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Phylogeography and Speciation

by: Sierra

Phylogeography and Speciation Biol 28600

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Notes from March 1st
Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
Joshua Springer
Class Notes
Ecology, evolution, Biology
25 ?




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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 28600 at Purdue University taught by Joshua Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
A quick pass-thru of Feb 25 material and Phylogeography • Pick up Exam I scantrons Thursday This week (G414E Lily) OR NEXT WEEK from TAs during their office hours – SEE THE SYLLABUS! – If you’re desperate to see what you got wrong and can’t wait until next week then send me an email asking for your answers. Hybridization, Speciation, and Extinction Why the ability to disperse is ^That ever existed Of about 1.9 million described species on Earth… Three Species ‘Concepts’ • Morphological— classification based on similar physical characteristics (with some allowable variation within a ‘species’ (morphospecies) • Phylogenetic— group of organisms that share a common ancestor (divergence must be sufficiently clear) • Biological— a group of interbreeding or potentially interbreeding organisms that can produce viable offspring. (Ernst Mayr, 1942) Species are the smallest evolutionarily independent units isolated because of a lack of gene flow iClicker • What is denoted by the circled area on the C phylogeny? – A) Node – B) Common Ancestor B – C) Branch – D) A & B – E) B & C A Figure 16-3 The power of using more than one species concept to ‘discover’or delineate a species Important to understand biodiversity (Endangered Species Act) and further practical significance directly relevant to ecosystem function and human health (these species important in algal blooms) Figure 16-7b Islands (especially Hawai’i) represent a natural experiment of adaptive radiation through dispersal Tell a historical narrative of speciation and dispersal over millions of years Figure 16-7a Two hypotheses of ‘dispersal and colonization’hypothesis: 1) closely related species on spatially adjacent islands 2) sequence of island formation should match branching pattern of divergence in fruit flies (molecular analysis) One of the most diverse locales on Earth for fruit flies: >1,000 species occupy MANY habitats (niches) many species are endemic to particular islands (very Figure 16-7 Figure 16-7c Okay, sure, this phylogenetic tree was generated but where’s the evidence? -used 2 mitochondrial genes (maternally inherited) -4 nuclear genes -excellent data collection and statistical analysis! Oldest taxon predates oldest Hawai’ian island, however… What Drives Diversification on Earth? • Reproductive isolation is VERY important • Environmental heterogeneity – Drives diversification into new niches • How do we explain changes in diversification rates over time? – Relatively stable/low rates of speciation – Rapid diversification in some/all groups Phylogeography • Actually, the Hawai’ian island example is one of phylogeography! • Relating divergence, speciation, gene trees (genetic phylogenies) to geography • Also the skate example from the previous lecture slides iClicker • What type of speciation is represented by the figure? – A) Sympatric – B) Allopatric – C) Rabipatric – D) Sympathetic – E) Pathetic Seychelles Chameleon from your textbook (p. 867) • Use biogeography, molecular analyses with testable predictions to understand divergence and relatedness – Human lice, clothes, and relatedness traced back to about 107,000 years ago (see text) – How did the Seychelles Chameleon get to these isolated Indian Ocean islands? – How did humans get to various parts of Earth and diversify in those locations? Seychelles Chameleon (Calumma tigris) Two hypotheses: • Vicariance: Chameleons were on the islands as they separated from Gondwana (part of the supercontinent) • Dispersal: Chameleons rode on vegetation and by chance landed on islands Answering research questions: • Use phylogenies and molecular clocks to determine which hypothesis is correct (or more likely) The takeaway from the research: • Seychellean chameleons are more closely related to African chameleons than any other in the region – Based on sequence data • Rate of changes in DNA sequences – Fewer changes (more similarity) in sequences of Seychelles and African Chameleons – More changes (more differences) in sequences of Seychelles and Indian or Chameleons from other regions Phylogeographic analyses have been done for many species • Choose a species of interest – Or of say, human health importance • HIV (see podcast from earlier this semester!) • Ebola • H5N1 Avian Flu • Trace evolutionary history – Find source! – Find other hosts, how they survive, if they have tolerance or resistance genes, etc. Chestnut blight disease on American chestnut No mycovirus Mycovirus HYTO-10-12-0273-R Small scale phylogeography of an important tree disease What about Human phylogeography? • We can trace our ancestry back to ancient humans in Africa – With some mixing with Neanderthals and Denisovans • Gene Flow between similar, closely related species while outcompeting others • More details in the next lecture • Quiz goes live after class today • Due on Saturday, March 5 at 11:59pm • Next time: Evolution and phylogeography of Humans


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