Psych Week of 2/2/15 Notes
Psych Week of 2/2/15 Notes 0010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Intro to Psychology 2315 and 2515 Notes Sensation and Perceving BottomUp Processing analysis of the stimulus begins with sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind TopDown Processing information processing guided by higherlevel mental processes Sensation detect physical energy stimulus from environment The quotdetectionquot is converted into neural signals Perception select organize and interpret sensations This explains our ability to differentiate between a cartoon ower and a real ower Transduction process of converting physical energy into neural impulse form Stimulusljsense organsljlnerve impulsesljcortex JNDquotJust Noticeable Differencequot smallest difference detectable 50 of the time Absolute Threshold least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of the time Habituation the brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli white noise Sensory Adaptation sensory receptors become less responsive to constant stimuli wearing contacts a watch having a pierced tongue Vision The Eye Cornea where the stimulus actually enters the eye Iris a muscle that contracts the pupil Pupil changes in size according to light or dark Lens focuses images Retina location of transduction processes visual image then sends it to the occipital lobes Fovea point of central focus image is actually upside down here 0 Rods distinguish black white grey o Cones color vision Accommodation eye s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on retina Our perception can have inaccuracies or inconsistencies Visual Processing the optic nerves connect to the thalamus which in turn relays image to visual cortex in occipital lobes Trichromatic Theory the retina has 3 types of color receptors Opponent Theory 4 primary colors processed combined in pairs of blueyellow redgreen and blackwhite Shape constancy perceiving objects as unchanging Size constancy stable size perception amid changing background Color constancy perceiving objects to have the same color The whole is greater than the sum of the partsquotGestalt Consciousness What is it awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you environment Circadian Rhythm a 24 hour cycle light triggers superchiasmatic nucleus The pineal gland is triggered and melatonin is regulated Melatonin is increased in the evening and decreased in the morning Sleep there are 5 distinct sleep stages that occur over a span of about 90 minutes Sleep can be evaluated through EEG scans Awake and Alert 0 Strong mental engagement 0 Brain wavesBeta waves 0 Fast irregular low amplitude Alpha waves form when we are awake and relaxed right before bed Sleep Stages 1 and 2 0 Early light sleep 0 Brain wavestheta waves 0 High amplitude slow irregular Spindles bunches of brain waves close together indicate transition into 2 0 Breathing eventually becomes more even Sleep Stages 3 and 4 Deepest sleep Brain wavesdelta waves Slower larger amplitude quotSlow wavequot sleep the restorative stages Muscles are very relaxed takes time for person to wake up At this point we go back down the levels of stages 432 and THEN go into REM REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement Most dreams occur here Sleep paralysis our bodies cannot move a protective measure Closest to being awake in this cycle 25 of the night is spent in REM in adults Why is sleep so important It regulates body temperature Regulates metabolism Without it our organs would eventually fail Sleep is restorative replenishes energy lost during the day Sleep Disorders 1 Insomnia Group a The person cannot fall asleep or stay asleep b Sleep apnea the person stops breathing for periods of time 2 Excessive Sleep Group a Narcolepsy a person falls asleep at any time especially during the day There is no warning so it can be very dangerous 3 Strange Occurrences Group a Nightmares happen in stage 4 b Sleep terrors person awakens by screaming c Sleepwalking very dangerous the person is unaware of what they are doing Sleep Deprivation lmpaired concentration lrritability Depressed immune system vulnerability to illness Fatigue and subsequent death Dreaming Freud believed that dreams were the road to the unconscious mind He believed they represented wish ful llment Manifest content what the dream is about on the surface level Latent content the underlying message that the dream is really about Activationinformation Mode Model information accessed while awake affects what we dream about Activation Synthesis Model dreams created to explain brain stem activation during REM Hypnosis 1 Person told to focus on what is being said 2 Person told to relax and feel tired 3 Person told to accept suggestions 4 Person told to use vivid imagination
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