Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes HIST 2340W
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Week 4 Notes of Readings Discussion America s opportunity in Asia 0 0 American was overproducing Should have access to their own ports not necessary to pass through Britain imports Measure to increase both of their markets Says that the world has become smallerquot more attainable for global change Britain and Germany were USA greatest competitors of American in uence and they often quotmisledquot trade by filtering their direct trade with China by making them indirect Theodore Roosevelt s Speech at Charleston 0 O 0 Concept of nation building unify the country to work towards one common goal Anti isolationism should expand American in uence overseas He wants to expand the industrial capabilities of USA He is proud of accomplishments in Cuba saved them from Spanish dominance Talking about American exceptionalism 9 setting the American example and that they can work anywhere Changes the bad connotation of imperialism if it is beneficial it should be persuaded Mentions Isthmian canal connect USA to China and implies stronger relations with Asia Roosevelt s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine O 0 Lecture Outlines duty to directly interfere in matters of countries that are not civilized and need the component of freedom USA should use their forces to intervene if there is no intention of providing and keeping the force necessary to back up a strong attitude then it is far better not to assume such an attitudequot Should first try to arbitrate but if the intervention Designates the American role as international policequot Give them right to interference glorifies military army and navy Theodore Roosevelt s Foreign Policy 0 I Comes from an aristocratic background I Roles of Spanish American war I Writes autobio and becomes national hero The white house as Bully Pulpit O O O O I Believed that the president needed to decide which foreign policy was in the interest of the nation and shape domestic opinion behind that particular policy Centralization of Decision Making I Gave more power to the President s office Executive Agreements I Gave more power to the Executive power I He created executive agreements USA president and head of state to get passed the voting in Congress Idea of Duty Idea of Civilization Roosevelt s speech 0 USA has to participate in world s affairs in order to prevent competing powers to do so They can determine the political duty of the world USA has a moral obligation to become involved in international affairs and play an active role in shaping the course of history We cannot be isolationists obligation to be involved internationally different from other presidents Says that British imperialism is beneficial to the areas that were colonized Benefits the world as a whole part of a broader local cause spread of civilization throughout the world this was American s duty USA was unique and exceptional did not engage imperialism the same way Europeans did Inspired from England s footsteps admitted that USA was part of Global Agenda and taking away the White man s burdenquot it was their obligation in playing a role in the world s politics He was realistic did not emphasize all differences from the USA to Britain embraces admiration towards Britain s politics and should obtain their positive aspects of imperialism Panama Canal 0 O O HayHerran Treaty January 22 1903 I Negotiated with the government of Colombia perpetual rights to build the canal But they refuse to ratify the treaty November 1903 Panamanian Separatists Declare independence USS Nashville sent to assist separatists HayBunau Varilla treaty O O Signed November 18 1903 US receives exclusive possession of canal zone 5 miles on each side of canal in perpetuity Panama Canal completed 1914 I Part of the grand task of spreading civilization around the world I If countries did not cooperate USA must act case of Colombia this justifies the use of American intervention in foreign government and military use intervention The Roosevelt Corollary 0 1902 Venezuela Crisis I USA was bothered by Venezuela s prices I Left a negative taste in Theodore s mouth 0 Crisis in Santo Domingo I 19049 Santo Domingo crisis they were indebted to European powers and could not pay the debt USA sends troops to Santo Domingo and collected money to pay European debt I It was satisfactory to all and afterwards gave the justification that became famous I Saved the country s from economic bankruptcy 0 US has right of international police power in Western Hemisphere If the country keeps order then USA should not interference But chaos uncivilized will lead to USA intervention may force USA to exercise international police powerquot Instability will lead to USA intervention or intervention from a civilized country I USA will intervene to keep civilization they have such quotobligationquot I Monroe doctrine never states that there is an obligation to intervene They have obligation to use international police power in western hemisphere Give USA tremendous amount of capacity and quotrightquot to intervene Russo Iapanese War 19041905 0 Japan attacks Russian position in Port Arthur and Manchuria after Tsar Nicholas refuses to recognize Iapan special interest in Manchuria I They have been reluctant to admit Iapanese in uence in Korea I Series of surprise Iapanese naval attacks in the Pacific They were very effective Destroys Russia s pacific eet Roosevelt letter O O 0000 Japan gained civilized nation s respect Japan is establishing their sovereignty over the pacific over their own lands USA has political interests in Japan see Japan as an equal Lend money to Japan to fight and win Opportunity for Japan to spread civilization Role that USA has a special duty to play 0 Did not want Japan to grow too much otherwise will be another competitor for the USA Treaty of Portsmouth 0 Japan special rights in Korea 0 0 Japan gains control over southern half Sakhalin Island Russia does not gave to pay indemnity o All sides affirm support for open door policy TaftKatsura Agreement 0 O O 0 Not really an quotagreementquot but a series of notes Taft recognized that Japanese protectorate over Korea would be beneficial Iapan claimed no aggressive designs on Philippines Negotiations conducted in secrecy Not discovered until 1924 by historian Tyler Dennett Gentlemen s agreement 0 0 Background I Iapanese immigration to US had been increasing since 1860s I Japanese and Korean Exclusion league I Efforts to ban Japanese and Korean children from San Francisco schools I Iapan denounced segregation TR negotiates with San Francisco school board Iapanese immigrant will strop if Iapanese children were allowed to attend public schools TR negotiates with Japan japan agrees not to allow emigration to US if Iapanese citizens were treated equally Major contributions of TR 0 Development and implementation not only had an interest but a duty to interfere with foreign policies 0 USA lacked the power to modernize without globalization so it was important not to become isolationists o Became basis for 20th century American foreign policy Class 2 Dollar diplomacy Has a powerful humanitarian motive to it Investment banks became internationalized Cooperation between public and private sectors Taft s speeches dollar diplomacy Taft and the dollar diplomacy o Tremendous growth created a real factor in its economic growth 0 Holds out the idea of duty that every American wants to embody towards the world O substitutes dollars for bulletsquot9 USA will use its commercial power to increase world s in uence I Will bring economic development and bring peace and stability to the world I Like Roosevelt he wants to be a spreader of ideals through economic means Case 1 Honduras 0 Has been defaulting on debt to Great Britain since 1870 O 0 US interest in Honduras mining and fruit companies I USA subsidized Honduras s debts provide a loan to Honduras I Honduras needs to open their markets for American educational economic aspects KnoxParedes loan convention giving customs houses 1911 Case 11 Nicaragua 0 O Zelaya imposed export tax on bananas and acted against interests of American business Threatened to allow European powers to build an isthmian canal to rival the Panama Canal US supports for Adolpho Diaz they support a revolution for a new leader and overthrew Zelaya Use of loan to turn Nicaragua into a USA financial protectoratequot Training elite technocrats to manage economy Competition for the European powers is a threat for USA supremacy in the Americas Vision of constructing a new world order through American construction on going power The Liberian Case 0 O O O Founded by former slave colonies and perceived as America s ward In debt to Britain US worried it would disappear form the map US special interestquot in Liberian rubber Liberian Revenues eventually placed under American receivership China Loan Consortium background 0 O O Collapse of the Qing Dynasty and Xinhai Revolution 1911 Sun YAstsen forced to cede power to Yuan Shikai 1912 Creation of new military government China Loan Consortium O Yuan requests loan to pay off some of the debts his government inherited form the Qing Consortium of foreign banks from US Britain France Germany Russia and Japan Foreign advisors injected into government as condition of loans Reorganize administration of government salt monopoly whose revenue guaranteed the loan China could not take loans from other countries Conditions similar to other cases Criticisms and Failure of loan consortium 0 Early socialists intellectual who argued Yuan was parceling out country to foreignersquot 0 One of factors that led to failed second revolution led by Kuomintang against Yuan in 1913 o Collapse of Yuan s government 1916 after rebellion in Yunnan Province Problems of dollar Diplomacy 0 Economic nationalism when Nicaraguan economy didn t grow quickly many blamed wall street and the US for blocking their economic growth 0 Congressional opposition made it difficult to get loans approved in some cases Does dollar diplomacy still exist 0 World bank IMF 0 1990s Financial Crisis 0 USAID
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