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4/5 and 4/7 notes CDAE 002

by: HD

4/5 and 4/7 notes CDAE 002 CDAE 002

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World Food, Population and Development
Dr. Shoshanah Inwood
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by HD on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
4/5/16  Belo Horizonte, Brazil o 2.5 million people o If you’re too poor to buy food, you are no less of a citizen o Constitutional right to food as a right of citizenship o *video* Brazil’s Zero Hunger Program  Schools have free lunches  Cantinas for the public o Land tenure = access to land o Direct marketing o Immediate use of crops for food o People’s Restaurants  Locally grown food  50 cents/meal  Families, kids, save $, working parents and women, elderly, low income workers o Infant malnutrition drops 50% o Consumption of fruits and vegetables increases o Costs $10 mil/year, only 2% of the budget o New social mentality  Quality food for all is a public good o Not a public handout  Job training in food service  Government facilities  Creates opportunity  *iclicker question* How many children would you like to have?  Death rates o Total # of deaths per 1,000 of a population per year  Life expectancy o Estimate of average number of years a person can expect to live based on age specific death rates for a given year o Varies in different countries  Factors affecting mortality o Degeneration  Biological deterioration of body  Illness  Diseases o Infectious diseases/ parasitic diseases  HIV/AIDS  Malaria o Food insecurity and hunger can contribute to mortality as well  Exponential growth o Constant rate of growth applied to a continually growing base over time o Doubling time  Time it takes for a population to double in size  70/x  x = annual growth rate  Global goals o Reduce population and fertility o Increase wellbeing and growth  Why do you have kids? o Families around the world differ in size, traditions, lifestyles  Examples: Nigeria, India, US, etc.  Demographic Transition Theory o Population vs. poverty o Links between fertility and economic development o Theory says:  Economic development leads to lower fertility  Ignores fertility rates as factor of social and economic factors  Wealth Flows Theory (Caldwell) o Two types of Reproductive strategies  No economic gain to restricting fertility  Wealth flows from kids  parents  Economic gain to restrict fertility  Wealth flows from parents  kids o Relationship between family structure and fertility  Importance of kinship  Nuclear vs. Extended family  Nuclear  Mom, dad, children  Independence  Individualism  Extended  Kin  Group collective  Resource sharing  Population o Women can adjust fertility in response to local conditions o Demand for children in developing countries remains high  Cost is low  Provide labor  Security in old age  Etc.  Malthusian Theory o Neo-Malthusian  Economic development requires lower fertility  Masks other reasons for poverty  Age Dependency Ratio o Ration of those in labor force and those not in the labor force o Dependents  Younger than 15, older than 64 o Productive  Working age population between 15-64 o Total Dependency Ratio  (# of people age 0-14 + those 65 and older) x 100 (# of people aged 15 to 64)  China’s Great Tsunami o Globally a greater number of older people o Mandatory retirement age  60 for men, 55 for women in white collar, 50 for other women  More developed countries have aging populations  Less developed have larger young populations  Both young and old are outside of the labor force  Megacities o Urban slum  *video* Life in urban slums  high poverty  lack of infrastructure  high sense of community  concern for safety and education  lack of stability  vulnerable  predatory landlords o Four Population “Megatrends” -Shifts in power dynamics  Majority of population growth will occur in less developed countries  Most developed countries will get older  Most of world population growth will be in countries with youngest and poorest populations  Most will live in urban areas  *video* Population age structure  Population pyramids Gender and Development: Women in Population Policies  Girls education works  Gender, power, reproduction  *video* Gate’s Foundation for Family Planning  1994 Cairo Population Conference o Population is women’s issue o Rally support to help women deal with it o Confront and control consequences of:  Growing population  Growing poverty  Growing affluence  Birth control and paradigm shifts o 1964/1965 Rubella Pandemic o Zika virus  Transmitted by mosquitos  Babies are born with small heads 4/7/16  Gender Equality and Development o Beyond reproduction o Women’s triple burden  Household (cooking, cleaning, collecting water  Childcare  Work outside the home o Why focus on women?  *video* UN Women: Putting the Women’s Agenda as a Priority  What are the issues? o 70% of women are abused but only 10% are in political leadership o Physical violence o Women lack basic rights and accesses to resources such as owning land, sending kids to school, get married, mobility  What is the UN doing about it?/What are the approaches and results? o Electoral process o Stronger economies form stronger gender equality o Elect more women o Leadership training for women o Tribunals = open dialogues on violence to change the norm o ID cards o Violence Against Women  Physical abuse  Psychological abuse  Economic discrimination  Can’t get loans  Lower pay for the same work  Political disenfranchisement o Women in Development (WID)  Gender and Development (GAD)  Strengthen women’s autonomy economically and politically  Full citizenship  Freedom from violence in any form  Sexual and reproductive autonomy o Core vs. Periphery Feminism  Sisters in Islam  Indonesia  Don’t condemn Islamic beliefs  Use Qur’an to identify women’s rights  Use historical context to challenge customs  Use Qur’an to question authority with community’s culture norms o Current Strategies  Move away from “population control”  Quality of life and empowerment are the targets  Funding for pre/post natal care  Wider access to contraceptives  Policies that increase women’s status  Decrease violence and discrimination against women o Conceivable future  House party conversations for dialogue about having kids o Kenyan school boy article  Boys can be part of the problem AND part of the solution o US Women’s Soccer Team  Pay gap is $5.8 million  Filed a suit against US Soccer o Maternity and Paternity leave  World map for paid leave  World map for breaks given for breastfeeding  Not just about the women, men getting time off too is as important  Swedish Dads photo series o Typhoon Haiyan  UN agencies promote breastfeeding rather than bottle feeding because of dirty water and higher nutrients  Breastfeeding in the military o UN delegation of women’s rights  Touring in the US  Evaluating  US policies and attitudes  School  Health  Prisons o Wonder Woman  Propaganda for women who should be equal and, in this man’s opinion, should “rule the world”  Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict o How do women experience conflict? o Genocide  Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political or cultural group o Disadvantaged Majorities and Their Revenge  Genocide as an externality of the market  Genocide in Rwanda  “Ethnic Cleansing” in Rwanda  Economic inequalities among groups are the source of collective violence but not enough by themselves to ferment violence  Inequalities are exaggerated further by policies o Rwanda  In 1994 between 800,000 to 1 million people were killed  Majority of slain were Tutsis killed by Hutu militia  Most done by machete and small arms  Germany was the original occupier but then Belgium got control  Don’t put all your eggs in one basket  Legacy of export oriented agriculture  Coffee markets, price drops for coffee and tin  Drop in income for small farmers o Results in famine o Can’t purchase food  Elites depend on income from tin, coffee, foreign aid o Pressure to keep foreign aid  IMF imposes structural adjustment programs o Devalued the Rwandan franc o Price of fuel and necessities increased o Collapse in the education and health system o Peasants uproot coffee trees to grow food crops o Market for local food  Attacks o Fleeing Rwanda  Warning Signs of Genocide o Assassination o Death lists o Hate propaganda  Radio  Media o Demonization o Stockpiling of weapons o Civilian militia o Rape as a weapon o Who is Responsible for What Happened in Rwanda?  Not simply “tribal warfare”  Hutus  Tutsi leaders (before genocide they were in power)  Colonial past (Germany, Belgium)  US  France  World Bank/IMF  Debt  Characterized as “inner-ethnic violence”  “Genocide” requires military intervention by UN so they didn’t use the term until 800,000 died o Yugoslavia 1945-1980  GDP was growing  Free medical care  Etc.  1991, Soviet Union breaks apart  Yugoslavia created by: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Macedonia  Cultural, ethnic, religious divisions are fallout of economic and political fracturing  Neoliberal reforms in 1980s  Privatization  Monetary revolution  Bank reforms  Thousands laid off  IMF and WB  Reforms and structural adjustments  Non-serbs couldn’t hold jobs, hunt, fish, be in groups of more than 3, sell real estate  Ethnic cleansing  200,000 killed  2 million displaced  Mass graves  Fathers forced to castrate sons and molest daughters o Raped and impregnated Muslim women  *video* The Wounds of War  Bosnia  Woman is brought back to a rape camp 18 years after her escape  Trauma is still present, tears  Serb soldiers raped women in these camps  Painful decisions o Conflict ended with peace accords in Dayton, OH by President Clinton in 1995  Violence didn’t end until 1997 o Rebuilding and Moving Forward  National Level  Evidence of crimes  Accountability  Objective historical record  RECONCILIATION  Individual Level  Identification of the dead  Reburial and memorials  CLOSURE  Gacaca Court System  “Justice on the grass”  Focus on confession and retribution  Public process  Addresses large # of prisoners awaiting trial  Importance of healing  Sharing stories and storytelling  People need to see change in their lives  Create jobs  Development, etc.  Women and Small Business Development  Rwanda’s HDI has improved since closure and healing  Debt relief  Assisted by renewed international attention to genocide  More recognition of women  “The Court of Women” in Hague


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