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Lecture 7

by: Nathaniel Bautz

Lecture 7 MICROBIO 160

Nathaniel Bautz
GPA 2.9
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz

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About this Document

Due to multiple snow days, this weeks lectures are limited to one class and jumped around. Here are the notes for lecture 7.
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathaniel Bautz on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MICROBIO 160 at University of Massachusetts taught by Mitchell Walkowicz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
LECTURE 7 The Immune System and Cancer 0 9 Defining the Host Lymph Nodes Respiratory System Skin White blood cells Spleen Stomach and intestines Cells of the Innate Immune System gt Blood Stem cell in bone marrow I Erythroid stem cell I Myeloid stem cell I Lymphoid stem cell Steps of the In ammatory Response gt The in ammatory response in a body s second line of defense against invasion by pathogens Why is it important that clotting factors from the circulatory system have access to injured area I Damaged tissues release histamines increasing blood ow to the area I Histamines cause capillaries to leak releasing phagocytes and clotting factors to the wound I Phagocytes engulf bacteria dead cells and cellular debris I Platelets move out of the capillary to seal the wounded area Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia gt A common type of indolent slowly progressing cancer in which too many lymphocytes white blood cells are found in the peripheral blood and bone marrow Most patients with CLL are older than 50 years and have no symptoms at the time of their diagnosis Antigen and Antibody gt Antigen is a foreign substance that induces the production of antibodies because it is recognized by the immune system as a threat gt Antibody is a protein produces in a response to antigen invasion Presentation of Cancer Antigens gt Antigen is taken up by an antigenpresenting cell gt Antigen is broken down into small fragments gt Antigen fragments are bound to MHC molecules gt MHC presents the antigen fragment to lymphocytes which are simulated to attack that antigen Cancer Immunology Cat and Mouse Games gt Virusinduced or sporadic tumor gt Tumor rejection gt Tumor immune escape gt Immune tolerance How the Immune System Might Battle Cancer gt Remove the tumor s mask VVVVVV gt gt gt Make the tumor less productive Stack the immune system s deck Build the right immune cells Immune Evasion by Cancer Cells gt gt gt gt gt Tumor cells look like normal host cells Tumor progression natural selection favors cancer cells that do not induce strong immune response strongly immunogenic cells are killed off Cancer cells surround themselves with dense connective tissue that shields from immune attack Some cancers divide so quickly that they overwhelm the immune system Some cancer cells produce molecules that destroy T cells Evidence for Immune Reactivity to Tumors gt gt gt gt gt Certain tumors regress spontaneously eg melanomas neuroblastomas There is an increased incidence of malignancies particularly lymphoreticular tumors in immunodeficient patients Antibodies and immune Tlymphocytes have been detected in patients with tumors The young and the very old have an increased occurrence of tumors We can be immunized against tumors Immune System Based Treatment for Caner gt gt gt Rituximab Mabthera recognizes CD20 protein on the outside of nonHodgkin39s lymphoma cells Bevacizumab Avastin targets growth factors and is used to treat bowel cancer and breast cancer Trastuzumab Herceptin recognizes breast cancer cells that produce too much of the protein HER 2 are 39HER 2 positive39 Vaccine Might Help Many Melanoma Patients gt IN what researchers are calling a first vaccine that targets skin cancer cells shrinks tumors and cutes the chance that the disease will return Potential for Cancer Vaccine gt Banner Manama Elm Thwaclay an FA adviser panel e nclnraed the aafe ry and e enlziwemtas of Pmnge which nuldl bequot fired a parmead lil ll f i l tn speci cally dltl l the im mune ayatem in attack lumera Hera la haw it i ll39lEl39 Tr SELLS ll l39ul tiln blind E The lll lfml 3 Thane immun 1391 Days afterquot the E The E mmultipla cells are dream agatem nella are ayal39em calla white cells are hedge T ing in the frntm the patient reapnan to a display part Inf dram these cells are lain y and Certain immune rotain item the pirating Inn immune airmanquot atlmu attaching system calla are fuund in prostate their aurl an cells are put belt lated banner bells imitated cancer calla alerting the in the patint bearing ll immme ayatam prntilu 393 Tumor Host Interactions gt Endothelial cells gt Other normal cells gt Immune Cells gt Extracellular matrix and basal lamina Rituxan and Lymphoma Treatment gt NonHodgkin s lymphoma most commonly occurs in the lymph nodes and is a cancer of Bcells gt Rituxan a therapeutic antibody binds to the CD20 protein found on normal and cancerous Bcells in Vitro gt Rituxan recruits components of the body s immune system phagocytes etc to destroy Bcells gt Once Rituxan has cleared the body normal Bcells can begin to grow again


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