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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Giachin on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Gillis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Into to Psycho in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
I What is intelligence the ability to learn from and adapt to the environment Ill Measurement of intelligence or any psychological variable A Reliability B Validity C Standardization ll History of Intelligence not in text A Darwin39s Origin of the Species 1859 he said there were individual differences and nature selected among those differences B Sir Francis Galton39s Anthropometric Lab in London m people must have those differences that Darwin talked about and they must run in families attempted to measure tness C Alfred Binet in Paris developed BinetSimon Scale developed rst modern intelligence testGalton tried rst BinetSimon scale Paris asked him to create a test for kids that can and cant learn in normal school setting so he gave kids simple tasks one on one test with teacher she would say nd the eraser and touch it then he would nd it and pick it up harder test was tell the difference between two abstract words they would get score based on whatever number question they got up to they would see the difference between age norms D Terman StanfordBinet lntelligenceScale 1911 w brought test from Binet to America and further developed it into the StanfordBinet and made it more extreme and ef cient normed with 1100 Americans and he got every type of sub group of people in the US created idea of IQ intelligent quotient mental ageage x 100 lQ but this formula was abandoned and now they use standard deviation IQ E Army Alpha and Beta tests aptitude to see what part of army training you go to rst modern group administrated test Gave the test to thousands of soldiers and got data back and graphed it and worried that the average American male was a moron Someone said how can the average American male be below average Figured out it was because most of the country was illiterate So they then gave them mazes to gure out so they were nonverbal tests like that and didn t require reading F David Wechsler published Wechsler scale WPPSI age46 Wexler preschool and primary rst grade scale of intelligence WISClll age 616Wexler intelligence scale for children WAlSR age16 and up Wexler adult intelligence scale III Measurement of intelligence AReiabiity Consistency consistently measuring the same thing high Iq at one age they should also have high iq when older If you have a test and it gives you the same result that measure is reliable For ex measuring my height with a ruler you will probably get the same height every time The ruler is a reliable way to measure height 1testretest Ex Develop an intelligence test and give it to 500 volunteers they all take the test wait a month and give the same test For every individual you now have two test scores Correlate those two stores and see testretest reliability to see how similar those two tests are Never will get a perfect correlation but good results will be around 9 for Person s R Can do more than one month and the correlation would not be as strong 2spithalf internal consistency Another way to look at reliability as opposed to looking at two test scores Take a test but this time only give it to the 500 volunteers at one time Split the test into halves and then get a correlation coef cient Can do a front and back split odd numbers even numbers etc Good way to improve reliability add more test questions Takes away some randomness A reliable test gives consistence result but does not always give exactly what you want Ex if you step on a scale that tells you are 300 pounds it may do this every time but may not be accurate BValidity Accuracy Are we hitting the target and getting what we want 1Content Face Item analysis Looking at the testmeasure and asking if it is measuring what you think it would measure Ex is the test we take on psych or not Item analysis look at a single item from a test and correlate it with a total score from the test Ex IQ test one section is really dif cult people who do better on the IQ test are getting the harder questions correct The correlation between the harder items and the test scores would be high But if the question is later on and the smarter people are not getting it right then it does not have a very good item analysis 2Criterion Predictive Concurrent When you take an intelligence test and correlate it with some other measure of intelligence that is hypothetically measuring the same thing Ex SAT is supposed to predict the achievement in college freshman year gpa Correlate these two scores and this is criterion validity speci cally predictive When data collection happened at two different times Concurrent is when you correlate at the same time Ex correlate SAT and junior high school gpa 3 Construct The degree to which the test is measuring but actually claims to measure Things that you can t really put your nger on like intelligence or personality as opposed to height and weight It is an abstract idea These ideas can correlate with things For ex intelligence could correlate with income or gpa C Standardization exact testing conditions You have an intelligence test and to make it standardized you have to make sure everyone gets the same directions time limits and conditions Have control over everything so that no other variables are affecting the results Depending on the test the conditions can be very strict 1 same directions 2 same time limits 3 same testing conditionslll IV Theories of Intelligence A Charles Spearman s 2 Factor Theory 5 and g came up with single number IQ but that doesn t work because people have different strengths and weaknesses on different topics disputed idea of IQ and came up with 2 factors of intelligence G9 equevalent to IQ summation of general abilities 59 speci c abilities B Thurstone39s 7 Primary Mental Abilities argued we don39t need G9 we have 7 primary abilities Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Ability Spatial Ability Associative Memory Perceptual Speed General Reasoning Ability C P Guilford s there are more than 7 mental abilities 9Three Factor Structure of the Intellect 5 Contents x 6 Products x 6 Operations 180 abilities D Howard Gardner Theory of Multiple lntelligences idea that we have many mental abilities First person to put musical intelligence and bodily kinesthetic ability to control your body athletics is very much a mental process Linguistic Musical LogicalMathematical Spatial Bodily Kinesthetic lnterpersonal ability to read other people lntrapersonal internal awareness Naturalistic remember details of nature and cooking and things like that V Controversies A NaturegeneticNurtureenvironment 1 Arthurensen80 nature20 nurture extremely conservative if your intelligence is based on nature why bother with poor people or special needs cuz they39re inferior gene caHy theory that there were better and lesser people 2 The Bell Curve 1994 named after the IQ bell curve talked about 6040 and richer kids do better in school because theyre exposed to higher education when young said we should defund the head start program bc its genetics not nurture head start tries to give the poor kids the rich kid experience B Test Bias if a test is designed for one group but given to other groups if boys do better than girls think test is biased against girls truthfully boys are just better than girls at some things 1 Culture free or Culture fair tests 2 test Bias differential predictive validity difference in correlation for two groups you39re looking cant determine whether test is biased toward men or women till you do predictive validity test
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