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Why Evolution

by: Sierra

Why Evolution Biol 28600


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About this Document

Notes from March 8th
Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
Joshua Springer
Class Notes
Ecology, evolution, Biology
25 ?




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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 28600 at Purdue University taught by Joshua Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Announcements • Exam II is on March 21, 8—10pm • Last/Surname begins with O—Z – Go to WTHR 200 – PLUS those with accommodations that are NOT going to the DRC to take the test • Last/Surname begins with A—N – Go to EE 129 • Bring a pencil and calculator • You MUST show your student ID when you turn in your exam! • No lecture on March 22 = Compensation Day • Lecture will resume on March 24 Studying for Exam II • Start yesterday! • Read textbook material – Go over homework and quizzes – View lecture slides • Material including and since life history tables – Basic calculations – If equations are required you will be provided with those • Equations will be listed in the exam but you will have to choose the correct one to use A reminder about iClickers • Each question you answer you get 1 point • A correct response yields an additional 1.5 points – So, each question is worth 2.5 points iClicker • Which of the following do humans most recently share a common ancestor with? – A) early mammals – B) Gorillas – C) Chimpanzees – D) Orangutans – E) Rodents Why an (even basic) understanding of evolution is important We can better understand the relationships between species • And within a species (genetic diversity) • How viruses, bacteria, and other organisms that affect human health have evolved – HIV (see podcast posted in Week 1) – Flu viruses (especially important) • How antibiotics can become useless over time Cytochrome c is an important component in electron transport Why do flu vaccines not always work 100%? • Clean water and vaccines have improved human health greater than many things • Viruses evolve rapidly – Proofreading mechanisms are nearly non-existent when viruses are multiplying • 1 point mutation per genome per replication cycle – Viruses can recombine easily • Pick up bits from other viruses and combine them into a new virus type Evolution of the flu virus can affect all of us Flu kills Antibiotic resistance is evolution in action (and can be scary) Why labels on antibiotics you receive say to take the whole regimen and NOT stop even if you feel better! Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) • Not necessarily more virulent (disease causing) • But our actions have led to it being more difficult to treat – Drug companies do not invest much into antibiotics – Return on investment is low Genetic Modification of Organisms Genetic Modification of Organisms Tomato diversity! How pesticide resistance develops (and quite rapidly) Many crops we plant today are monocultures—each plant is nearly identical genetically to all others in the field….and it’s risky Importance of considering evolution in terms on conservation biology/ecology • Inbreeding Depression • Low Genetic variation Why understand Human Evolution? • Understand from a proper, scientific perspective where our connected history lies • Our language and cultural beginnings are evident as early as 100,000 years ago – Verifiable in many locations in the world – Language – Culture • Burying dead, care, more complex communication • Tool use • Increased cognitive capability leads to further rapid evolution – Those able to create, communicate, collaborate survived better Why have humans done ‘well’? Difficult to discern development of tool usage? development of language? Led to even more rapid evolution of societies and further culture iClicker • The most likely common ancestor of modern humans and neanderthals is probably: – A) Australopithecus spp. – B) Denisovans – C) Homo heidelbergensis – D) Homo habilis – E) Homo erectus iClicker • If two species are found to be closely related which of the following is a reasonable assumption – A) Their genomes are identical – B) Their genomes are nearly identical with some gene sequences being varied – C) They shared a common ancestor – D) They have genes that are homologous – E) more than one of these Evolution has saved and continues to save lives! Pacific Yew Evolution has saved and continues to save lives! Taxol is used to treat Ovarian, Lung, and Breast Cancers Found naturally occurring in the Pacific Yew 1 dose would destroy 4—6 trees How does Evolution solve the issue? Trace the evolutionary history of this tree and check to see if closely related tree species contain Taxol or similar compounds More evidence that Evolution has saved lives


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