PSYC 1000 - Week 12 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 12 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
PSYC 1000 Week 12 Notes April 48 CHAPTER 14 Textbook Notes Introduction to Personality and Psychodynamic Theories (p. 571582) Personality: individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychodynamic theories: view personality by focusing on the unconscious and childhood experiences Psychoanalysis: Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to subconscious motives and conflicts Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious by relaxing and saying whatever comes to mind Freud's view of personality as effort to resolve conflict Id: unconscious, pleasure principle Ego: partly conscious, reality principle Executive, mediates between Id and Superego Superego: moral compass/conscience Psychosexual stages: Freud's theory that childhood exists in a series of stages, each focused on an erogenous zone Defense mechanisms: the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Projective tests: personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of thoughts (not very reliable or valid) Humanistic Theories and Trait Theories (p. 583594) Humanistic theories: view personality with a focus on the potential for personal growth Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior Personality inventory: a questionnaire used to assess selected personality traits Big Five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion SocialCognitive Theories and the Self (p. 595607) Socialcognitive perspective: views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and social context Reciprocal determinism: the interacting influences of behavior, social cognition, and environment Selfserving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably Personal Control (p. 501503) Learned helplessness: conditioned feelings of passive resignation Causes increase of stress hormones and decreased health External locus of control: perception that chance or outside forces determine our fate Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate Lecture Notes Freud's psychoanalytic theory, measuring the unconscious Projective personality tests: tests that employ ambiguous stimuli to evoke responses that reveal facets of someone's personality Thematic Apperception test: people asked to tell a story about ambiguous pictures Rorschach inkblot test: people asked to interpret ambiguous inkblots Problems Subjective interpretation Lacking in reliability and validity No way to score/objectively interpret answers Critiques/problems of the psychoanalytic approach Unscientific Does not provide testable predictions Not supported by research Humanistic Approach Optimistic approach; sees people as intrinsically good Innate drive to fulfill potential (selfactualization tendency) Rogers' PersonCentered theory: people strive for growth as long as they encounter supportive environments (quality of relationships) Requirements for personal growth Genuineness, empathy, and acceptance Acceptance types: conditional positive regard (love with strings attached) vs. unconditional positive regard (love despite flaws) Only unconditional positive regard supports personal growth according to Rogers; pretending to be someone you're not to gain acceptance will thwart personal growth Critiques of Humanistic Approach Unrealistic, vague Trait Approach Personality is a combination of traits Traits: specific, stable, and internal characteristics Trait theories differ in defining the fundamental dimensions of personality Research techniques Questionnaires Factor analysis: statistically correlated clusters of items; identifies patterns of how people answer questions Grouped together on one trait dimension Reflect basic traits Eysenck's Trait Theory Two fundamental dimensions of personality Introversion/Extroversion and Emotional Stability (relaxed)/Instability (anxious) Biological basis Inherited levels of brain and autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity Extraverts Inherit low baseline levels of arousal, so they seek out more stimulation to bring arousal to a higher level Positive emotions, more likely to wear stylish clothing and decorate offices Introverts Inherit high baseline levels of arousal, so they don't need extra arousal because they are easily overaroused More neutral emotions, more likely to be sensitive to punishment and choose comfort over style Lemon juice experiment: introverts salivate more to a drop of lemon juice on tongue because they have more reactive nervous systems Gray's Biopsychological Trait theory: personality arises from two interrelated brain systems Behavioral approach system (BAS): sensitivity for reward People with high BAS experience rewards more intensely than others, so they are more likely to seek out reward Vulnerable to impulsivity (reward > punishment) Behavioral inhibition system (BIS): sensitivity to punishment People with high BIS experience punishment more intensely, so they are strongly motivated to avoid punishment People differ in the relative sensitivities of their BAS and BIS; people can be high on both or low on both Supported by scientific research Big Five Model of Personality: there are 5 main trait dimensions for personality Conscientiousness (disorganized/impulsive vs. organized/careful) Agreeableness (ruthless/uncooperative vs. softhearted/helpful) Neuroticism [emotional instability] (calm/secure vs. anxious/insecure) Openness (practical/conforming vs. imaginative/independent) Extraversion Objective personality tests: test that consists of clear questions that can be objectively scored Come in the form of personality inventories: tests that measure several traits at once Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised (NEOPIR): reliable, valid, predicts social status, career success, and criminal activity Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Assesses psychological disorders SocialCognitive Approach Interaction between personality, thinking, behavior, and the situation Bandura and reciprocal influences Personality and environment influence each other; personalities are shaped by life experiences, and personalities influence environment by choice of friends and activities and spaces Rotter's expectancy theory: we behave according to our expectation of results Depends on our feelings of personal control Internal locus of control: fate is selfdetermined; associated with health, wellbeing, and achievement External locus of control: fate is out of your control; associated with depression and learned helplessness Learned helplessness: tendency to give up on efforts to control events after previous efforts failed Seligman & Maier's dog shock experiment Exploring the self Selfesteem: feelings of selfworth Optimal level No relationship between selfesteem and GPA, but yes relationship between selfesteem and happiness/talkativeness Positive correlation between unrealistically high selfesteem (defensive selfesteem) and violence/aggression Defensive selfesteem: fragile, insecure, and easily threatened Secure selfesteem: secure Selfserving bias: tendency to think highly of ourselves Reflected in tendencies to take credit when things go well and to blame circumstances when things go wrong Tendency to think we are more attractive than we actually are Tendency to remember the past in selfenhancing ways Positive correlation with selfesteem Less pronounced in Asian cultures Optimal level; people with depression often lack selfserving bias Betterthanaverage effect: tendency to think of ourselves as being above average CHAPTER 15 Psychological disorder = psychopathology Ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning, deviate from the norm, and cause distress or disrupt lives Deviant, dysfunctional, and disruptive No clear boundary between mental health and mental illness Abnormal psychology: subset of psychology that deals with psychological disorders Nearly half of people in the US will meet the criteria of a disorder in their lifetime Most people experience symptoms by mid20's Biopsychosocial approach Interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors Biological factors: neurotransmitter imbalance, genes, hormonal imbalance, physical illness, and drug use Psychological factors: selfesteem, interpretation of events Social factors: stress, poverty, and relationships Psychological disorders twice as prevalent in people living in poverty (stress, lack of healthcare, psychological disorders causing poverty) Culture Disorders take on different forms in different cultures Depression manifested as physical symptoms in China Boys tend to externalize; girls tend to internalize Culturegeneral disorders: disorders found in all cultures; symptoms may differ somewhat but clearly the same disorder (depression, schizophrenia) Culturespecific/culturebound disorders: disorders specific to particular cultures (anorexia, bulemia) Diathesisstress model Diathesis: predisposition Individuals have various degrees of predisposition for various disorders, coming from genes and early experiences in life Disorders depend on degree of predisposition and amount of stress Explains rise in psychological disorders after major traumatic event DSM5 Classification System Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Provides criteria for each psychological disorder Provides consistency for diagnoses Research based Problems: labeling and stigmatization (diagnosed people can experience different treatment) Anxiety disorders Psychological symptoms: worrying, fear, nervousness, irritability, and difficulty concentrating Physical symptoms: enhanced sympathetic nervous system activation (shaking, increased heart rate, sweating) Biological factors Genetic predisposition Neurotransmitter imbalances Brain and autonomic nervous system sensitivity and reactivity Psychological and social factors Neuroticism Attentional bias: more likely to notice and remember possibly threatening stimuli More likely to interpret ambiguous situations as being threatening Low selfefficacy (one's perception of their own ability to cope with difficult situations) Stressful events Learned fear, avoidance is negative reinforcement Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive and longlasting anxiety for no particular reason ("freefloating") Exaggerated startle response: show more of a reaction when startled Hypervigilant: constantly monitoring environment for possible threat Distractibility, irritability, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness Comorbid with depression Panic Disorder: recurring, unpredictable panic attacks Panic attack: sudden attack of extreme, intense, anxiety May lead to agoraphobia: fear of situations in which escape may be difficult or in which help might not be available Specific Phobia: strong, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, where the fear is disproportionate to the threat Avoidance of what they are afraid of; if avoidance disrupts life, then it is a phobia Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people's judgments Avoidance of social situations PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): jumpy, onedge, irritable, withdrawn, experience flashbacks, nightmares, and insomnia Common among individuals who have experienced horrific, uncontrollable events Veterans, victims of sexual assault Vulnerability (those with high neuroticism and sensitive/reactive nervous systems) ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder (OCD): urge to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors Obsessions: intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts Create anxiety Compulsions: irresistible urges, repetitive behaviors Provide temporary relief Timeconsuming Genetic predispositions, imbalances in neurotransmitters (serotonin, glutamate), neuroticism, stress Major Depressive Disorder: feeling sad/hopeless most of the time, for a period of at least two weeks Psychological symptoms: sadness, guilt, low selfesteem, pessimism, anxiety, poor concentration, isolation, and anhedonia (lack/loss of pleasure) Physical symptoms: change in eating and sleeping, pain, low energy, weakened immune system Recurrent episodes Triggered by stressful events Biological factors: genetic predisposition, imbalances in neurotransmitters (lack of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine), increased stress response Psychological and social factors: neuroticism, reaction to negative and positive events, learned helplessness and external locus of control, perfectionism, negative explanatory style (lack of selfserving bias), and stress
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