Week 4 Notes Emerging Adulthood
Week 4 Notes Emerging Adulthood SOP 4731
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Compton on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOP 4731 at Florida International University taught by Dr. Shannon Quintana in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Global Psychology week 4 notes byJessica Compton Readings include gt Emerging Adulthood in China The Role of Social and Cultural Factors by Nelson amp Chen gt From Duty to Desire Emerging Adulthood in Europe and Its Consequences by Douglass gt Poised for Emerging Adulthood in Latin America A Pleasure for the Privileged by Galambos amp Martinez Emerging Adulthood in China The Role of Social and Cultural Factors by Nelson amp Chen ABSTRACT It has been proposed that emerging adulthood ages 18 through the middle 20s is a period of development distinguished by unique features that include feeling inbetween identity exploration a focus on the self instability and possibilities This article argues that cultural beliefs and norms about socialization and social relationships are likely to affect the meaning and developmental patterns of emerging adulthood Specifically the article focuses on the unique aspects of Chinese culture that should be taken into account in the study of emerging adulthood Most notably the article examines how the cultural emphasis on group orientation e g obligation to family in uences the extent to which the proposed features of emerging adulthood are observed in China Nelson amp Chen In this article we look at Arnett39s theory of emerging adulthood explains the development of young people between ages 18 and 25 Amett argues that emerging adulthood may not be universal and it only exists under certain circumstances and in some cultures In saying this the article argues that cultural beliefs and norms about socialization and social relationships are likely to affect the meaning and developmental patterns of emerging adulthood In specific we look at Chinese culture and what should be taken into account when studying emerging adulthood There are features of this time in which distinguish it as a unique part of one s development 5 Features include 1 Feeling in between you do not feel like either an adolescent or an adult but somewhere in between 2 Identity exploration you39re trying to explore and experiment with areas especially including work love and world views 3 Focus on the self locking obligations to others but not selfcentered 4 Instability trying to balance residential status relationships work and education 5 Possibilities having the potential to guide your life in any number of desired directions China Background According to the article approximately 200 million youth in China are between ages 18 and 25 With Confucian collectivism serving as the predominant ideology guideline the main approach to achieve social order is to put others before yourself and display behaviors that are conducive to group functioning But we see that more recently western individualistic values and ideologies such as liberty have been increasingly accepted by many Chinese people especially youngsters Because of the encouragement of later marriage and childbearing in China we see that similarly to the United States young people have a lengthier period of time following adolescence before they take on adult roles such as marriage Feeling InBetween and Perceived Features of Adulthood Badger Nelson and Barry recently did research to compare views of university students ages 18 to 25 in China and the US and results on the differences were statistically significant Results suggested that Chinese youngsters may have a shorter period of emerging adulthood but it must be understood in the context of how the Chinese perceive adulthood They found that the Chinese college students most important criteria for adult hood include the ability to except responsibility for consequences having good control of your emotions financial independence being less selforiented great consideration for others and making independent decisions gt which is somewhat similar to the young people of the US But some differences we noticed for example include being able to support parents financially In China this was found to be necessary for adulthood with 89 of the participants while in the US this item ranked among the least important of criteria but the studies were done mostly with college students located in urban areas so little is known about those who do not attend college and live in rural areas of China Findings show that rural adolescents have a stronger sense of family obligation then urban adolescence particularly shown with men Identity Exploration Arnett argues in this section that identity exploration is the most central feature of emerging adulthood because it allows for the exploration for love and work However youngsters are not really encouraged to develop a personal identity in China as a result this may not hold up Cultural values can limit the opportunities for young people to explore their identities for example many areas of work are not open to the majority of young people because of the education system encouraged Furthermore romantic love is less valued in China and in any collectivistic society compared to an individualistic society High school students in China are strongly discouraged from dating and engaging in romantic relationships However dating and premarital sex are more common today as students demand for more independence Focus on The Self While China is a collectivistic culture in which focuses on concern for others and family it contradicts the focus of the self However rapid social changes toward a market oriented society have increased the need for the focus on self The internet has also been an in uence on self focus Today there seems to be an increase in the focus on self among the Chinese people similar to that of the United States Instability Arnett suggests that college is the greatest point in life associated with instability compared to any other part of your life as change majors moved in and out change jobs etc The current market oriented economy may require young people to move for education and the jobs and so this has been increased The fact of being in rural areas compared to urban and migration from these places has played a major role in the extent to which migrant emerging adults experience instability in the form of jobs and residences Possibilities Emerging adult is often seen as a time of high hope or expectation of having a better future According to the global survey and attitudes conduct into thousand five 76 of Chinese people are optimistic about their future while younger and educated Chinese were more positive about personal progress But not all young people are so optimistic because suicide is a growing problem in China because of reasons such as the growing pressure on young people to succeed in education work and love Conclusions Research shows that some features of emerging adulthood outlined by Arnett exist while others do not really match up Particularly between urban and rural areas emerging adults are more likely to re ect effects of the social and economic changes Some possibilities that are important to look at include the strong emphasis on group orientation greater sense of responsibility to the family and society and social status for the group The author also mentions that it39s possible that peer group networks play a major role in career development and other personal pursuits Something that research can focus on is the lack of research done on those who do not attend college in China because almost half or more than half do not attend college From Duty to Desire Emerging Adulthood in Europe and Its Consequences by Douglass ABSTRACT This article suggests that emerging adulthood the stage in the life cycle described by Arnett for the United States is also evident in Europe The article examines the characteristics of emerging adulthood in Europe and highlights their regional and national similarities and differences Also examined are the differences between European emerging adulthood and the American model which chie y involve the various ways European youth ameliorate economic and domestic instability This article is based on a study of one of the most salient consequences of emerging adulthood low fertility A clear sign of emerging adulthood in Europe is that historically low numbers of children are being born there Douglas Arnett proposes many things about emerging adulthood in the United States He argues it is as an extended period of both exploration and instability when many young people between ages 18 to 25 struggle with uncertainty even as a they identify with being free He proposes that Adulthood is seen by many young people as the end of independence and should be avoided It is a time for selffocus with few ties or daily obligation to others There is a time of instability with young people moving from job to job romantic relationship to another residences to another etc It is not universal period of human development It is a characteristic of cultures rather than countries and in some places more associated with social class than with ethnicity or with urban areas more than rural areas In Europe some suggest that emerging adulthood has made an appearance and research has been done that focuses on how young people talk about their decisions regarding childbearing and what young people in these European countries are doing instead of having babies Results show they seem to be engaging activities of emerging adulthood Convergences European countries are at the top of the global neoliberal economic system in which the great majority of people are urban and educated middleclass Individualism is growing as many Europeans have adopted a period in their life to creating a self quotAdoption of these post materialist values of autonomy and selfassessment has also changed emphasis on marriage from children to the quality of the partner relationshipquot Traditional parents to adulthood and Western Europe have also been altered by steps toward gender equality and women39s empowerment changing family structure Another change is that the obligation to marry his weakened Phenomenon shared by all European countries is low fertilitygt see table 3 and 4 Current total fertility rate for Europe is 15 and after more than 25 years of having low fertility rates some European countries have already begun to lose population the author suggests that it may be due to the fact that middle class young pp have such a lengthy process to get to adulthood that it cuts the time available for childbearing We see that couples are not describing a change in the cost of having a child rather it is in their own definition of what appropriate childbearing is In sum in European countries the fact that childbearing today begins 10 years later than it did 50 years ago can be attributed to the length of time now devoted to the time the tasks of emerging adulthood Divergences Here we look at how quotdeeply rooted national and regional cultural practices get re ected in these transformations and explorations of love work and family Some countries have recently experienced increase of immigration as result nations of Europe have incorporated emerging adulthood along different ways We look at a survey separating 4 geographic regions according to their welfare regimes overviewing the divergences of this period of emerging adulthood 1 Nordic countries have socialist ideologies impacting middle class Because the young people are seen not as dependent but rather as individuals with the rights there are lots of cultural incentives for them to become autonomous selfreliant and responsible individuals These countries have relatively high numbers of births 2 German and French Speaking countries associate with conservative welfare ideologies give support to families rather than individuals German youth unemployment is generally low where as in France this is not the case In France they have the highest fertility and Germany has the lowest Both have problems integrating their large immigrant Muslim populations 3 AngloSaxon countries associated with liberal welfare emphasizing the central role of the market Youngsters in these countries tend to finish their education earliest leave home early and tend to form cohabiting unions early Also there is shown in the United Kingdom postponement of parenthood and the United Kingdom also has a high rate of teenage pregnancy 4 Mediterranean countries associated with the Southern European and welfare ideology and there has been little state aid to families always countries recently These countries have high youth unemployment as well as the latest home leaving and the latest completion of education Marriages formed extremely late w average age at marriage 30 for women 5 Post socialist Eastern European countries currently transitioning to market capitalism Women in workplace are nothing new so postponement of adulthood and parenthood is countered by the Eastern European cultural bias against women having children after late 2039s Although all of Europe may share the postponement of parenthood it does not necessarily imply homogenization of other aspects of emerging adulthood Exploration and Freedom quotFreedom is a concept spoken about by the young in many of these countries but it39s meaning variesquot Varying Emerging Adulthoods quotAspects of emerging adulthood in Europe vary significantly from the description of emerging adulthood in Americaquot For many young people in Europe it seems that marriage may no longer be the final step to adulthood Furthermore quotyouth and culture in Europe have found various ways to obviate the economic and domestic instability that characterizes American emerging adulthoodquot So emerging adulthood looks somewhat different as we investigate this phenomenon around the world as concluded by the author Poised for Emerging Adulthood in Latin America A Pleasure for the Privileged by Galambos amp Martinez ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to examine evidence regarding whether the period of the life course referred to as emerging adulthood exists or is likely to develop in Latin America Central to this examination is recognition of differences in cultural practices and expectations related to adulthood across countries and differences in gender and socioeconomic factors power access to education and degree of economic independence within countries Data from diverse sources suggest that some individuals in Latin America experience a period of emerging adulthood in which they are free to pursue different lifestyle options and delay marriage and parenthood However the data also suggest that these individuals are largely from wealthier families urban areas and more developed countries For the many Latin American youth confronted with poverty child marriage and inadequate educational and occupational opportunities emerging adulthood will probably unfold quite differently if at all even as they are increasingly exposed to new expectations about role exploration and selfdevelopment in their transition to adulthood Galambos amp Martinez Recently the average time between adolescence and the adoption of adult roles has lengthened as individuals take more time completing school getting married starting families and more We look at Arnett39s label of emerging adulthood and his argument that it is characterized at the individual level by five psychosocial characteristics which include Instability in living work education and romantic situations Intense identity exploration Selffocus Feeling inbetween Seeing possibilities or high hopes for the future We want to examine evidence for a period that could be called emerging adulthood in Latin America Latin America The Geographic Political Economic and Demographic Context Latin America includes Mexico the nations of Central America South America and partly the Caribbean The main similarity between these countries is that they have developing economies But they are obviously all very different based on things like geography histories languages religions and politics all which affect emerging adulthood The growth of globalization has enabled images associated with emerging adulthood to be brought to segments of the population Furthermore economic stagnation and poverty limit opportunities for youngsters to make the transition into adulthood Indicators such as rates of population growth female to male sex ratio health and education life expectancy39s and more have been converging with the rates in developed countries See table 1 for gross secondary school enrollment rates for selected countries w the most recent available data Along with the key indicator of secondary school enrollment comes also fertility rates which have declined enough to noticeably slow the growth of the young population and most Latin American countries But the most important indicator of the possibility of emerging adulthood is age at marriage I in Latin American countries between 21 and 39 of girls under age 18 or married which leads to early parent head look at table 1 to see teen females living in rural areas that have begun childbearing compared to urban areas Psychosocial markers of emerging adulthood in Latin America Arnett argues that quotdemographic shifts such as increased access to higher education and an older age at first marriage may be related at the individual level to psychosocial experiences associated with emerging adulthoodquot National survey in Chile for example indicated that sexual activity is occurring at earlier ages and marriage at later ages Based on limited data given only for general points can be made 1 Where emerging adulthood exists is experienced primarily by privileged members of the population 2 A limited number of studies find that some Latin American youth hold views that are consistent with identity exploration self focus and feeling in dash between 3 Survey results suggest some tempered optimism among adolescents regarding the future 4 Expectations for social equity and expanded opportunities for education have changed gender relations both within and across generations along with socialization processes that prepare you for adulthood Emerging adulthood or not The transition to adulthood in Latin America shows great diversity with respect to cultural practices and expectations associated with adulthood Emerging adulthood is probably not likely to become a phase of life in Latin America There are many reasons why it39s difficult to predict whether and how emerging adulthood can unfold in Latin quotAmerica Some reasons include Some cities contain high concentrations of poverty and inadequate sanitation and maybe plagued by gangs and violence which hinders opportunity for an extended period of exploration Is not a simple relationship urbanization and other social changes If a period of emerging adulthood develops in Latin America maybe different from that of North America It is not clear whether emerging adulthood is a characteristic of countries and cultures or of individuals nor is it clear how the construct of emerging adulthood should be operationalized an integrated at both these levelsquot Conclusions There is not that much research on the emotional cognitive and behavioral development again people online America Some goals mentioned are eradicating extreme poverty promoting gender equality through reduction of gender disparities and access to education at all levels and developing employment opportunities for use References Douglass C nd From Duty to Desire Emerging Adulthood in Europe and Its Consequences Child Development Perspectives 101108 Galambos N amp Martinez M nd Poised for Emerging Adulthood in Latin America A Pleasure for the Privileged Child Development Perspectives 109114 Nelson L amp Chen X nd Emerging Adulthood in China The Role of Social and Cultural Factors Child Development Perspectives 8691
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