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PSYC 1000 - Week 12 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 12 Notes Psyc 1000-04

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Lecture and textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
PSYC 1000 Week 12 Notes ­ April 4­8 CHAPTER 14 Textbook Notes Introduction to Personality and Psychodynamic Theories (p. 571­582)  ­ Personality: individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting ­ Psychodynamic theories: view personality by focusing on the unconscious and  childhood experiences ­ Psychoanalysis: Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to subconscious motives and conflicts ­ Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious by relaxing and  saying whatever comes to mind ­ Freud's view of personality as effort to resolve conflict ­ Id: unconscious, pleasure principle ­ Ego: partly conscious, reality principle ­ Executive, mediates between Id and Superego ­ Superego: moral compass/conscience ­ Psychosexual stages: Freud's theory that childhood exists in a series of  stages, each focused on an erogenous zone ­ Defense mechanisms: the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety  by unconsciously distorting reality ­ Projective tests: personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to  trigger projection of thoughts (not very reliable or valid) Humanistic Theories and Trait Theories (p. 583­594) ­ Humanistic theories: view personality with a focus on the potential for personal  growth ­ Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior ­ Personality inventory: a questionnaire used to assess selected personality traits ­ Big Five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism,  openness, and extraversion Social­Cognitive Theories and the Self (p. 595­607) ­ Social­cognitive perspective: views behavior as influenced by the interaction  between people's traits and social context ­ Reciprocal determinism: the interacting influences of behavior, social cognition,  and environment ­ Self­serving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably Personal Control (p. 501­503) ­ Learned helplessness: conditioned feelings of passive resignation ­ Causes increase of stress hormones and decreased health ­ External locus of control: perception that chance or outside forces determine our fate ­ Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate Lecture Notes Freud's psychoanalytic theory, measuring the unconscious ­ Projective personality tests: tests that employ ambiguous stimuli to evoke  responses that reveal facets of someone's personality ­ Thematic Apperception test: people asked to tell a story about  ambiguous pictures ­ Rorschach inkblot test: people asked to interpret ambiguous inkblots ­ Problems ­ Subjective interpretation ­ Lacking in reliability and validity ­ No way to score/objectively interpret answers ­ Critiques/problems of the psychoanalytic approach ­ Unscientific ­ Does not provide testable predictions ­ Not supported by research Humanistic Approach ­ Optimistic approach; sees people as intrinsically good ­ Innate drive to fulfill potential (self­actualization tendency) ­ Rogers' Person­Centered theory: people strive for growth as long as they  encounter supportive environments (quality of relationships) ­ Requirements for personal growth ­ Genuineness, empathy, and acceptance ­ Acceptance types: conditional positive regard (love with  strings attached) vs. unconditional positive regard (love despite flaws) ­ Only unconditional positive regard supports personal growth  according to Rogers; pretending to be someone you're not to gain acceptance will thwart  personal growth ­ Critiques of Humanistic Approach ­ Unrealistic, vague Trait Approach ­ Personality is a combination of traits ­ Traits: specific, stable, and internal characteristics ­ Trait theories differ in defining the fundamental dimensions of personality ­ Research techniques ­ Questionnaires ­ Factor analysis: statistically correlated clusters of items; identifies  patterns of how people answer questions ­ Grouped together on one trait dimension ­ Reflect basic traits ­ Eysenck's Trait Theory ­ Two fundamental dimensions of personality ­ Introversion/Extroversion and Emotional Stability  (relaxed)/Instability (anxious) ­ Biological basis ­ Inherited levels of brain and autonomic nervous system arousal  and reactivity ­ Extraverts  ­ Inherit low baseline levels of arousal, so they seek out  more stimulation to bring arousal to a higher level ­ Positive emotions, more likely to wear stylish clothing  and decorate offices ­ Introverts  ­ Inherit high baseline levels of arousal, so they don't need  extra arousal because they are easily over­aroused ­ More neutral emotions, more likely to be sensitive to  punishment and choose comfort over style ­ Lemon juice experiment: introverts salivate more to a drop of  lemon juice on tongue because they have more reactive nervous systems ­ Gray's Bio­psychological Trait theory: personality arises from two interrelated  brain systems ­ Behavioral approach system (BAS): sensitivity for reward ­ People with high BAS experience rewards more intensely than  others, so they are more likely to seek out reward ­ Vulnerable to impulsivity (reward > punishment) ­ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS): sensitivity to punishment ­ People with high BIS experience punishment more intensely, so  they are strongly motivated to avoid punishment  ­ People differ in the relative sensitivities of their BAS and BIS; people  can be high on both or low on both ­ Supported by scientific research Big Five Model of Personality: there are 5 main trait dimensions for personality ­ Conscientiousness (disorganized/impulsive vs. organized/careful) ­ Agreeableness (ruthless/uncooperative vs. soft­hearted/helpful) ­ Neuroticism [emotional instability] (calm/secure vs. anxious/insecure) ­ Openness (practical/conforming vs. imaginative/independent) ­ Extraversion Objective personality tests: test that consists of clear questions that can be objectively  scored ­ Come in the form of personality inventories: tests that measure several traits at  once ­ Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised  (NEO­PI­R): reliable, valid, predicts social status, career success, and criminal activity ­ Minnesota Multiphasic ­ Personality Inventory (MMPI) ­ Assesses psychological disorders Social­Cognitive Approach ­ Interaction between personality, thinking, behavior, and the situation ­ Bandura and reciprocal influences ­ Personality and environment influence each other; personalities  are shaped by life experiences, and personalities influence environment by choice of  friends and activities and spaces ­ Rotter's expectancy theory: we behave according to our expectation of  results ­ Depends on our feelings of personal control ­ Internal locus of control: fate is self­determined; associated with  health, well­being, and achievement ­ External locus of control: fate is out of your control; associated  with depression and learned helplessness ­ Learned helplessness: tendency to give up on efforts to control  events after previous efforts failed ­ Seligman & Maier's dog shock experiment Exploring the self ­ Self­esteem: feelings of self­worth ­ Optimal level ­ No relationship between self­esteem and GPA, but yes relationship  between self­esteem and happiness/talkativeness ­ Positive correlation between unrealistically high self­esteem (defensive  self­esteem) and violence/aggression ­ Defensive self­esteem: fragile, insecure, and easily threatened ­ Secure self­esteem: secure ­ Self­serving bias: tendency to think highly of ourselves ­ Reflected in tendencies to take credit when things go well and to blame  circumstances when things go wrong ­ Tendency to think we are more attractive than we actually are ­ Tendency to remember the past in self­enhancing ways ­ Positive correlation with self­esteem ­ Less pronounced in Asian cultures ­ Optimal level; people with depression often lack self­serving bias ­ Better­than­average effect: tendency to think of ourselves as being above  average CHAPTER 15 ­ Psychological disorder = psychopathology ­ Ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning,  deviate from the norm, and cause distress or disrupt lives ­ Deviant, dysfunctional, and disruptive ­ No clear boundary between mental health and mental illness ­ Abnormal psychology: subset of psychology that deals with psychological  disorders ­ Nearly half of people in the US will meet the criteria of a disorder in their  lifetime ­ Most people experience symptoms by mid­20's ­ Bio­psychosocial approach ­ Interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors ­ Biological factors: neurotransmitter imbalance, genes, hormonal  imbalance, physical illness, and drug use ­ Psychological factors: self­esteem, interpretation of events ­ Social factors: stress, poverty, and relationships ­ Psychological disorders twice as prevalent in people  living in poverty (stress, lack of healthcare, psychological disorders causing poverty) ­ Culture ­ Disorders take on different forms in different cultures ­ Depression manifested as physical symptoms in China ­ Boys tend to externalize; girls tend to internalize ­ Culture­general disorders: disorders found in all cultures;  symptoms may differ somewhat but clearly the same disorder (depression, schizophrenia) ­ Culture­specific/culture­bound disorders: disorders specific to  particular cultures (anorexia, bulemia) Diathesis­stress model ­ Diathesis: predisposition ­ Individuals have various degrees of predisposition for various disorders, coming  from genes and early experiences in life ­ Disorders depend on degree of predisposition and amount of stress ­ Explains rise in psychological disorders after major traumatic event DSM­5 Classification System ­ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ­ Provides criteria for each psychological disorder ­ Provides consistency for diagnoses ­ Research based ­ Problems: labeling and stigmatization (diagnosed people can experience  different treatment) Anxiety disorders ­ Psychological symptoms: worrying, fear, nervousness, irritability, and difficulty  concentrating ­ Physical symptoms: enhanced sympathetic nervous system activation (shaking,  increased heart rate, sweating) ­ Biological factors ­ Genetic predisposition ­ Neurotransmitter imbalances ­ Brain and autonomic nervous system sensitivity and reactivity ­ Psychological and social factors ­ Neuroticism ­ Attentional bias: more likely to notice and remember possibly  threatening stimuli ­ More likely to interpret ambiguous situations as being threatening ­ Low self­efficacy (one's perception of their own ability to cope with  difficult situations) ­ Stressful events ­ Learned fear, avoidance is negative reinforcement ­ Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive and long­lasting anxiety for no  particular reason ("free­floating") ­ Exaggerated startle response: show more of a reaction when startled ­ Hyper­vigilant: constantly monitoring environment for possible threat ­ Distractibility, irritability, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness ­ Co­morbid with depression ­ Panic Disorder: recurring, unpredictable panic attacks ­ Panic attack: sudden attack of extreme, intense, anxiety ­ May lead to agoraphobia: fear of situations in which escape may be  difficult or in which help might not be available  ­ Specific Phobia: strong, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, where the fear is disproportionate to the threat ­ Avoidance of what they are afraid of; if avoidance disrupts life, then it is  a phobia ­ Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people's judgments ­ Avoidance of social situations ­ Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): jumpy, on­edge, irritable, withdrawn,  experience flashbacks, nightmares, and insomnia ­ Common among individuals who have experienced horrific,  uncontrollable events ­ Veterans, victims of sexual assault ­ Vulnerability (those with high neuroticism and sensitive/reactive nervous systems) ­ Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder (OCD): urge to engage in repetitive, ritualistic  behaviors ­ Obsessions: intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts ­ Create anxiety ­ Compulsions: irresistible urges, repetitive behaviors ­ Provide temporary relief ­ Time­consuming ­ Genetic predispositions, imbalances in neurotransmitters (serotonin,  glutamate), neuroticism, stress ­ Major Depressive Disorder: feeling sad/hopeless most of the time, for a period  of at least two weeks ­ Psychological symptoms: sadness, guilt, low self­esteem, pessimism,  anxiety, poor concentration, isolation, and anhedonia (lack/loss of pleasure) ­ Physical symptoms: change in eating and sleeping, pain, low energy,  weakened immune system ­ Recurrent episodes ­ Triggered by stressful events ­ Biological factors: genetic predisposition, imbalances in  neurotransmitters (lack of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine), increased stress  response ­ Psychological and social factors: neuroticism, reaction to negative and  positive events, learned helplessness and external locus of control, perfectionism,  negative explanatory style (lack of self­serving bias), and stress


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