Bio 1 Week of 2/2/15 Notes
Bio 1 Week of 2/2/15 Notes BIOSC 0150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Kaufman/McGreevy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Most risk Foundations of Biology 1 Week of 2215 Notes Monday Mutations can have variable effects which may be bene cial neutral or deleterious Protein Level Mutations Silent no change in amino acid or phenotype Missense change in nucleotide sequence that changes the speci ed amino acid these can be neutral bene cial or harmful Nonsense turns a regular codon into a stop codon signaling an early termination This leads to a shortened protein 0 Frameshift addition or deletion of a nucleotide alters meaning of all subsequent codons worst mutation Remember bene cial mutations will lead to increased tness Deleterious mutations should die out because they serve no useful purpose Sickle Cell Anemia a point mutation in DNA It is a missense protein mutation that causes a change in one amino acid This changes the polarity of hemoglobin which in turn causes a change in shape of the red blood cells Oxygen is not carried as ef ciently Chromosomal Mutations seen often in cancer cells Deletion loss of part of a chromosomal segment Duplication repetition of a segment The repeated segment may be located next to the original or at a different location Orientation may be the same or reversed o Inversion removal of a segment followed by its reinsertion in the same chromosome in the reverse orientation Translocation transfer of a segment to a nonhomologous chromosome Translocations may be reciprocal or nonreciprocal Large Scale Mutations lead to change in total number of chromosomes Polyploidy more complete sets than normal not possible for humans For example 3 sets of 23 chromosomes instead of 2 Aneuploidy mostly normal number of sets but an extra individual chromosome For example Trisomy 213 chromosomes at 21 Down s Criduchat Syndrome result of a small deletion on chromosome 5 Almost always fatal to child Viruses Made up of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Not considered to be alive because they can t replicate without a host cell quotObligate intracellular parasitesquot they must enter a host cell to survive At minimum composed of a protein capsid and a nucleic acid genome Come in different shapes sizes etc Lytic Cycle virus injects its DNA into a host cell which is then transcribed and translated Particles assemble then rupture cell and infect other cells Protease enzyme that cuts proteins Reverse Transcriptase bidirectional enzyme that synthesizes cDNA to RNA Lysogenic Cycle the virus enters the cell but just lives in conjunction with the host Does not replicate and rupture cell unless it enters the lytic cycle Wednesday Exam Day no notes Friday Energy and Enzymes Reading supplement Chapter 8 Types of Energy Potential stored energy ability to do work Kinetic work the actual movementenergy that does a task Other some energy will always be wasted in unusable forms like heat sound and light One way energy is stored is in the electrons of an atom Speci cally the position of the electrons indicates energy 0 Electrons far from nucleushigh energy Electrons close to nucleuslow energy First Law of Thermodynamics energy is neither created or destroyed only transformed Second Law of Thermodvnamics some energy becomes unusable when energy is transformed every time energy is converted Redox Reactions are a common method for transferring energy between molecules in the form of electrons Oxidation loss of electrons Named for oxygen39s high electronegativity and tendency to steal electrons away Reduction gain of electrons This leads to a more negative charge therefore reducing the molecule s charge Remember OIL RIGDOxidation is Losing Reduction is Gaining Cellular respiration is the process used for converting glucose into ATP This is an example of a redox reaction because glucose is oxidized and oxygenisreduced Electron carriers used by the cell to simply carry electrons so that energy is neither created nor destroyed only transferred FAD is oxidized when it picks up 2 electrons and 2 Hydrogen protonsDFADH2 NAD is oxidized when it picks up 2 electrons and 1 Hydrogen protonNADH Phosphorylating to add a phosphate a protein can cause a shape change that can drive chemical reaction This process is done by a kinase which is an enzyme that transfers phosphate to another molecule Remember formfunction so a change in shape leads to a change infuncUon
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