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DNA Replication Specifics

by: Matt Pawlush

DNA Replication Specifics BIOSCI0716

Marketplace > Biology > BIOSCI0716 > DNA Replication Specifics
Matt Pawlush
GPA 101.3
Biology II
Dr. Curto

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Biology II
Dr. Curto
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Pawlush on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSCI0716 at a university taught by Dr. Curto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 181 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
DNA Replication Specifics Helicase opens and unwinds the double strand Single stranded binding proteins keep the strands open Primase constructs complementary RNA to start a new strand DNA polymerase needs a free OH group to build off of whereas primase does not DNA polymerase III builds a new strand Topoisomerase relaxes supercoiling in DNA downstream The leading strand is synthesized the way the strand is opening its read 3 5 and adds 5 3 The lagging strand is synthesized away from the replication fork its made in short stretches of DNA called okazaki fragments which are then linked together by ligase RNA primer is replaced by another DNA polymerase DNA polymerase I Ligase links the okazaki fragments after the RNA primer is removed Telomerase is an enzyme that in a few cells can fill in the unreplicated tails of the lagging strand so the chromosome doesn t shorten Telomerase is in every cell but is only active in a few Telomerase acts as a reverse transcriptase Telomeres are the expendable ends of chromosomes Telomerase is not active in somatic cells it is only active in germ cells and cancer cells Potentially immortal cells germ cells cancer cells maintain active telomerase and can divide indefinitely Telomerase is used to create in vitro immortalized cells for study Once the telomere shrinks to a certain extent cells stop dividing and leads to a state called cellular senescence People who live longer are found to have longer telomeres andor carry certain phenotypes of telomerase Around 500 nucleotides are added per second It takes a few hours to copy 6 million bases in a single cell About 1 in a billion bases are paired incorrectly DNA polymerase III proofreads and repairs DNA during syntheses Excision repair is when nuclease cuts out a damaged DNA segment DNA polymerase functions as both a polymerase in the 5 to 3 direction and an exonuclease in the 3 to 5 direction If a mismatch persists it Will require another set of corrective enzymes DNA polymerase detects a distortion it looks for the methylated strand and knows that that is the parent strand It only corrects the new nonmethylated daughter strand UV damage to DNA causes thymine to dimerize Nuclease cuts out the dimer polymerase fills in the gap and ligase seals up the nicks in the DNA strand


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