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by: Danielle Pagano


Danielle Pagano
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Criminal Justice System 2020 Professor Juan Saiz Study Guide Chapters 1 6 Chapter One Crime and Criminal sIustice Creating Criminal Justice l93l Herbert Hoover appointed the National Commission of Law Observance and Enforcement Wickersnam Commission Made detailed analysis of US justice system helped usher era of treatment and rehabilitation discovered that the already existing system of justice was awed by to many rules and regulations The Contemporarv Criminal Justice Svstem Social Control The ability society has to control individual behavior in order to serve that best interests and welfare of the society as a whole Behaviors considered dangerous must be strictly controlled or outlawed by right People who are too destructive must be monitored or confined Three Main Points to the Contemporary Justice System Law enforcement agencies who investigate crimes and apprehend suspects Court system which charges indicts tries and sentences offenders Correctional system which incapacitates convicted offenders and the also attempt to aid in treatment and rehabilitation of offenders Branches of the Government Legislative Defines law Determines what conduct is prohibited Establishes penalties for violators Acts as form of public eXpression on criminal justice issues Judicial Interprets the law Decides whether laws meet constitutional requirements Power to determine whether eXisting operations of criminal justice practices fall within bounds of state constitution and United States constitution Has right to ban or overturn policies that interfere with constitutional rights Executive Responsible for the operation of criminal justice agencies Does not make or interpret laws Determines budget and direction for criminal justice agencies The Formal Criminal Justice Process Formal Procedures Initial Contact Patrol officers are allowed to take someone into custody if they observe a person acting suspiciously or if they under the in uence of drugs Police officers are contacted by victim who reports a robbery They will respond to this by going to crime scene and apprehending the suspect Investigation To support legal arrest they must have enough evidence and information about crime Can take any amount of time To identify the perpetrator the officers gather evidence and information this way they can understand the methods and motives of the suspect Also gather information to determine if crime was a single event or one of many other similar crimes Arrest Officer derives individual from their freedom Probable Cause to arrest and sufficient evidence Suspect knows he has lost his liberty once in custody of police The officer does not have to mention or even say the word arrest during the arrest Officer doesn39t have to handcuff the suspect or even bring him straight to the police station Custody Miranda Warning if the police intend to use the answers against the person in a criminal case the miranda warning must be read if the offender remains silent and decides not to say anything the questioning must stop Charging If sufficient evidence eXists to charge a person with crime case will then be turned over to the prosecutors office To charge or not to charge is based off many factors once case reaches prosecutors office Noelle Prosequi When prosecutor decides to drop case after a complaint has been made formally Some reasons or this may be insufficient evidence witness decides not to testify error in police report and or error in office policy Preliminary Hearing and Grand Jury Grand Jury 12 28 persons who convene in private to evaluate accusations against accused They determine whether the evidence warrants further legal action to be made Investigate alleged crimes examine evidence and issue indictments True Bill of Indictment Drawn up by prosecuting attorney and considered by grand jury this is a written statement charging a defendant with the commission of a crime Specifies exact charges on which the accused must stand trial Illegal gained evidence can be used in indictment In many states the Grand Jury system has been either replaced or supplemented by the preliminary hearing Prosecution files a charging document before a lower trial court this is a preliminary hearing Arrangement Brought before court that will hear the case Formal charges read Informed of constitutional rights initial guilty not guilty plea Trial date is set B ail is issued and or considered Bail Detention Defendants that do not show up to trial forfeit their bail Those who cannot afford bail or who cannot borrow sufficient funds are kept in state custody prior to trial Plea Bargaining 90 percent of all cases end in a plea bargain Defense and prosecutor discuss possible guilty plea in exchange for reducing bail or even to drop some charges Some may get more lenient time in prison or even go to treatment facility TrialAdjustment When an agreement cannot be made or when the prosecution decides not to arrange a negotiated settlement of the case a criminal trial will be held before a judge or jury Then they will decide whether the prosecutions evidence against the defendant is sufficient beyond a reasonable doubt to prove guilt AppealPost conviction Remedies If the jury has made a mistake of law the defense can ask the trial judge to set aside the jury s verdict This can be a misinterpretation of judges instructions or conviction on a charge that was not supported by evidence Failing that the defendant may file an appeal if after conviction she or he believes that his or her constitutional rights were violated by the errors that had been made in the trial process Yet cannot appeal in errors of fact Release Many inmates do not serve the full term that they39re sentenced to Many are freed through an early release mechanism which is either patrol pardon or earning time off due to good behavior Postrelease Some offenders may be asked to spend more time in a community correctional center Courtroom Work Group All parties in the justice process work together in a cooperative effort to settle cases Made up of prosecutor defense attorney judge and other courtroom personnel The Wedding Cake Model of Justice Level One Consists of celebrated cases involving wealthy and famous people Level Two Consists of serious felonies such as rape and burglaries Level Three Less serious offendersoffenses committed by young people Level Four Misdemeanors such as disorderly conduct shoplifting and etc Perspectives 0n Justice Crime Control Perspective Emphasizes control of dangerous offenders Emphasizes protection of society through harsh punishment as a defendant to crime Prevent crime though the judicious use of criminal sanctions Rehabilitation Process Sees crime as eXpression of frustration created by society inequality that can be controlled by giving people the right to improve their lifestyles through conventional endeavors caring and treating people who cannot manage themselves Due Process Perspective Treating all those accused of a crime fairly and equally Nonintervention Perspective Favors least intrusive treatment possible That justice agencies should limit their involvement with criminal defendants Decriminalization Is the reducing of penalty for a criminal act without legalizing it Deinstitutionalization Policy of removing from secure confinement as many first offenders of minor nonviolent crimes as possible and treating them in the community Equal Justice Perspective All people should receive the same treatment under the law Evaluated on current behavior not what they have done Radical Animus Model View that white America has developed a mental image of the typical criminaloffender This offender being a young inner city black male Restorative Justice Perspective Promote a peaceful and just society Not to aim for punishment Chapter Two Nature and Extent of Crime What are the Different Categories of Crime Crimes tend to range from shoplifting to serial murder Violent Crimes EXpressive Violence violent behavior that is motivated by anger rage and or frustration Instrumental Violence criminal acts designed to improve financial position or even social position such as shooting someone during a bank robbery Gang Violence Gangs made up mostly of youths that terrorize neighborhoods in urban communities all around the United States Many of these gangs are involved drugs dealing extortion and violence Violence is motivated by street power and drug profits About 29000 gangs have about 760000 members found in about 3500 jurisdictions in US Multiple Murder Mass Murder In one single outburst a murder kills many victims Spree Killers Spread their murderous outburst over a few days or even weeks Serial Killers Over a long period of time and typically assume a normal identity between murders Intimate Violence Americans face greater physical danger from spouses dating partners and relatives Hate Crimes Directed toward a particular person or toward members of a group because the targets share a distinct or different racial ethnic religious or gender characteristics Mainly target vulnerable victims who cannot fight back Sources of Crime Data Used by FBI and Justice Statistic Systems Use techniques to measure nature and extent of the criminal behavior and the personality attitudes and background of criminal offender Uniform Crime ReportUCR Includes crimes reported to local law enforcement departments and many arrests made by localstates police agencies FBI receives records from more then 17000 police departments serving a majority of the US population Part One Crimes Murder non negligent manslaughter forcible rape robbery aggravated assault larceny arson and motor vehicle theft Part Two Crimes less serious crimes and misdemeanors National Incident Based Reporting Svstem A program that collects data from each reported crime incident Requires police agencies to provide a brief account of each incident and arrest including the incident victim and offender information Provide FBI with information on each criminal incident National Crime Victimization Survey Comprehensive nationwide surveys of victimization Began in 1973 Provides detailed picture of crime incidents victims and trends Self Report Survevs Offender is asked to give information about past and recent criminal activity Secrecy and anonymity are important to maintaining honesty and validity of survey Questions How many times in the past year have you taken something with more than 50 How many times in the past year did you hurt someone so badly that they needed medical care How many times in the past year dud you vandalize or damage school property How many times in the past year did you use marijuana Crime Patterns Ecologv of Crime Patterns in crime rate seem to be linked to temporal and ecological factors Day Season and Climate Most reported crimes have been committed during July and August Teenagers out of school and have more time to commit a crime People make themselves easy targets in the summer being that they are always outside Two exceptions to these statistics are murder and robberies which occur in December and January Firearms play dominate role in criminal activity According to the UCR 23 of all murders involve firearms Most being handguns Age and Crime Younger people commit crime more often then those peers older then them Peak age for property crime is believed to be 16 Peak age for violence is believed to be 18 Gender and Crime Male crime rates are higher than those of females Race and Crime Minority group members are involved in a disproportionate share of chimerical activity African Americans make up 12 of the populations and yet they account for about 34 of part one crime arrests and for 29 of property crime arrests Chronic Offending and Crime Career Criminal Persistent repeat offenders Organize lifestyle around criminality Chr0nic Offenders Delinquents arrested two or three times Before age of 18 Commit disproportionate amount of all criminal offenses Chapter Three Understanding Crime and Victimization Cause of Crime Criminologists study nature of crime study extent of crime study cause and control crime patterns help conduct programs to reduce crime Choice Theory crime is a mater of rational choice punishment must be sufficiently strict sure and swift outweigh any benefits of law violation Deterrent Effect assumed ability of the threat of criminal sanctions to discourage crime before is occurs Situational Crime Prevention reducing opportunities people have to commit particular crimes Oscar Newman coined key term defensible space in the 1970s Defensible space is the idea that through the use of residential architectural designs such as well lit housing projects will prevent crime MaXimize security That defensible space will make the criminal look elsewhere Types of crime prevention tactics Increase the effort to commit the crime placing steering locks on cars putting unbreakable glass on store fronts looking gates fencing yards all to increase effort to commit a crime ncrease the risks of committing the crime improving surveillance lighting creating neighborhood watch programs controlling building entrances and eXits This all will increase the risk of committing a crime General Deterrence a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal justice people will not choose a crime if they fear legal punishment harsher the punishment the more certain the application speedier the judgement the more effective it will be Specific Deterrence punishment so severe enough to convince convicted offenders to never repeat their own criminal activity Trait Theories Cesare Lombroso Italian army physician who decided to study why it was criminal committed crimes examined many prison inmates to find a similarity atavistic anomalies animal like physical qualities Biochemical Factors focus on in uence of biochemical factors on criminal behavior some factors are said to trigger or make people susceptible to aggressive activity or responses Environmental Contaminants EXposure to chemicals such as PCB PCB was once used in insulation materials shows to effect brain functioning and intelligence levels PCB can lead to cognitive and learning dysfunctions which are associated with antisocial behaviors Genetic Factors antisocial behavior is inherited genetic makeup from parents is passed on genetic abnormality is connected to antisocial behaviors Ronald Simmons found that adolescents who posses a particular genetic makeup and are more likely to adopt an aggressive response to provocation association could be indirect Psychological Theories Behavioral Theory learned through interactions with others rewarded behavior becomes a habit Social Learning Theory ones behavior is learned through observation of social interactions direct of indirectly Sociological Theories groups that characterize a class in society unequal distribution of wealth power shared values and ideas Racial Disparity Culture of Povertv View that those in a lower class of society form a separate culture with its own distinct values and beliefs Many of these different views are in con ict with those of society Deviant Values and Cultures people who live in a rundown disorganized area who all for together to create their own lower class group Effects children and others within the community Strain emotional turmoil caused when people believe they cannot achieve desires and goals through legitimate means people who use violence to get what they want or to obtain their goals some channel frustration into antisocial behavior Critical Criminology crime results because the rich impose their own moral standards on the rest of society those in power control content and direction of the law poor person theft of property with five dollars can be punished more severely than the misappropriation of millions be a large company Theories of Victimization Victim Precipitation role victim plays in provoking criminal behavior active precipitation when victim acts and provokes by using threats or even by attacking Lifestyle Theory by reducing ones chances of victimization one most reduce risk taking behavior Routine Activities Theory crime is related to nature of normal everyday patterns one may have motivated offenders unemployed teenagers suitable targets small easy to transport goods capable guardians absence of protection services Chapter Four Criminal Law Substance and Procedure Criminal Law Rules that define crimes set out their punishments and mandate practice for carrying out the criminal justice process Substantive criminal law A broad category of criminal law declares what conduct is criminal and provide punishment that is to be imposed for such conduct Procedural criminal law Another broad category of criminal law which states that there are methods for the gathering of warrants investigating offenses effecting lawful arrests conducting trials introducing evidence sentencing convicted offenders and reviewing case by appellate courts Civil Law All law that is not criminalT0rtslaw of personal injury Public Law Branch of law that deals with state or government agencies and controls their administrative relationships with individuals corporations or other branches of government The Common Law After Norman Conquest of England 1066 Judges began to travel throughout the land holding court in each county several times a year Stare decisis stand by decided cases Legal principle by which the decision of holding in an earlier case becomes the standard by which subsequent similar cases are judged Mala in se offenses are by their own nature evil such offenses are murder theft and arson These crimes are seen as mala prohibition crimes Constitutional Limits All criminal law must conform to the rules and dictates of the US constitution Any criminal law that seems to con ict with the various provisions and articles of the Constitution must re ect a compelling need to product public safety or morals EX Post Facto Law Makes act criminal after it was committed Even retroactively increases the penalty for a crime such laws are forbidden by the US Constitution a law that makes an action done before the passing of the law and which was innocent when done criminal and punishes such action a law that makes a crime more serious after the fact than it was when first committed a law that in icts a greater punishment than was available when the crime was committed a law that makes convicting the offender easier than it was at the time the offender committed the crime Felonies and Misdemeanors based on seriousness of the crime each jurisdiction in the US determines by statue what types of conduct constitute felonies or misdemeanors The Legal De nition of a Crime Contain mental and physical elements To commit a crime one must do the following things willfully enter a dwelling be armed or arm themselves after entering a house to commit a crime or am assault on someone in the house knowingly and intentionally committing a crime The prosecutor must prove that the person accused of armed burglary did illegally enter a house knowing they were not invited that they were armed when they arrived at the burglary site that their intentions were to take another belongings and that they did so Legal definition of crime accused engaged in the guilty act also known as actus reus accused had intent to commit crime also known as mens rea both the actus reus and mens rea were concurrently present defendants actions were the proximate cause of the resulting injury Harm was caused Thoughts alone do not constitute a crime Aetas Reas aggressive act Mens Rea criminal intent clear knowledge of punishment after actions are performed When Mohammed Atta and his terrorist band crashed airplanes into the World Trade Center did not intend to kill one person in particular Yet the law holds that no one would survive a blast like so Meaning that the terrorists had the criminal intent to commit the crime of first degree murder Strict Liability offenses that exist when mens rea is not essential Public safetv or strict liabilitv crime someone who can be held responsible for a crime but without the offense of intent no state of mind is generally required where a strict liability statue is violated Criminal Defenses Excuse Defenses when one states that their mental state was impaired that they had lacked the capacity to form sufficient intent to be held criminally responsible Ignorance or Mistake ignorance of law is no excuse Insanity when the state of mind negates criminal responsibility people who have depression mood disorders and have a psychopathic personality can be found legally sane not every person with an mental illness is found insane insanity means that the defendants state of mind at the time of the crime was committed made it impossible for the person to have the necessary mens rea to satisfy the legal definition of a crime person can undergo treatment for disorder but still be jugged legally sane if it can be proved that at the time the person had the capacity to understand the wrongdoing of their actions Intoxication not considered a defense yet and defendant who becomes involuntary intoxicated under duress or by mistake can be dismissed of crimes committed the effect of intoxication on criminal liability depends on whether the defendant uses alcohol and drugs on the norm Example a defendant enters bar and orders a few drinks and then strikes someone while intoxicated and is convicted of assault ad battery However if the defendant ordered a nonalcoholic drink and it was spiked by someone else the defendant may have a legitimate legal defense Age law holds that a child is not criminally responsible for actions committed at an age that precludes a full realization of the gravity of certain types of behavior incapacity for children under age of 7 reliable presumption for a child between 7 and 14 no presumption for child over age of 14 maximum age of criminal responsibility for children ranges between 14 through 18 Consent victims consent to a crime does not automatically excuse the defendant who commits an action Type of crime involved generally determines the validity of consent as an appropriate legal defense rape does not occur if the victim consents to sexual relations larceny cannot occur if the owner voluntarily consents to taking property consent is an essential element to crime it is a valid defense where it can be proved children are not capable of providing consent Self Defense when one acts in self defense and pleas not guilty defendant must prove they acted with a reasonable belief that they were in imminent danger of death or harm and had no reasonable means of escape Stand Your Ground self defense statutes require a duty to retreat before reacting to a threat with physical violence At the time of when he crime is being committed one meets force with force Duress when the defendant claims he was forced to commit a crime as the only means of preventing death or serious harm to other or themselves duress is no excuse for intentional killing Necessity crime was committed under extreme circumstances and could not be avoided people act out of necessity according to their own judgement to prove this the defendant must show that they acted in order to prevent imminent harm and that there were no legal alternatives defendant must prove that their actions were the lesser of the two evils The Law of Criminal Procedure consists of rules and procedures that govern that processing of criminal suspects and the conduct of criminal trial the right to remain silent the right to an attorney the right to a speedy and fair trial Exclusionarv Rule principle that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in the court of law Chapter Five Public Policing and Private Security History of Police Tything people grouped into collectives of 10 families and were entrusted with policing their own minor problems such as dealing with disturbances fire wild animals and other threats Hue and Cry in medieval England a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger Hundred In medieval England a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses Shire Reeve In early England the chief law enforcement official in a county forerunner of today s sheriff Sheriff The chief law enforcement officer in a county Watch System In medieval England groups of men who organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable ConstableIn early English townsan appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch Justice of Peace official appointed to act as the judicial officer in a country Private Police and Thief Takers At the start of the 18th century crime rates went up and cities encouraged a new form of private monied police who were able to profit both legally and criminally from the lack of formal police departments were universally corrupt they were taking profits not only from catching and informing on criminal but also from theft receiving stolen property and blackmail The London Metropolitan Police In 1829 Sir Robert Peel England s home secretary created the Act for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis Metropolitan Police Act Peel s legislation that first organized police force in London Law Enforcement in Colonial America Colonial sheriff did not patrol or seek out crime reacted to citizens complaints and investigated crimes that had occurred paid on fee system of effectiveness sheriff made fixed pay for every arrest made Their taX collecting tactics were more lucrative than fighting crime law enforcement was not one of their main concerns night watchmanleatherheads patrolled street calling the hour while equipped with a rattle to summon help and a nightstick to ward off lawbreakers the night watchman were not highly respected Slave patrols charged with recapturing escaped slaves were an early if loathsome form of law enforcement vigilantes a committee that called upon to capture cattle thieves and other types of felons vigilance was a popular way to solve problems Early Police Agencies Boston created the first US police department in 1838 Second was New York in 1844 Third was Philadelphia in 1854 These new police systems and departments replaced the night watch system Relegated constables and sheriffs serving court orders Relegated running jails The Emergence of Profession Turn of 20th century recognized nation leaders called for measures to help improve and professionalize police Intemational Association of Chiefs of PoliceIACP created in 1893 First president of IACP was Richard Sylvester IACP was the leading voice for police reform for first two decades of the 20th century Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and EnforcementWickersham Commissionin 1929 It was created to study the criminal justice system and to suggest improvements Wickersham Commission Report of 1931 had two volumes that dealt with police specifically Volume 2 portrayed police in an unfavorable light Calling police inept inefficient racist brutal and criminal Volume 2 was called Lawlessness in Law Enforcement Volume 14 authored mostly by August Vollmer discussed methods that could be used to professionalize police Volume 14 was called The Police Policing From the 1960s to the 1990s Policing in the 1960s During this era the US Supreme Court handed down a number of decisions designed to control police operations and procedures police were required to obey strict guidelines when questioning suspects conducting searches and wiretapping police claimed that they were being handcuffed by the courts Policing in the 1970s Federal Government support increased It greatly in uenced police operations Law Enforcement Assistance AdministrationLEAA devoted a good amount of its funds to police agencies Funds went toward supporting innovative research on police work and training Number of the funds went toward little used hardware LEAA had a Law Enforcement Education Program that helped many with their college education Policing in the 1980s Police seen as not crime fighters Police were to develop greater awareness of community issues emergence of community policing concept Policing in the 1990s cooperation with community and problem solving Community policing integrate police in the community to reduce crime and gain good community relations involves personalized service decentralized police citizen empowerment and an effort to reduce community fear of crime disorder and decay Policing and Law Enforcement Today The US Justice Department Headed by the attorney general empowered to enforce federal laws represent US when it is party to court action conduct independent investigation through law enforcement services The Federal Bureau of Investigation Established in 1924 The FBI collects and maintains a vast fingerprint file that can be used by local police agencies Crime Lab established in 1932 helps local police test and identify evidence like hairs fibers blood tire tracks and drugs Uniform Crime report is another service the FBI offers US Marshals nations oldest federal law enforcement agency Duties Judicial Security protection of judicial officials overseas each aspect of courthouse construction this is to ensure safety Fugitive investigations apprehend thousands of dangerous felons primary agency responsible for tracking and extraditing fugitives who are apprehended in foreign countries and water for prosecution in the US Witness security ensures safety of witnesses who risk their lives testifying for the government in cases involving organized crime and other significant criminal activity Prison services houses more than 55000 federal unsentenced prisoners each day in federal state and local jails Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation SystemJPATS in 1995 the Marshals service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service merged to form a more efficient and effective system for transporting prisoners and criminal aliens Asset Forfeiture Program responsible for managing and disposing of seized and forfeited properties acquired by criminals through illegal activities Department of Homeland Security DHS Created after the 911 terrorist attacks mission of preventing terrorist attacks within the US has many independent branches and bureaus These branches being Immigration and Customs Enforcement Customs and Border Protection and US Secret Service Customs and Border ProtectionCBP responsible for protecting our nations borders in order to prevent terrorism human and drug smuggling illegal immigration and agricultural pests from entering the US Improving ow of legitimate trade and travel Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICE largest branches of DHS responsible for identifying and shutting down vulnerabilities in the nations border economic transportation and infrastructure security four components to ICE Office of Investigations investigates domestic and international activities that include movement of people and good that violate immigration and customs laws Office of Detention and Removal Operations responsible for public and national security do this by removal of all aliens through the fairness of the nations immigration laws Office of Intelligence responsible for collection analysis and dissemination of strategic and tactical intelligence data Office of International AffairsOIA conducts and coordinates international investigations involving transitional criminal organizations responsible for the illegal movement of people goods and technology into and out of the US The Secret Service protect president and vice president their families heads of state and other high level officials involve investigation threats against protected officials and protecting the White House and other buildings within Washington DC investigate counterfeiting and theory financial crimes State Law Enforcement Texas Rangers created in 1835 First state police agencies formed at the time they were mainly a military outfit that patrolled Mexican border Followed by Massachusetts State constables in 1865 Arizona Rangers in 1901 Pennsylvania formed true modern police in 1905 Chapter Six The Police Organization Role and Function The Police Organization organized in hierarchical manner each department has own chain of command Time rank svstem promotion system in which a police officer can advance in rank only after spending a prescribed amount of time in the preceding rank The Police Role studies indicate that a significant portion of an officers time is spent handling minor disturbances service calls and administrative duties The Patrol Function highly visible members of the entire criminal justice system Beats designated police patrol areas each beat is covered 24 hours a day by different shifts Purposes of patrol deter crime by maintaining visible police presence maintain public order enable police department to respond quickly to law violations or other emergencies identify and apprehend law violators aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves help the movement of traffic and people create a feeling of security and protection within a community Patrol Activities Order of maintenanceg peacekeeping 1 maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest keeping things under control by means of threats understanding and persuasion practice selective enforcement concentrating on some crimes but handling the majority in an informal manner police officer has to know when to take action when to arrest whom to deal with Improving Patrol police departments have initiated programs and polices to try and improve patrol effectiveness Aggressive Patrol The Kansas City study in uenced the way police eXperts viewed the effectiveness of patrol greatly set stage for community and problem oriented policing models stress social service over crime deterrence may be too soon to dismiss police patrol as a crime fighting technique manner in which police approach the task may make a difference to a crime Proactive policing aggressive law enforcement when the officer takes initiative against crime Broken Window Policing George Kelling and James Q Wilson s policing theory Key points Neighborhood disorder creates fear high degree of crime is in areas highly populated with street people youth gangs prostitutes and mentally ill people Neighborhoods give out promoting signals Honest citizens live in these ares where they live in fear and criminals are attracted to these ares because the neighborhood is filled with deteriorated houses and unrepaired broken windows Police need to aggressively target low level quality of life crimes to successfully reduce fear and prevent more serious crime from coming into neighborhoods must address minor problems that invite serious crimes The Investigation Function first detective bureau established by the London Metropolitan Police in 1841 Vice sguads police units assigned to enforce morality based was such as those addressing prostitution gambling and pornography Sting Operations organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage to criminal activity sting operations are used to catch professional thieves seX offenders and etc undercover detectives will set up fences and encourage thieves they will videotape the transaction and provide it to the prosecutor use similar approaches when catching seX offenders Evaluating Investigations study of 153 detective bureaus found that a great deal of a detective s one was spent in nonproductive work and that investigative eXpertise did a little to solve cases Half of all detectives could be replaced without it having a negative in uence on crime clearance rates police detectives make a valuable contribution to a police work police have skilled integration and case processing techniques all those elements are essential to crime solving in a majority of the cases the prep is identified by the patrol officers if a crime is reported while in progress the police have a 33 percent chance of making an arrest Community Policing Police trying to gain respect of the communities they serve efforts to improve relationships between cops and community PCR programspolice community relations PCR designed to make community more aware of police activities Community Oriented Policing programs designed to bring police and public closer together and create a more cooperative environment between them local residents meet with officers to talk about crime in the community reduce level of fear in the community Implementing Community Policing Foot patrol police patrol that takes officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat to strengthen ties with the community aimed to forming bond with the community residents first foot patrol was in Michigan and New Jersey might not have lowed crime rate but made residents feel safer and less afraid


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