Introduction to Microbiology for the Veterinary Technician
Introduction to Microbiology for the Veterinary Technician CPB 35100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennie Edmanson on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPB 35100 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Tracy Vemulapalli in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see Microbiology for Veterinary Technicians in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Gram Positive Aerobic Rods The Sequel Erysipelothrix Mycobacterium Rhodococcus l Erysipelothrix a Gram Positive nonspore forming b Facultative anaerobe c Nonmotile d Host i Swine ii Turkeys iii Humans e E rhusiopathiae i Reservoir 1 Environmental 2 Healthy animals a GI tract b Lymphoid tissue 3 Scorpion fish 4 Lobster ii Transmission 1 Direct a Ingestion b Wound infection f Swine Erysipelas i Transmission 1 Usually ingestion rooting with snout or wound tail ii If becomes septicemic 1 Young pigs a Die acutely 2 Chronic market weight or older a Arthritis b Heart valve disease c Abortion 3 Diamond skin a Can occur concurrent with both acute and chronic phases iii Prevention 1 Vaccine a Sowsgilts prebreeding b Boars 2Xyr c Grower pigs 2 Age segregation a Allin allout is best g ZOONOTIC i Erysipeloid Who gets it 1 Veterinarians 2 Abattoir workers fish farms 3 Fish handlers ii Signs 1 Will usually see redness and swelling at the entry site which is in most cases the hands 2 Rhodococcus equi a Coccobacillus Gram positive i Starts out as a definitive rod the longer it is incubated the shorter the rod gets the more coccobacillus shape b Weakly acidfast i Due to mycolic acid c Mucoid colonies with late pigment production i Will see blackishbrownish pigmentation within the colony d Facultative intracellular pathogen i Has the ability to live extracellularly also e Environment i High summer temps dry dusty ii Sandy soil iii Dusty conditions iv Manure and discharge from pneumonic foals is a HUGE source of infective bacteria contaminating the environment f Pulmonary Abscesses i Slowly progressive LOWER respiratory infection 1 Breathing difficulty loss of appetite diarrhea fever 2 Bilateral nasal discharge coughing ii Suppurative pneumonia with extensive abscesses in foals iii THIS IS A DISEASE OF FOALS lt OR EQUAL TO 6 MONTHS OLD g Zoonosis i Pneumonia in immunosuppressed human due to R equi is common ii Unclear if animals represent source of infection to man or the other way around h Samples i Tracheal wash 1 This is the BEST MOST DIAGNOSTIC sample to take but also the MOST DANGEROUS and may potentially kill the foal 2 If you can get a sample and you gram stain a Will see neutrophils with lots of mucus b Short gram positive rods ii Tracheal aspirate iii Nasal swab iv Culture of exudate 1 Pure heavy growth of R equi i Treatment i Intracellular pathogen 1 CHALLENGING ii Treatment is long lasting 410 weeks iii Prognosis 1 7090 recovery especially if caught early 2 The impact of infection on future athletic performance is still debated iv BUTTTT 1 The disease is not usually recognized until well advanced and is therefore DIFFICULT TO TREAT j Prevention i NO VACCINE ii Husbandry 1 Decrease exposure decrease dust formation 3 Mycobacterium a Acidfast bacteria 139 Retains carbon fuchsin ii Appears red or pink I Nonacidfast bacteria 139 Accept methylene blue counterstain ii Appear blue 6 Lipid rich cell wall mycolic acids do NOT gram stain well d Pathogenesis 139 Ability to survive INSIDE macrophages ii Pathology 1 Caseous cheeselike necrosis 2 Granulomas a Common in lymph nodes and organs 9 Body s attempt to wall off disease 6 Caseous center d Covered by a thick fibrous capsule e calcification of center 6 M bovis Bovine TB 139 Host 1 Cattle buffalo ii Reservoir 1 Maintenance host iii Transmission 1 Inhalation 2 Ingestion 3 Wounds rare 4 Crowding and stress increase changes of transmission and disease iv ZOONOTIC I Ingestion can cause cervical lymph node infection which can potentially spread to bones and joints Active eradication program in US to eliminate bovine TB Most states are free of bovine TB except CA MI NM MN REPORTABLE Incubation period 1 Symptoms usually take months to develop b Infections remain dormant for year and reactive during 540535 period of stress and old age 5 Infection 1 Often asymptomatic b Most infections are identified early i Symptomatic infections are uncommon 0 Chronic debilitating disease progressive emaciation 6 Diagnosis 1 Two skin tests i Caudal fold by tail head ii Comparative cervical 7 Laboratory diagnosis 1 Direct smears from clinical samples or tissues can be stained with ZiehlNeelsen stain b Mycobacteria grow slowly and cultures are incubated for at least 8 weeks 8 Treatment 1 NOT TREATED b Test and slaughter techniques f Mycobacterium avium subsp Paratuberculosis i Chronic disease of ruminants ii Clinical signs 1 Irreversible wasting 2 Diarrhea 3 Death iii J ohne s Disease 1 Common name most farmers will actually know iv Transmission 1 Fecaloral a Shedding can begin before clinical signs b Asymptomatic carriers may shed intermittently vi vii viii 2 Resistant to environmental conditions a Can survive on pastures for gt 1 year Incubation 1 Months to years Zoonotic 1 Con icting data if it is causative agent of Crohn s disease a Chronic enteritis in humans of unknown etiology 9 b Clinical signs are diarrhea and wasting away Samples 1 Feces 2 Tissues 3 Culture the samples Treatment 1 REPORTABLE 2 No satisfactory treatment available
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