Class Note for ANT 275 with Professor Bindon at UA-Race, Ethnicity Human Variatn(3)
Class Note for ANT 275 with Professor Bindon at UA-Race, Ethnicity Human Variatn(3)
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Date Created: 02/06/15
18th and 19th Century Views of Human Variation Development of the Concept of Race Don t forget to post a comment today for our discussion Thursday George Louis Leclerc Comte de Button 17071788 I Some claim that he delineates six races I This apparently comes from Darwin s Descent of Man There is the greatest possible diversity amongst capable judges whether man should be classed as a single species or race or as two Virey as three Jacquinot sixlBuffon Darwin cites as his source Hudson Tuttle s Origin and Antiquity of Physical Man Boston 1866 George Louis Leclerc Comte de Button 17071788 I Here is the standard Physical Anthropologytext take on Button s races Laplanders polar people Tartars Mongolians Southern Asiatics Europeans Ethiopians Malays 1 Divides Linnaeus Europaeus in two and Asiaticus into three groups I Warren39s New Physical Geography by William H Brewer 1890 says that Button s races are widely accepted and he enumerates Caucasian Mongolian American Malay African Australian George Louis Leclerc Comte de Button 1707 1788 I French naturalist and author I Histoire Naturelle 44 volumes published from 17491804 I Credited by many with first use of race in its zoological sense in his 1749 volume of Natural History I Ardently opposed classification and argued against Linnaeus work George Louis Leclerc Comte de Button 17071788 I Here is what Tuttle says p 18 Button makes sixvarieties ofmankindviz PolarNegroTartar AmericanAustralianAsiatic European Kant divides man into four res ic Jacquinn three sp disagreements ofthose who have devoted themselves to this study We cannot admit that mankind can have diversitroforigin while so united byone great plan lfa species orvariety he man sprang up in Europe and another in America byagencyof conditions existing in those localiies it would be beyond probabiliythat theyshould both be formed on the samerlanwhat then ofthe possibilityofsixty three or more species being ormed on the same model Denywe may with plausibility the origin ofthe diverse races from a single pairsix thousand years ago but the bond ofunion which exists between them points to a common source Button and Race Of the Varieties of the Human Species 1749 I Button did not use the term for race in the modern sense The Danish Swedish and Muscovite Laplanders the inhabitants of NovaZembla the Borandians the Samoiedes the Ostiacks of the old continent the Greenlanders and the savages to the north of the Esquimaux lndians of the new continent appear to be of one common race the Ostiacks appear to form a shade between the race of Laplanders and the Tartars or the Laplanders the Samoiedes the Borandians the NovaZemblians and perhaps the Greenlanders and the savages to the north of the Esquimaux lndians are Tartars reduced to the lowest point of degeneracy the Ostiacks are less degenerated than the Tongusians who though to the full as ugly are yet more sizeable and shapely Button and Race in the island of Mindoro which is not far from Manilla there is a race of men called lllanghians who have all tails of fourto five inches and some of these men had even embraced the Catholic faith Those of Formosa and the Mariana islands resemble each other in size vigour and features and seem to form a race distinct from that of every otherpeople around them ln Ceylon there is a species of savages who are called Bedas they occupy a small district on the north part of the island and seem to be of a peculiar race I Nowhere in this volume does he delineate 6 races of man In another volume of Histoire he writes about6 races of cat and this usage may have crept into the literature about the history of the concept of race In other words I All humans come from a single origin I The physical differences we see between groups of people are the result of adaptation to differing l environmental conditions quot7 I if everyone were subjected to same environment for many generations we would all look similar Compare this to Graves table 31 p 39 Button and Degeneration I The peoples in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea came close to his conception of the original perfection and purity of humans Degeneration from this perfection was manifest in any direction away from Europe Argued that to avoid degeneration in the tropics and the New World Europeans must dominate and subdue nature since the Weak and vitiated savage peoples of these regions have neither the power to improve themselves nor because of their degenerate state can they bring about the necessary technological domination of nature Concluding statement in Of the Varieties of the Human Species From every circumstance may we obtain a proof that mankind are not composed of species essentially different from each other that on the contrary there was originally but one species which after being multiplied and diffused over the whole surface of the earth underwent divers changes from the influence of the climate food mode of living epidemic distempers and the intermixture of individuals more or less resembling each other that at first these alterations were less conspicuous and con ned to individuals that afterwards from continued action they formed speci c varieties that these varieties have been perpetuated from generation to generation in the same manner as deformities and diseases pass from parents to their children and that in fine as they were rst produced by a concurrence of external and accidental causes and have been con rmed and rendered permanent by time and by the continual action of these causes so it is highly probable that in time they would gradually disappear or become different from what they at present are if such causes were no longer to subsist or it they were in any material point to vary Degeneration ofthe Primordial Type I Buffon argued that skin color differences were reflective of the geographical degeneration of the primordial type He suggests restoration of the degenerate races to the purity and vigor of the original typequot would require the transplantation of the these people to a more temperate zone plus a change of diet and a long span of time Johann Friedrich Blumenbach 1752 1840 I German Anatomy Professor I Father of Physical Anthropology I Father of Craniology I Founder of Anthropology in Germany BLUMIIYDAIIH On the Natural Variety of Mankind 1775 1761 1795 I Advocates monogenism and points out that the varieties blend into one another in imperceptible ways Thus too there is with this that insensible transition by which as we saw the other varieties also run together and which compared with what was discussed in the earlier sections of the book about the causes and ways of degeneration and the analogous phenomena of degeneration in the other domestic animals brings us to that conclusion which seems to flow spontaneously from physiological principles applied by the aid of critical zoology to the natural history of mankind which is That no doubt can any longer remain but that we are with great probability right in referring a and singular as many varieties of man as are at present known to one and the same species Blumenbach Position I Blumenbach related skull shape to racial classification I He did so by placing a skull between his feet and looking down at it This became known as the quotBlumenbach positionquot I He used this technique to classify his skulls into his five racial categories 399 was Blumenbach skull collection Blumenbach and the term Caucasian l have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus both because its neighborhood and especially its southern slope produces the most beautiful race of men I mean the Georgian and because in that region if anywhere it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the original forms of mankind Blumenbach I Diverged from Linnaeus Classified man as separate from non human primates Order Bimanus vs Quadrumana On second attempt 1781 divided man into five races versus the four of Linnaeus I Split Linnaeus Asians into Mongolians for most of Asia and Malayans for Southeast Asia Critiqued Linnaeus rankings of races while explaining racial origins as degeneration from the Caucasian type I Took special exception to arguments about mental limitations of Africans Feltthat differences in skull shape and skin color among othertraits had been caused by the environment Blumenbach s five races Mongolian American Caucasian Malay Ethiopian l have allotted the first place to the Caucasian which makes me esteem it the primeval one This diverges in both directions in two most remote and very different from each other on the one side namely into the Ethiopian and on the other into the Mongolian The remaining two occupy the intermediate positions between the primeval one and these two extreme varie ies that is the American between he Caucasian and Mongolian the Malay between the same Caucasian and Ethiopian Saa jite Baartma Samuel George Morton The Hottentot 1799 1851 ve n u S I Philadelphia Physician Polygenist Founder of the American School of Brought to London in 1810 this Anthropology young South African girl was put on Measured cranial capacityvolume distlaYIaIt PUbSi fall39si museums and of braincase to assess differential universities because of her unusual worth physical appearance 39 A debate ensued between abolitionists and those who wanted Eg ggzdt z rgt oamu251 to study her from a scientific point of View Considereda great datagatherer She died at the age of 25 and her and ObJeCt39V39St skeieton was dispiayed in a palis OliverWendell Holmes praised the museum untii 1974 severe and cautious character Her sexual organs and brain were fh39s w rk displayed in the Musee de l39Homme on his death the NEW York in Paris until as recently as 1985 TI39IPUH wrote that Prohably quot0 Saarjite Baartman39s remains were sc39em39 c maquot 39quot Amer39ca returned to South Africa in 2002 enj yed a higher repma m among scholars throughout the world than Dr Morton Very careful scientist Morton on race Morton I Races are primordial diVlSthS of speCIes I I I I I Morton proposed that the ve established I Cran39a Amencana39 or39 a C9Wparat39Ye V39ew 0f races would be more aptly described as the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North groups which he divided into families and and South America Philadelphia J Dobson primary races 1839 American race American family Toltecan family Corroborate Blumenbach s fivefold racial division N39alay r3093 N39alay family POIYneSian family Concluded that the American Indians were I He thoroughly confused the definition of race descended from a common stock distinct from the and species races of the Old World based on cranial capacity Claimed that interbreeding of human races was Argued against environment causes of race formation 0 eyidence that they were members Ofme same Demonstrated significant differences in cranial SpeCIBS capacity and therefore according to him Cited eVIdence of limited fertility in hybrids intelligence among the races After an Australian women gave birth to a child by a European father she could no longer become pregnant M0nQOI39anS and caucaSIans head the St and by an Australian male report of a Polish traveler Americans and Ethiopians bring up the rear Morton39s Racial Rankings from Crania Morton39s Racial Rankings from Crania Americana Americana I Europeans I Asians The Caucasian Race is characterized by a This great division of the human species is naturally fair skin susceptible of every tint hair characterized by a sallow or olive colored skin fine long and curling and of various colors The which appears to be drawn tight overthe bones of skull is large and oval and its anterior portion full the face long black straight hair and thin beard and elevated The face is small in proportion to the The nose is broad and short the eyes are small head of an oval form with wellproportioned black and obliquely placed and the eyebrows are features This race is distinguished for the arched and linear the lips are turned the cheek facility with which it attains the highest intellectual bones broad and flat In their intellectual endowments The spontaneous fertility of the character the Mongolians are ingenious imitative Caucasus has rendered it the hive of many and highly susceptible of cultivation ie nations which extending their migrations in every learningSo versatile are theirfeelings and direction have peopled the finest portions of the actions that they have been compared to the earth and given birth to its fairest inhabitants monkey race whose attention is perpetually changing from one object to another Morton39s Racial Rankings from Crania Americana I Native Americans The American Race is marked by a brown complexion long black Iank hair and de cient beard The eyes are black and deep set the brow low the cheekbones high the nose large and aquiline the mouth large and the lips tumid swollen and compressed In their mental character the Americans are averse to cultivation and slow in acquiring knowledge restless revengeful and fond of war and wholly destitute of maritime adventure They are crafty sensual ungrateful obstinate and unfeeling and much of their affection for their children may be traced to purely selfish motives They devour the most disgusting foods uncooked and uncleaned and seem to have no idea beyond providing for the present moment Their mental faculties from infancy to old age present a continued childhood Indians are not only averse to the restraints of education but for the most part are incapable of a continued process of reasoning on abstract subjects Morton I Crania Aegyptiaca or Observations on Egyptian Ethnography Derived from Anatomy History and the Monuments Philadelphia J Pennington 1844 I Compared skulls obtained by George R Gliddon from archaeological sites in Egypt then the oldest available Deduced that racial distinctions were as prominent 6000 years ago as they were in 1840 1 Thus racial differences were primordial and unchanging The elite of Ancient Egypt he argued were Caucasians He claimed that while Negroes were abundant their social position in ancient times was the same as it is now that of servants or slaves Here he makes his strongest argument for the polygenic origins of humanity and the irreducibility of racial distinctions Josiah Clark Nott 18041873 I Well known Physician and successful Gynecologist I Key researcher on yellow fever and malaria I Pioneerfor medical education in Alabama Formed first Alabama School of Medicine I Medical director of the Confederate General Army Hospital in Mobile I Tried to limit religious influence on science Morton39s Racial Rankings from Crania Americana I Africans Characterized by a black complexion and black woolly hair the eyes are large and prominent the nose broad and at the lips thick and the mouth wide the head is long and narrow the forehead low the cheekbones prominent the jaws protruding and the chin small In disposition the Negro isjoyous exible and indolent while the many nations which compose this race present a singular diversity of intellectual character of which the far extreme is the lowest grade of humanity The moral and intellectual character of the Africans is widely different in different nations The Negroes are proverbially fond of their amusements in which they engage with great exuberance of spirit and a day of toil is with them no bar to a night of revelry Like most other barbarous nations their institutions are not infrequently characterized by superstition and cruelty They appear to be fond of warlike enterprises and are not de cient in personal courage but once overcome they yield to their destiny and accommodate them selves with amazing facility to every change of circumstance The Negroes have little invention but strong powers of imitation so that they readily acquire mechanic arts They have a great talent for music and all their external senses are remarkably acute Gould and Morton I Steven Jay Gould argues in his Mismeasure of Manquot that Morton finagled his numbers to come up with very different average cranial capacities for the racial groups with Africans at the bottom He was working from a bad photo copy and actually got the numbers wrong This was pointed out to him several times but he refused to correct the error in the reprint of his book 20 years later I Is this an example of culture influencing science the point Gould was trying to make about Morton Josiah Clark Nott 18041873 I if i had time i could multiply the proofs of the moral and intellectual inferiority of the Negro and lndian when compared with the Caucasian I Negroes could not live in the North because a cold climate so freezes their brains as to make them insane Josiah Clark Nott 1804 1873 7 i The brain ofthe Negro when compared with the l Caucasian is smaller by a tenth and the intellect is wanting in the same proportion 1 Nations and races like individuals have each an especial destiny some are born to rule and others to be ruled And such has ever been the history of mankind No two distinctly marked races can dwell together on equal terms In m run w de 39 M This skull is presented in a different orientation it39s Nott and Gliddon 1Types of Mankind 1854 prepared with George R Gliddon Object is to refute the theory of the unity of the human race to validate the inferior position of Africans Proslavery argument that became very influential in the prewar years Based on the research of Morton Agassiz Faunal Realms and Races ll Vlgrj 9 e affect l seer era oftheUrEl and nth of he Hmalayas South Ame Temperate l ioiithA me quot37 New lWiandeustralieuj 4 r n t d p 30 H e my m 39alimku WA y K Ancnc REALM innnundby nrrnanonmnz whammy AAA mHypcrbmm mum Il ASIATID HEALM lnhlblmby MONGOLBnndauhdlvidsdlnlolt n uinmrcmranrmn 0 1mm bum in nu femurens rangeoflhuonu D n mime mum in the wnmar pm 12 Cbrw39alvllmnll an mm F n clam woman mm l1r Eunupuu num rmnunn WHITEMEN Mauritanian G u Mruli39anWL fauna II n Ruf an ful ll I n mlrul Euvmm funnn J WVEWMEH fauna K n IRMAHm mm 1 an Egyptian mm M in SW and rm nanny rm Wu AM E R I DAquot MM inhabitach AMERICAN INDIANS Nam AMEMN dividcd inla N n Mania man 0 11 Alleglmrfnn Janna or mum n the Mirldlu st I I lmtfriam39m mum in hum 9 lbs Santhnm Elma Q n Tnllblaud flunk or mnna w the Rocky Manuhlu n n Mrnwurnzw runs 8 n LilliWinn fnnnn 011m Aumiu anhdlvlrlcd intn T n Mainland fnunu U in Aan mum Baum Amm dividml inn a V n Erwin frmnn W a human fauna X 1 Ouim am fauna Y I Hmm an nuns n n mummy rum w a 1M Kan Gamer finlnl Y n I mimfnm fauna Z n Magnum fauna V Af i n nEMM lnhnhlwd fry Nnnuns annsswmns noomms M 01001 HOTTENTOTE BOSJESMANSi and dlvldvd 1m au n Miami mum Eli allitan fauna in In Anyaman nun extending l Arabia dd nmalx39an mm 2 2 animn fauna f m Al anme l39nnnn gn a Caybq wdu apzhunn Ni I Maddyum diverging hum VlrEHT39INDIAN 0139 MA39IAVMI REALMinhnliitcd by LINN MAM NI IGILILLOS mildlvldedinm x39i n Duklmn hum mhda hz mfaum 1 Ir n nmnww ram lunlnding omomd mammalian V4 AUST AlIAN EMM lnhibimby PAPUANS AUSTRALIANS and divided Info Zl a Pnpnnn mum mm n Newlalland fauna VIII PMVNESAN HEAlMinhnbimhy BOUTILSHA ISLANDEM andwnmnlnz nn ml 17me tannin N B If hnl nut been in my pmr to In ow Prof Agmh a lnnlmllanalnrngardtn thncalw wf cm mp um mic adva being woman 6110 1mm Homers boiicgc 2 W10 iiii i mii v rzj leuIauiri Nott Hall 1922 Named for Josiah Clarke Nott MD 1804 1873 who founded the University39s first medical school in Mobile in 1859 I When the Mobile school was discontinued in 1920 the trustees opened a new two year medical program in this building on the Tuscaloosa campus In 1945 the medical school was moved to Birmingham and expanded to create a full school of medicine Darwin and Race I On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured m in the Struggle for Life 1859 Viewed race as signi cant division of a specres JAkin to modern subspecies IStep in the process of speciation I Species gt Races gt New Species MaleFemale Variability I Danrvin uses sexual selection to account for differences in mental powers of males and females The chief distinction in the intellectual powers of the two sexes is shewn by man s attaining to a higher eminence in whatever he takes up than can woman whether requiring deep thought reason or imagination or merely the use of the senses and hands Amongst savages there have been struggles between the males for the possession of the females which requires the aid of the higher mental faculties namely observation reason invention or imagination Consequently we might expect that they would at least tend to be transmitted chie y to the male offspring at the corresponding period of manhood Lincoln on quotthe black racequot any thing that argues me into his Douglas idea of perfect social and political equality with he negro is but a specious and fantastical arrangement of words by which a man can prove a horsechestnut to be a chestnut horse I will say here while upon this subject that l have no purpose directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution slavery in the States where it exists I believe I have no right to do so I have no inclination to do so I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and black races There is a physical difference between the two which in my judgment will probably forever forbid their living together on the footing of perfect equality and inasmuch as it becomes a necessity that there must be a difference I as well as Judge Douglas am in favor of the race to which I belong having the superior posi ion l have never said any thing to the contrary but I hold that notwithstanding all this there is no reason in the world whythe negro is not entitled to all the rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence he right of life liberty and he pursuit of happiness I hold that he is as much entitled to these as the white man I agree with Judge Douglas that he is not my equal in many respects certainly not in colorperhaps not in intellectual and moral endowments but in the right to eat the bread without the leave of any body else which his own hand earns he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas and the equal of every other man October 13 1858 Darwin on Human Variation I The Descent of Man 1871 Attempts to account for human origins and human variation Defines sexual selection as accounting for variability between males and females as well as some of the differences between the races 1 Sexual Selection is natural selection on traits related to obtaining mates for sexual reproduction Intrasexual selection Ability to compete with members of the same sex for a mate e Increased body size strength cunning intelligence Intersexual selection Attraction between the sexes a Enhanced secondary sexual characteristics Large breasts buttocks penis Darwin on Race The most weighty of all the arguments against treating the races of man as distinct species is that they graduate into each other independently in many cases as far as we can judge of their having intercrossed There is the greatest poss ble diversity amongst capable judges whether man should be classed as a single species or race or as two Virey as three Jacquinot as four Kant ve Blumenbach six Buffon seven Hunter eight Agassiz eleven Pickering fteen Bory de StVincent sixteen Desmoulins twentytwo Morton sixty Crawfurd or as sixtythree according to Burke This diversity of judgment does not prove that the races ought not to be ranked as species but it shows that they graduate into each other and that it is hardly poss ble to discover clear distinctive characters between them The Descent of Man 1871 I From the Hottentot Venus for steatopygia It is well known that with many Hottentot women the posterior part of the body projects in a wonderful manner they are steatopygousthis peculiarity is greatly admired by the men lA woman who was considered a beauty was so immensely developed behind that when seated on level ground she could not rise and had to push herself along until she came to a slope The Somal men are said to choose theirwives by ranging them in a line and by picking her outwho projects farthest to the rear Thomas Henry Huxley IExpressed the predominant view in Victorian society even among the socially progressive IClaims about Huxley s supposed racism usually issue from a quotation taken from an essay in which he is arguing for emancipation of the slaves and equal treatment of blacks and women for his time Huxley was a radical reformer and Huxley and slavery Mrs P A Taylor of the Ladies London Emancipation Society said of Huxley He believes in the doctrine of freedom or equal personal rights for all men and he pronounces the system of slavery to be root and branch an abomination thus making his physiological definition of the Negro39s place among men equivalent to an earnest plea for Negro emancipation Nay as will have been noted he goes farther and in virtue of the strength of his feeling with respect to slavery avows a state of opinion regarding the American War in which many who share his feeling with respect to slavery will refuse to go along with him A steatopygous Andaman Islands mother with child Huxley from Collected Essays 1865 it may be quite true that some negroes are better than some white men but no rational man cognizant of the facts believes that the average negro is the equal still less the superior of the average white man And if this be true it is simply incredible that when all his disabilities are removed and our prognathous relative has a fair field and no favor as well as no oppressor he will be able to compete successfully with his biggerbrained and smallerjawed rival in a contest which is to be carried on by thoughts and not by bites The highest places in the hierarchy of civilization will assuredly not be within the reach of our dusky cousins though it is by no means necessary that they should be restricted to the lowest Ethnological Society of London ESL IThe ESL was founded in 1843 by a breakaway faction of the Aborigines39 Protection Society APS The APS was an international human rights organization primarily of Quakers founded in 1837 to protect the health and wellbeing and the sovereign legal and religious rights of the indigenous peoples subjugated by colonial powers IWent on to combat slavery Ethnological Society of London ESL 1 The ESL became one of England39s leading scientific societies 1 The original members were primarily military officers civil servants and members of the clergy but by the early 1860s scientists had supplanted them This included TH Huxley and EB Tylor 1 The ESL supported Darwin against his critics championed efforts to abolish slavery and rejected more extreme forms of scientific racism 1 James Hunt as honorary secretary extended a fellowship in the ESL to Darwin in 1861 Anthropological Society of London ASL 1 The ASL was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr James Hunt Hunt claimed that it would concern itself with the collection of facts and the identification of natural laws that explained the diversity of humankind Wey supported the US Confederacy in the Civil ar The issue that most sharply divided the ESL and ASL was the quotNegro questionquot iHunt believed that Africans belonged to a different species than Caucasians that they were substantially inferior and that slavery was the role for which they were best suited 1 The ESL and ASL coexisted until 1871 when they merged to form the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Robert Knox 1 Scottish surgeon who taught anatomy at in Edinburgh 1 1850 published The Races of Man Race is everything Literature science art in a word civilization depend on it What races is he talking about lThe con ict between the Saxons and Celts lThis was the view of Irish Celts as savages not capable of being civilized because of their race 1 Hunt was student of Knox and took his cues on race from Knox
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