based on Palladio s Palazzo Chiericati fenestrated wall with central recessed logia Banqueting House at Whitehall in London 0 anglicized version of Vitruvian basilica O doublecube room with continuous balcony O halfcolumns on central threebay pavilion to provide contrast in depth with flat pilasters of 2 bays on either side 0 windows alternate segmental and triangular pediments O rusticated masonry of base flat lintels O masked roofline with balustrade 4th Earl of Bedford Covent Garden in Bedford House 0 collaborated with lsaac de Caux O the first of several English residential squares based on designs for King Henry lV s Place Royale in Paris 0 houses facing Covent Garden had continuous groundlevel arcades masking individual entrances but providing covered passageway 0 Bedford House to the south London Church to the west 0 St Paul s Church Corinthian portico to west front large scrolls to mask aisle roofs badly damaged from fire of 1666 Christopher Wren and the Baroque Wren came to england because of the Great Fire Britain s greatest architect Sheldonian Theatre 0 based on semicircular Theater of Marcellus in Rome 0 huge wooden roof trusses O canvas ceiling resembling open sky 0 simulated ropes to hold shading device 0 Entrance front pedimented pavilion wraking cornice down perimeter walls arcades pilasters oval dormers cupola The City Churches by Wren St Paul s Use of brick walls and slate roofs to reduce spread of future fires St MaryleBow spire rises on circular plan above squareplan tower St Bride s Fleet Street 4 diminishing octagons of arched openings St DunstanintheEast simplified gothic from that reflected previous church St Stephen Walbrook O medieval tower capped by Renaissance crown exterior 0 interior centrally planned stubby nave coffered Pantheonlike dome wooden on 8 arches supported by octagonal arrangement of Corinthian columns atop high pedestals Went through lots of changes a Great Model 1973 l major dome on 8 piers ringed with secondary domes continuous ambulatory like St Peter s I too strongly linked with Roman Catholicism so dismissed b Warrant Design 1975 l latincross plan I Gothic l miniscule drum and dome capped by sixtiered cupola I completed structure in 1709 a refined and academic version of this plan I basilican structure saucer domes in nave and aisles w buttresses above aisle roofs l to hide buttresses for a more classical feel in the exterior raised the aisle walls to create screens like Jones Banqueting House while north and south transept porticoes Cortona s facade of S Maria della Pace l West front based on Perrault s facade of Louvre wtowers like St Agnese in Piazza navona l Done mixed Michelangelo s buttressing system for St Peter s and Bramante s original design for drum l large dome required substantial supporting piers infill of sides of 4 diagonal arches of central crossing to create segmental arches Q tripledomed strategy of JH Mansar at StLouisdeslnvalides Q innermost dome is masonry above is brick cone supporting cupola and wooden superstructure of leadcovered exterior dome l interior woodcarved by Grinling gibbons and iron worked by Jean Tijou Nicholas Hawksmoor Sir John Vanbrugh and James Gibbs 0 Nicholas Hawksmoor O Wren s assistant when working on St Paul s 0 added westfront towers emphasizing massing contrasting linear facades and accurate detailing of Wren s design 0 collaborated with Sir John Vanbrugh gentlemansoldier and colourful character 0 Christ Church Spitalfields London I reflected late Roman temples l nave illuminated by clerestories above elliptical barrel vaults parallel to nave l below nave arcade is made of cylindrical columns wentablatures l nave covered with flat coffered ceiling l whole of interior is bold l Exterior porch composed of large Serliana above tower buttressed at front and back by screen walls with windows in Serliana composition 0 Castle Howard by Vanbrugh O Hawksmoor contributed O symmetrical design anchored by domed great hall from laterally expanded apartments 0 curved colonnades flanking great court and connecting main block with courts for kitchens and stables never built 0 Blenheim Palace built for Duke and Duchess of Marlborough 0 Exterior giant Corinthian columns and massive corner pavilions O entrance made through north portico leading on axis from great court into hall and salon O symmetrical smaller rooms around 2 internal courts around central group 0 Vanbrugh amp Hawksmoor more personal and individualistic compared to Wren 0 St MartinintheFields London by James Gibbs O Corinthian order giant columns and pilasters inside and out 0 Wrenderived tower and steeple on main axis 0 entrance is through their base protected by Corinthian portico 0 James Gibbs works establish bridge between most elaborate examples of English Baroque and more restrained designs of serenity of Andrea Palladio O by middle of 18th century return to purer interpretations of classical antiquity NeoClassicism The Traditional Architecture of China and Japan 0 primary impetus came from government imperial court amp state not church 0 Great Wall 0 almost 4000 miles long 0 coast through varied terrain to terminus in Gobi Desert 0 originally made with rammed earth but casted with brick and stone 0 northfacing side capped by crenelated battlements wwatchtowers at intervals connected by road extending along the top Q Laotzu s philosophy Daoism mystical approach seeking harmony of human action and world through study of nature antirational and antiauthoritarian 0 found in Chinese garden designs contrived views and experiences based on the model provided by nature itself 0 Confucius philosophy relied on respect for authority as established by state 0 Those in power are to act benevolently on behalf of their subjects and ordinary people are to show proper deference to the superior wisdom and understanding of their revered leaders 0 found in city planning and traditional house designs in their layouts and axial alignments of buildings 0 Buddhism then came to China resulted in Chinese buildings that have roots in Indian practice 0 cave temples with gigantic statues exhibiting artistic influences from India elephants lotus plants scrolling vines and dwindled aspects of Hellenistic art leaf foliage O Buddhist temple with hall for venerating images of Buddha and separate pagoda tower over relics symbolic of Buddha s presence I pagoda became graceful multistory building with layered roofs early versions carved pillars inside cave temples Q pagoda s purpose to house relics and sacred writings l Songyue Pagoda oldest surviving brick structure in China 0 tapering 12sided parabolic cylinder inspired by shikhara roofs on Hindu temples Q hallow Q 15 tiers of roofs l Longhua Pagoda Q brick core and wooden perimeter galleries 0 ends of roof tiers cantilever outward and upward l Fogong Monastery Pagoda constructed entirely in wood one of the tallest wooden constructions in the world 0 220 ft 0 octagonal building 0 rises 5 levels in 10 structural tiers alternating upright posts with cantilevered roofs and balconies Q exterior levels expressed as intricately bracketed overhanging roofs and galleries contrasting trabeated wall sections 0 tapers slightly to enter giving an impression of greater height Chinese Architectural Principles 0 wood primary material of early Chinese architecture 0 most often in postandbeam construction 0 roof structures based on series of beams in parallel tiers augmented over time by bracketing of beamcolumn junctions and cantilevered overhangs Q jian basic measure in construction 0 elaborate buildings contained additional jian usually in odd numbers so distinction of central bay was preserved 0 buildings have certain interior freedom in plan as lightweight nonloadbearing walls can be located in response to internal needs 0 buildings occur in ensembles organized around courtyards 0 different functions located in separate structures linked through connecting corridors set in careful relation to common open spaces not just contained under a roof 0 architecture relies on axial arrangement formal cues sequencing to establish dominance Q Yingzaofashi book of building standards 0 Timber hall four parts I raised platform announced building s importance l bracket sets columns rising from platform that interlocks support allowing roof to overhang for protection of wooden construction from weather while exhibiting sophisticated Chinese joinery begins with douwooden blocks on top of columns supporting pairs of gongbrackets one parallel to hall s longitudinal axis and the other cantilevered parallel to hall s transverse axis I completed bracket sets support beams and purlins that support fourth building part I roof and its covering of glazed tiles in variety of colors ridge and curving hips where roof planes intersect are covered wspecial tiles and embellished with animal sculptures amp curving finials like acroteria on ancient Greek temples ornament also appeared on ceilings around windows and doors as paneling 0 colour schemes and character of ornamental painting from Qing Dynasty 0 3 Qing painting styles hexi xuanzi Suzhou l Hexi golden dragons phoenixes grass painted elevations of bracket sets represents highest level of nobility Chinese red dark blue leaf green I Xuanzi whirling flowers and dragons brocades hierarchical ord of colour from gold and jadelike bluegreen down to blue green black white I Suzhou less stylized images of houses pavilions garden buildings linear spaces fruits flowers animals insects celestial beings colors also descend in importance down from gold most prestigious Q Confucian amp Daoist principles 0 principal buildings face south to take maximum advantage of sun and winds 0 secondary buildings face eastwest shielded by generous overhangs or vegetation O approach axis extend from south to north 0 Feng Shui chinese art of adjusting building to particular features of individual s site amp its microclimate further elaboration of Daoist principle that human actions should be in accord with cosmos Q earliest examples of wooden buildings Buddhist temple halls 0 Chinese buildings can be compared with use of entasis convex curve on shaft of column and optical corrections on Greek temples Q Foguang Monastery main hall elevated east hall has hillside site 0 Jinci includes Hall of Sacred Mother is a temple complex to honour ancestors in Confucian tradition O hilly 0 running stream encouraging designers to integrate water features wpavilions surrounding main hall 0 supported temple roof on an elaborate system of transfer beams so no interior columns interrupt space for large statues of Sacred Mother flanked by her courtly attendants Principles of City Planning Q Kao Gong Ji The Artificer s Record 0 composed in the 5th century CE as a guide for establishing a city based on Confucian teachings 0 Capital city oriented to the cardinal directions have a square plan 4000 ft on each side 3 gates in each side roads projecting out from the grid of the city s plan Central road the entrance for the major thoroughfare nine cart lanes wide which runs north to the palace complex 0 Palace walled off from the rest of the city preceded by an impressive courtyard and flanked by places of worship the ancestral temple to the east and an altar to the earth to the west 0 Marketplace to the north of the palace compound 0 no public spaces 0 Chang an Modern Xian O constructed in the 6th century as the capital of the mighty Tang OOOOO Dynasty 0 was among the richest and grandest cities in the world with the urban area covering some 30 square miles 0 plan conforms every respect with the principles articulated in the Kao Gong Ji square layout grid streets three entrance in each side and a 150 footwide treelined central artery leading from the center of the south wall to the palace along the northern side of the city 0 Daming Gong an extension on the northeast side of the city the palace of the Tang emperors l north lmperial Park covering an area larger than that of the ity proper l west and east market areas 0 Tang Chang an known only from archaeology 0 Beijing to accommodate growing population constructed new ninemilelong wall to enclose southern suburbs 0 Much of Beijing is not particularly ancient by Chinese standards almost all of it was executed in keeping with older traditions so city is an excellent threedimensional realization of classical Chinese cityplanning principles 0 Outer city wall gt gates to Inner City and Imperial city gt Forbidden city off limits to common people moats augmented feeling of separation and protection engendered by sequence of walls to outer city inner city imperial city and lastly forbidden city gt paved courtyard wcurved stream crossed by five bridges to Taihe Men Gate gt Taihe Dian continues to north end of forbidden city gt Coal Hill 0 gate to imperial city known as Tian an Men 0 square directly in front of gate greatly enlarged to create space for mass spectacles O Taihe Dian Hall of Supreme Harmony elevated on triple podium 0 Forbidden City now preserved as a museum 0 axial approach between outer city gate and forbidden city unfolds as staged series of spaces giving it dignity and power for the emperors expression of Confucian teachings regarding hierarchy and deference to authority Houses and Gardens 0 ordinary house in Beijing also constructed of wood set within walled compound reached by a gate from the street different halls organized around 1 courtyards compound faced south like Forbidden City traditional chinese house design puts emphasis on family privacy gates identified by family crests and possibly a touch of colourful decoration thin wooden panels wsolid and open sections exterior walls windows heavy paper that could be stored away during summer months for circulation of air 0 Rural areas 0 brickadobe used for construction 0 often had underfloor to provide heat during cold months not suitable for timbermade houses 0 Landscape design DAOIST principles cultivated for a relaxing setting that would foster exploration of thoughts and feelings in a state of meditation upon nature 0 Yin female moon night earth water moisture darkness shadows Q Yang masculine sunshine fire heat brightness solidity 0 Designing landscape considered more intellectual than architectural design Japanese Temple Architecture 0 early influences of China including Buddhism 0 elements of Korea 0 Native religion Shinto the way of the gods natural forces essential to agriculture through rituals and celebrations at shrines 0 Rise of powerful government modeled on that of Tang China Buddhist Temples 0 wood primary building matter bc diagonal bracing more stable than masonry under earthquake conditions 0 Postandlintel building systems based on bracketed construction used for Buddhist temple complex 0 Temple buildings set within courtyard defined by covered perimeter corridor amp made accessible through inner gateway chumon 0 symmetry gives way to balanced asymmetry 0 Golden Hall kondo 5story pagoda repository for religious images 0 Lecture Hall kodo used for instructing monks associated wtemple Q Pagoda contained symbolic relic of Buddha as in Chinese practice 0 Horyuji s pagoda constructed around single wooden support that rises full interior height of building 0 Todaiji Monastery major temple in capital 0 two symmetrically placed 7story pagodas forward of inner courtyard enclosing GoldenGreat Buddha Hall Daibutsuden and kodo all three on axis 0 destroyed amp rebuilt in manner paralleling Song Dynasty China 0 Japan known as Great Buddha style exemplified in Great South Gate 0 eave brackets directly set into supporting columns that linked to each other by succession of tie beams extending as tenons through centers of posts 0 main posts rise to full height of structure where rainbow beams wfrogleg struts stacked to support ridge 0 Pure Land Buddhism erection of halls in estates to house image of Amida O designers of these halls sought to capture magnificence of paradise through elaborate amp richly finished architecture 0 Phoenix Hall Hoodo constructed as part of transformation of existing villa into family temple symmetrical central hall wopen Lshaped wings covered corridor roof places and bracketing system create feeling of upward lift l central hall appears to be 2 stories tall bc of double roof layers actually single high space designed to provide impressive setting for golden wooden statue of Amida l wooden structure painted with golden accents color scheme of panels parallel Chinese practice I side wings 2 stories terminating in gableroof pavilions and capped by turrets at corners of Lshape Shinto Shrines 0 small in scale and modest in architectural character 0 lse Shrine O 2 shrines four miles apart 0 Outer Shrine Geku dedicated to Toyouke goddess of agriculture and earth 0 Inner Shrine Naiku dedicated to Amaterasu goddess of sun 0 layout for each shrine similar l 4 concentric sets of fences around shrine I each enter through gateway torii l buildings symmetrically disposed to each side of central axis l main sanctuary in center I subsidiary buildings contain kitchen and hail of o enngs l white stones cover courtyard where shrine buildings are I cleared area adjacent to shrine 0 architecture evolved from vernacular designs for granaries utilitarian buildings that were raised on posts to protect contents from damp and vermin Q raisedfloor structures characteristic of early imperial palaces 0 Inner Precinct 0 main sanctuary or shoden is raised over a central post that supports the heart of the shrine O boatshaped chest containing mirror emblematic of sun goddess and of imperial family who claimed descent from her 0 only emperor allowed to enter innermost shrine building 0 cypress of wood of shrine unpainted 0 metal ornaments applied on exterior influence of TangDynasty in China 0 Rafter extensions chigi at gable ends recall form of earlier bamboo structures ends lashed together 0 Horizontal tapered logs katsuogi set on top of ridge as weights to keep thatch roof from blowing off in storms became decorative elements whose number signaled importance of building 0 features that originated as practical reflections of construction became highly refined expressions of simplicity with enormous care taken over the smallest details Japanese Houses and Castles Q onestory houses wshops along street frontage for commerce important to governmental activity 0 wooden posts on foundation of stone supporting roof 0 floors were of earth but most houses had one room with wooden floor 0 walls were of lightweight screening wcurtains for sense of privacy 0 windows facing street set above eye level to admit light but prohibit people from looking inside 0 mansions oriented to the south 0 Countryside houses 0 rich array of wooden folk houses minka illustrating regional diversity and premodern living conditions I earth floor section around central hearth source of food and center of food preparations l living section wooden flooring as protection from damp ground I thatch bark split bamboo as high roofs to protect from rain and handle snow I gable peak vents permit smoke to escape l dimensions of tatami determined room proportions and sizes I seldom have symmetry but still have flexibility in plan 0 Castles O rely on timber specialty of Japanese castles O strategic location on promontory massive foundations for central donjon heavily fortified gateways walled enclosures protected by moats O Himeji l concentric layers of walls and moates l encloses residential areas in outer layer l quarters for court retainers in second ring I donjon complex with 4 towers at center 0 maze of passages within central that connects the strongholds to confuse intruders I overhanging galleries at intervals where rocks could be dropped on those below I walls supplied with archer s slits for firing weapons I projecting turrets used for surveillance l donjon framed into two massive staves extending from basement to roof 6 floors above Zen Buddhist Architecture and Its Derivatives Q essence of Zen is enlightenment through meditation 0 Jizodo of Shofukuji oldest Zen temple 0 wooden columns pierced by horizontal tie beams O roof construction uses double structure that presents one pitch and profile on interior amp eave overhang sense of horizontality to building and steeper on exterior where outerroof supports are concealed Q Zen monasteries symmetry and placement of structures for different functions reflected in physical form amp mental discipline expected of monks Q Katsura lmperial Villa 0 elements of nobility as well as concepts from Zen tradition O intended for relaxation reflection creative works contemplation of nature 0 irregular 0 interior spaces governed by tatami module 0 Japanese cedar wood hinoki 0 wood left unfinished gt chestnutgray colour depending on exposure to light and weather 0 somber architecture complemented by artistic layout of gardens around lake 0 Zen stone garden provocatively shaped rocks set in carefully manicured sand representing serene world of mountains and seas that evoke Buddhist universe Teataking symbolizes detached perfection in Zen tradition Tea Houses 0 seldom symmetrical regular 0 constructed to express harmony reverence purity silence O approached by path that enables visitor to view pavilion at the last possible moment 0 rustic elements wooden supports with bark wooden irregular elements 0 reticent eloquent restrained O fuse spiritual and natural world 0 windows eye level when one sits on thick tatami 0 selected treasures displayed on alcove tokonoma with raised floor 0 juxtaposition of texture material and surface in room s interior for spatial harmony that promotes reflection that will achieve inward simplicity and tranquillity of mind 0 principles of Shinto shrines Zen Buddhism
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