Class Note for ANT 475 at UA- Human Adaptability(1)
Class Note for ANT 475 at UA- Human Adaptability(1)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Altitude Adaptation Altitude Stressors Radiation cosmic ultraviolet Energy limited biota AIidity low water vapor pressure Cold 0 C MAT at 5000 meters elevation on the equator Hypoxia POZ at 5000 meters is 50 that at sea level Percent Altitude Oxygen Temperature 40 8 8 Mean Annual Temperature C 8 Sea Level 251 111 Elevation in meters Circulatory PO2 lVeolJ Arte 1 Blood Venous Blood P02 mm Hg gmsasa Sea Level 2500 m 5411 m Elevation in menus Venous P02 mm Hg Altitude Areas Areas oflhe warld ave Loan mews elevation Frisanchn issmm Altitude and 100 Barometric Pressure g so 3 3 so In 6 g 70 in mum wmu m Mleukhlywuwml E 6 MKMMWYUSA mwmwlmmvuuusn E n 50 TV a u 40 3 a so an a sum was 344 M o ropes 20000 30000 a r1 Allliudl Flisancho 1993222 Bummelrlc Pressure mm qu Physiological Changes with Altitude Physiological Changes with Altitude 2 Resting HR goes from 70 beatsmin to Memory and recall are diminished about 105 beatsmin 7 Ability to learn new tasks is most affected MaXimal HR reduced Food preferences change to emphasize Retinal circulation increases and after 5 7 sugars weeks remains elevated 7 May be due to oxygen efficiency of glucose Light sensitivity decreases within 1 hour 7 Decrease desire for fat and returns to normal after 48 hours Anorexia and weight loss Hyperventilation 4o Adult Acclimatization Hyperventilation among 33 an acclimatized lowlanders Increased pulmonary ventilation E 7 Up to doubled minute volumes 3 0 Both at rest and during exercise activity 2 20 7 Supports increased Alveolar PO2 and an 5 increased arterial oxygen saturation 7 Hyperventilation reduces alveolar PCO2 E m Shifts pH to alkaline values gt 74 o L 0 5 D 1 U 0 1 50 INSPIRED P02 mm Hg Frisancho 1993245 Structure of Hemoglobin Adult Acclimatization 2 OxygenHemoglobin Dissociation Curve 7 Right shift in the curve yields a decreased oxygen af nity at low PO2 Hyperventilation generates lower pH which increases 23diphosphoglycerate 23DPG 7 Left shift in the curve generates 0 With greater alkalinity the 23DPG effect is over ridden and the pH effect takes over Hemoglobin Dissociation 100 90 39 BD 39 7D 39 SD 39 50 39 40 39 30 39 20 quot a SATURATION OF HEMOGLOBIN 10 pH 760 Greater oxygen pH 140 pH 720 23 DPG effect I I 1 pH effect af nity at arterial P02 0 0 1D 20 30 40 50 50 70 30 90100110 OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE mm Hg Frisancho1993z192 23 DPG and OxyHemoglobin Dissociation 100 90 39 80 39 70 39 60 39 50 b no 23DPG 40 quot 3 normal 23DPG 20 added 23 DPG Increased oxygen 10 39 released at low P02 SATURATION OF HEMOGLOBIN x I n D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100110 OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE mm Hg Frisancho 1993152 Adult Acclimatization 3 Hypoxia causes bone marrow to be stimulated by an erythropoietic factor that increases the production of red blood cells 7 Within 2 hours of exposure iron turnover increases re ecting the increasing synthesis of hemoglobin Erythropoietic stimulation falls over the rst few days to a level somewhat above sea level values Adult Acclimatization 4 0 Work capacity as measured by oxygen consumption is dramatically reduced but increases over a period of2 8 weeks 7 Oxygen consumption is a function of cardiac output how much blood is pumped and the difference between arterial and venous P02 7 Drops approximately 11 for every 1000 meters above 1500 meters elevation 7 Remains 15 25 lower than sea level values Partial Acclimatization ADAPTIVE RESPONSE PARTIAL ACCUMATIZATION Adult SeaLevel Native at High Allllude HIGH LIMITED Increase Pulmonary PuImonary Diffusing Ventilanon CapacllL INCOMPLETE FUNCTIO NAL HKGH mfg1356 m ADAPTATION I Pnlynylhamlc Blood 02 minich quot5mm Canying Less man man Fe Hbgt18grl100mD Capaciw Ana an a Sea Level HIGH HIGH 5 Increase 7 Increase Carmae Oulpul Blood Flow Frisancho1993271 Developmental Acclimatization Increased lung volumes occur with development at high altitude 7 True for Andeans Himalayans and Ethiopians Increased pulmonary diffusing capacity 7 Greater alveolar area and increased capillary volume 7 Higher pulmonary blood pressure 7 Increased pulmonary ventilation Developmental Acclimatization I Work capacity of high altitude natives is comparable to that ofrelated populations native to and tested at sea level 7 Results from improved pulmonary diffusing capacity which provides higher arterial P02 and a greater arterial versus venous POZ Full Acclimatization FULL ACCUMATIZATIDN High Alumna Naxlve or sac Laval Nmivn alsed at ngn Annuals ADAPTIVE RESFONSE HIGH HlGH Increase Alveolar 5 Pulmonary Capillary Area 0 Dl umg Luna causally l coMPLErE FUNCTIONAL awmlon Aevnblc Wnrk cnpnclly Equal o lrlar Attained MODERATE MODERATE 3139a Laval Polycythamlc lncreasc ln 9 Emma alnnd a F2 Hblt lawmo mu Carrylngcauaclw Frisancho1993271 High Altitude Resident Populations Ethiopian Plateau population dates back to about 50000 years ago resident at 2500 7 3500 m 7 Ambaras Himalayas population dating back about 23000 years resident at 3500 7 5000 m 7 Tibetans Sherpa Bods Andes population dates to 10000years ago resident at 3500 7 4500 m e Aymara and Quechua Comparison of high altitude adaptations Over Hemugluhin F39Da insured prudu lun Anerlal Oxygen Pupulauun quotr uf sea level uf REC hypuxla samrauun lEIEI 7 7 Nurmal Sea Level Ethmpian M 7 7 Nmmal T betan an 7 LuluHighquot Andean 6U Luw High shame Trhelanpupuiauuns shuw ahigh equeney 55 e u 74 ufan allelethatmereases uxygen saturanun ufhemugluhm hy ahuut 5 at rest A Genetic Pathway of Adaptation HIFl Hypoxia Inducible Factor1 is a transcription factor that alters the transcription activity of more than 40 genes in a downstream position that are related to hypoxia regulation e Erythropoietin EPO stimulates REC synthesis e Nitric Oxide Synthetase NOS Increases Niuic Oxide which causes vasodilation and affects oxygen delivery Especiallyimpunantmmituehundnaluxidativemetahulism e Heme Oxgenasel HO1 an enzyme that helps decompose heme e Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor VEGF Helps to stimulate growth ofblood vessels Native vs Newcomer Adaptive Success Less intrauterine growth retardation Better neonatal oxygenation and fewer complications offetal cardiopulmonary characteristics Enlarged lung volumes and decreased alveolar arterial oxygen diffusion gradients Higher VOzmax Better maintained increase in cerebral blood ow during exercise Tibetans only Lower hemoglobin concentrations Tibetans only Less susceptibility to chronic mountain sickness Tibetans only Tibetans vs other High Altitude Natives Less intrauterine growth retardation Greater reliance on redistribution of blood ow than elevated arterial oxygen content to increase uteroplacental oxygen delivery during pregnancy Higher levels of resting ventilation and hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness Less hypoxic vasoconstriction and lower pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance Lower hemoglobin concentrations Lower prevalence of chronic mountain sickness Sources Moore LG Niermeyer S and Zamudio S 1998 Adaptation to high altitude regional and lifecycle perspectives Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 41 2564
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