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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Xiang Huang on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ELCS 6370 at a university taught by Dr. Alison Wells in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Educational Research Fundamentals for the Consumer I Chapter 1 Introduction to Research in Education Why Research develops critical thinking and evaluation skills to examine arguments and claims made by others enables a more complete more accurate understanding of educational research improves understanding of educational research reports in the media contributes to knowledge of best practice improves decision making informs educational policy improves educational practices fosters the ability to ask the right questions Sources of Knowledge 1 Personal experience and intuition limitations personal bias inaccurate interpretations subjective 2 Tradition reliance on tradition makes accepting new knowledge difficult and may mitigate our desire to question existing practices 3 Experts Authority authorities can be wrong 4 Logic logic by itself can t generate facts 5 Research systematic process of gathering interpreting analyzing and reporting information is systematic disciplined inquiry applied to educational problems and questions CD Objectivity in observation data collection and reporting of results 23 Control of personal bias so that a researcher s personal prejudices beliefs desires and attitudes do not in uence the research and conclusions 3 Precision to provide detailed specific definitions and descriptions Parsimony to provide the least complicated explanation C5 Tentative conclusions that are open to change Verification of findings through replication Openness to scrutiny by others Logic inductive anddeductive to provide meaning The Nature of Scientific Inquiry systematic testable and objective Purpose of Scientific Inquiry Scientific educational research evidencebased policy and practice a Education Sciences IES b What Works Clearinghouse c Scientific Research in Education the purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop knowledge describe phenomena examine empirical relationships between or among phenomena test Whether such relationships are causal in nature Principles of Scientific Inquiry l Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically evidence that is observable 2 Link research to relevant theory explains relationship among phenomena 3 Use methods that permit direct investigation of the question 4 Provide a coherent explicit and evidencebased chain of reasoning 5 Replicate and generalize across studies 6 disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny critique and peer revieW Applying Systematic Inquiry to Education Question I Method I Results I Conclusions use of results in other situations With other individuals Types of Educational Research educational research is often described as either guantitative or gualitative emphasizes numbers measurements deductive logic control and experiments emphasizes natural settings understanding verbal narratives and exible designs studies using both quantitative and qualitative methods plan for carrying out a study Quantitative Research Designs no manipulation of factors that may in uence subjects descriptive simple information about the frequency or amount of sth comparative examine the differences between groups on a variable of interest correlational relationships among two or more variables causal comparative whether a naturally occurring intervention affects an outcome of interest manipulation of factors that may in uence subjects subjects have been randomly assigned to different groups does not have random assignment an experiment with a single person or a few individuals Qualitative Research Designs to fully understand the essence of some phenomenon e g What is essential for students to view teachers as caring a description and interpretation of a cultural or social group system ethnographers spend extensive time in the setting being studied and use observations interviews and other analyses to understand the nature of the culture Case Studies concern indepth study of a single or a few programs events activities groups or other entities defined in terms of time and place to generate or discover a theory or schema that relates to a particular environment e g How do students with learning disabilities adapt to being in regular classrooms focus on marginalized people with investigations of injustice and inequity 3 MixedMethod Research Designs the use of quantitative and qualitative designs and methods Within a single study Analytical Research Designs a mode of inquiry in which events ideas concepts or artifacts are investigated by analyzing documents records recordings and other media Historical analysis a systematic gathering and criticism of documents records and artifacts to provide a description and interpretation of past events or persons Legal analysis focuses on selected laws and court decisions to examine how legal precedents in uence educational practice Concept analysis is concerned with implications and applications of the meaning and usage of educational concepts eg highstakes testing performance assessment and mainstreaming Basic Applied Evaluation and Action Research 1 Basic research pure research fundamental research formulates and refines theories eg How the memory system works language development and social development 2 Applied research improves practice and solves practical problems eg compare different teaching styles identify characteristics of effective schools or examine the effect of lengthening the school day on student achievement 3 Action research investigates specific classroom problems CD Individual teacher research 23 Collaborative action research 3 Schoolwide action research 4 Evaluation research judgments for decision making Type I Purpose I Example Quantitative To describe phenomena numerically to The relationship between amount of homework answer specific questions or hypotheses and student achievement Qualitative To provide rich narrative descriptions of Observations of school renewal teams to phenomena that enhance understanding understand the role of parents MixedMethod To study phenomena using both From a randomly selected sample use surveys and quantitative and qualitative methods interviews to study atrisk students NoneXperimental To describe compare and predict Determine the relationship between socioeconomic phenomena without actively manipulating status and student attitudes factors that in uence the phenomena Experimental To determine the causal relationship Determine which of two approaches to teaching between two or more phenomena by direct science results in the highest student achievement manipulation of factors that in uence the phenomena Basic To increase knowledge and understanding Understand how feedback affects motivation or of phenomena learning styles of adolescents Applied To solve practical educational problems Determine the best approach for training teachers to use portfolios for classroom assessment Action To improve practice in a school or Determine which grouping procedure results in the classroom highest achievement Evaluation To make a decision about a program or Decide whether to keep or phase out a activity prekindergarten program Research Ethics 1 The primary investigator of a study is responsible for the ethical standards to which the study adheres 2 The investigator should inform subjects of all aspects of the research that might in uence their willingness to participate 3 The investigator should be as open and honest with subjects as possible which usually requires full disclosure sometimes deception is necessary and not unethical in which case participants are usually debriefed after the study 4 Subjects must be protected from physical and mental discomfort harm and danger There should be minimal risk to those participating 5 Often informed consent must be obtained from the subjects prior to gathering data In most studies of children parental consent is required 6 Subjects may discontinue participation at any time without penalty or risk 7 Subjects should never be coerced to participate participation must be voluntary 8 Unless otherwise agreed to data should be anonymous andconfidential Participant privacy should be protected 9 For research conducted through an institution such as a university approval for conducting the research should be obtained before data are collected this often means obtaining permission from an internal review board IRB prior to data collection 10 Potential benefits to a control group should be identified Educational Research Article Report Format Title and Authors Abstract the abstract in journal articles is typically 50150 words long and is often set in smaller type than or a different font from the rest of the article the abstract is a brief summary of the entire study including the problem methods used and major findings Introduction one to several paragraphs in length including a statement of the context for the research the significance of the research and the general or specific research problem investigated in qualitative articles you will find a foreshadowed problem rather than specific questions Review of literature typically several paragraphs long summarizes and analyzes previous research on the same problem a good review critiques the studies and shows how the findings relate to the problem being investigated Specific research question or hypothesis quantitative specific narrow questions and hypotheses qualitative general foreshadowed questions Method and Design in this section the researchers indicate who was studied how the information was obtained and in the case of an experiment interventions or manipulation Results how the researcher analyzed the data and they present the results this section should be an objective reporting of what was found without interpretation or discussion Discussion researcher explain their results Conclusions summary statements that re ect the overall answers to the research questions or Whether or not the research hypotheses are supported inference derived from the results weaknesses in the study and the relationship of the results to preVious studies References a list of the sources cited in the report
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