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I OSR Journal of Business and Management IOSRJBZW eISSN 2278487X pISSN 23197668 Volume 15 Issue 1 Nov Dec 2013 PP 2833 www i osrjournals org The Effect of Leadership on the Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees Study at Manado State University Ficke H Rawung1 Postgraduate Manado State University Manado Indonesia Abstract This research is based on phenomenon of a work motivation of higher education administration employee in Manado State University It s interesting to stuay the ejfect of leadership on the work motivation of higher education administration employee These researches was conducted in Manado State University in T ondano City This research uses quantitative method applying a survey approach Respondents are education administration employees in Manado State University with 55 respondents This research result the hypothesis can be said according to the hypotesis leadership had a significant ejfect on work motivation It can been seen in a below 005 or below 5 That indicate that hypotesis one accepted or relationship between leadership and work motivation is significant in this research Leadership ajfectcs employee work motivation That is leadership to work motivation in higher education employee especially in Manado State University T ondano North Sulawesi Indonesia Leadership is useful to motivate employee work in the organization especially in higher education or university organization Keywords Leadership Work Motivation Employee Higher Education Administration I INTRODUCTION Development of technology and information that occurs very quickly requires individuals who have the creativity and high productivity In this case technological developments and knowledge requires individuals who are able to adapt to the change Therefore most organizations play an important role in preparing quali ed human resources are educational institutions like universities should be able to provide a quality education process and are able to create quality human resources as well It requires not only the lecturers researchers but also the operational part of the university Cortese 2013 among others human resources The existence of human resource support through the work talent creativity encouragement and a real role Without the human element in the higher education or university the university may not be able to move and headed desired Work motivation is an populer topic in work and organizational science It is broadly de ned as a set of energetic forces that originates both within as well as beyond an individual s being to initiate workrelated behavior and to determine its form direction intensity and duration Trembley Blanchard Taylor Pelletier amp Villeneuve 2009 Work motivation can be irther distinguished between intrinsic motivation ie doing an activity for its own sake because one nds the activity inherently interesting and satisfying and extrinsic motivation ie doing an activity for an instrumental reason Ryan amp Deci 2000 Trembley Blanchard Taylor Pelletier amp Villeneuve 2009 Although creativity research has relied on intrinsic motivation theory to explain creativity Amabile 1983 Amabile T 1997 Oldham amp Cummings 1996 George amp Zhou 2007 it is rarely empirically assessed in applied settings Dewett 2007 Shalley amp Giilson 2004 Tierney Farmer amp Graen 1999 with few exceptions being Shin amp Zhou 2003 Dewett 2007 Zhang amp Bartol 2010 Extrinsic motivation leads to satisfaction of employee needs indirectly through monetary compensation and has been found to be signi cant predictor of performance of RampD professionals Manolopoulos 2006 One of the important topic about works motivation is what factor impact to work motivation And the answer of this come from some research eg Rawung 2012 on her research nding that leadership has signi cant impact to work motivation in administration employee on university organization Other researcher has similar nding as this research in military organization Wagimo amp Ancok 2005 in university organization Ariyani 2011 in hospitality organizationindustry Prasastono 2012 in public service organization Widyanto amp Sutarno 2011 The results of all research nd that leadership has positively signi cant impact to work motivation Associated with the administrative aspect effectiveness of working arrangement relating to administrative services system in university is largely determined by the high quality employee Thus in terms of the administrative work services in university the important of administration employees who has high productivity and high motivation must be number one priority Rawung 2012 This research will add to both the motivation and the leadership literatures Motivation is typically believed to be in uenced by a combination of individual and contextual factors Leadership can be a power il wwwiosrjourna1sorg 28 Page T he Effect of Leadership on The Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees contextual factor Harrell 2008 This study makes important contributions to leadership work motivation public or civic organization higher education organization literatures This study purpose examine link between leadership in state university to work motivation from administration employees 11 FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES 21 Leadership Former views about leadership illustrate that it is seen as a personal capability However base on opinion of Messick and Kramer MessickampKramer 2004 that the degree to which individuals exhibits leadership depends on the characteristics and personal abilities characteristics of the location and environment in which he nds himself Furthermore Messick and Kramer Messick amp Kramer 2004 explained that since human beings could become members of an organization in order to achieve certain personal objectives the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined objectives Therefore an individual will support an organization if he believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met if not the person s interest in the organization will decline Leithwood et al Leithwood J antzi amp Seinbach 1999 contend that there is no agreed de nition of the concept of leadership Yukl Yukl 2002 adds that the de nition of leadership is arbitrary and very subjective Some de nitions are more useful than others but there is no correct de nition Cuban Cuban 1998 says that there are more than 350 de nitions of leadership but no clear and unequivocal understanding as to what distinguishes leaders from nonleaders 22 Work Motivation According to Watkiss Watkiss 2004 motivation is the way to drive person into doing something Much of the driven are the thought of a potential reward or a consequence of not doing something Motivation is the forces the people do something this is a result of the individual needs being satis ed or met so that individual has the inspiration to complete the task Motivation refersto the initiation direction intensity and persistence of human behaviour Based on the de nition of Watkiss Watkiss 2004 it can be concluded that the motivation is the idea and initiative to encourage and drive the individual to do something or to performance better jobs At one time employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research referred to as the Hawthorne Studies conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 Dickson 1973 This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes Dickson 1973 The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers Bedeian 1993 Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results Terpstra 1979 Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow39s needhierarchy theory Herzberg39s two factor theory Vroom39s expectancy theory Adams39 equity theory and Skinner39s reinforcement theory According to Maslow employees have ve levels of needs Maslow 1943 physiological safety social ego and self actualizing Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satis ed before the next higher level need would motivate employees Herzberg39s work categorized motivation into two factors motivators and hygienes Herzberg Mausner amp Snyderman 1959 Motivator or intrinsic factors such as achievement and recognition produce job satisfaction Hygiene or extrinsic factors such as pay and job security produce job dissatisfaction Vroom39s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards Vroom 1964 Rewards may be either positive or negative The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated Conversely the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated Adams39 theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs Adams 1965 Skinner39s theory simply states those employees39 behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated Skinner 1953 Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes Many contemporary authors have also de ned the concept of motivation Motivation has been de ned as the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction Kreitner 1995 a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve speci c unmet needs Buford Bedeian amp Lindner 1995 an internal wwwiosrj oumalsorg 29 Page The Effect of Leadership on The Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees drive to satisfy an unsatis ed need Higgnis 1994 and the will to achieve Bedeian 1993 For this paper motivation is operationally de ned as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals Motivation concerns energy direction persistence and equi nality all aspects of activation and intention and has been a central and perennial issue in the eld of psychology for it is at the core of biological cognitive and social regulation Ryan amp Deci 2000 Given today s economy a motivated workforce represents both a competitive advantage and a critical strategic asset in any work environment Trembley Blanchard Taylor Pelletier amp Villeneuve 2009 Organizational researchers see employee motivation as a indamental building block in the development of effective theories 23 Relation Between Leadership and Motivation At the most basic level leadership theories propose that leaders can have a power il impact on individual group and organizational outcomes Further follower motivation is thought to be a primary mechanism through which leaders exert their in uence Thus it follows that if leaders wish to improve outcomes they should enhance the motivation of their followers Harrell 2008 Work motivation or motive of work is a re ection of personal attitudes and of attitudes towards group work and collaboration Such as attitudes to every employee motivation is also to some extent in uenced by the factors of the leaders part especially by the leaders wisdom Rawung 2012 Motivation to work is a major in uenced by employee itself make high achiever employees In the results discusing leadership issues especially in relation to work motivation it can not be forgotten issue of leadership styles There are four styles of leadership e g Rawung 2012 i where the exploitive authoritative style is very autocratic managers has less trust to his subordinates like exploiting subordinates and paternalistic act ii a good autocratic style benevolentauthoritative where the leaders or managers that are included in this system has a hidden belief trust in subordinates iii a consultative style manager where managers give little con dence in subordinates usually the case when he needs information ideas or opinions of subordinates and still want to control the decisions he made and iv participatory group style participative group where the manager has perfect con dence against subordinates In each issue always count on to get ideas and opinions are from subordinates and subordinates intends to using the opinion constructively Rawung 2012 Based on research conducted several experts associated with work motivation which essentially says that the model oriented leadership to subordinates employees will result in increased motivation to employee work So it can be stated that the onset of the motive or motivation a key condition for the achievement of organization Based theoretical concepts above it can be expected there is a positive leadership indirectly in uence the work motivation Rawung 2012 Wagimo amp Ancok 2005 Ariyani 2011 Prasastono 2012 Widyanto amp Sutamo 2011 24 Hypotesis This presentation result then being consider as hypothesis which is Leadership were positively a ected on work motivation of university administration employees 25 Research Model Based on the discussion about theory and hypothesis development that has been described previously one research model can be seen in Figure below Leadership Work Motivation Lead X 7 WM Y III RESEARCH METHODS 31 Method The researches was conducted in Manado State University Minahasa Regency North Sulawesi Province of Indonesia According to data gained from Manado State University amount of students are 15768 919 lectures and academic administration staffsemployees 487 UNIMA 2013 This explanatory research is a kind of research that try to explain relationship among variables through hypothesis test This method enables research ndings to be generalized across persons settings and time Cooper amp Schindler 2010 Unit of analysis in this research is administration staff of Manado State University Population is the entire group of people events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate Sekaran amp Bougie 2010 According to Sekaran and Bougie 2009 sample is a subset of a population that comprises some members selected from it Research population is Manado State University academic administration staff and sample of this research is using purposive sampling with criteria bachelor wwwiosrj oumalsorg 30 Page T he Effect of Leadership on The Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees degree 5 years experience total 184 populations and the sample are 55 respondents taken from 30 of population Data collection techniques use a Questionaire it become main instrument in this research that address to respondent b Interview is a technic to collect data with direct interview to respondent c Documentation is a technic to learn exist company document that related with reasearch problem The data being analyzed using regression analysis with t test and F test for the hypothesis test Questionnaire apply on this research adopted from previous research used for research carry out by Rawung 2012 However the questionnaire had undergo a slight some modi cation 32 Operational De nition Leadership in conceptual de ned as the ability to in uence others to understand and agree with what was done by others judgmentsubordinates regarding emotional control problemsolving skills ability to communicate and how the ability to motivate otherssubordinates Rawung 2012 and the operational de nition is the assessment of the activities of employees in uence others to understand and agree with what was done by other people39s judgmentssubordinate the indicators eg Djaali amp Mulyono 2008 1 controlling emotions 2 the ability to solve problems 3 communication skills 4 ability to motivate others subordinates Measuring this de nition using 5 point Likert scale with 31 questions Work Motivation conceptual de nition of this term is the overall driving force within the individual that raises the work or activities which describe the behavior towards work intensitywork effort persistance to achieve purpose and the operational de nition is every employee perception to all individual power to move inside the employee that measureing someone work motivation responding by administration staff in Manado State University organization Rawung 2012 Measuring this de nition using 5 point Likert scale with 27 questions 33 Validity and Reliability Test The reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability Consistency indicates how well the items measuring a concept hang together as a setCronbach s alpha is a reliability coef cient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another Sekaran and Bougie 2009 Since reliable scales are not necessarily valid researchers also need to be concerned about validity It assesses whether a scale measures what is supposed to be measured Thus validity is a measure of accuracy in measurement Hair Tatham amp Black 2010 IV Results 41 Research Object Description Data collection for respondent pro le from 55 respondents all had bachelor degree minimal experience in Manado State University 5 years or more Majority of respondents are female age 3140 years old speciality in Economy Management and Social Administration year experiences 5 to 10 years 42 Instruments Validity and Reliability Testing After conducting face and content validity the next step is convergent validity test to reinforce legality of research instrument This convergent analysis being perform in order to obtain question item which can il ll the requirement of good question item that accumulate into one variable Hair et al 2010 The validity and realibility of research instrument especially the questionnaire instrument tested and the result that the validity and reliability of this instrument for questionnaire capable for eld research to the respondents 43 Hypotesis Testing Hypotesis testing in this research showed in the Hypotesis testing in Table 41 below Table 41 Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Relation Coef cient TStat TTable 0t Condition H1 Lead 9 WM 0528 4966 200 0000 Accepted Signi cant Note sig At the 5 Source processed primary data 2013 In the hypothesis can be said according to the hypotesis leadership had a signi cant effect on work motivation It can been seen in 0t below 005 or below 5 That indicate that hypotesis one accepted or relationship between leadership and work motivation is signi cant in this research especially leadership to work motivation in education administration employee higher education organization in Manado State University Tondano North Sulawesi Indonesia wwwiosrjoumalsorg 31 Page The Effect of Leadership on The Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees V Result Discussion The test results shows that the effect of leadership on work motivation and the relationship signi cant and positive It can be concluded that leadership has effecting to work motivation Meaning the leadership in Manado State University especially give motivation work to employee who works in that organization This because of the most basic level leadership propose that leaders can have a powerful impact on individual group and organizational outcomes Further follower motivation is thought to be a primary mechanism through which leaders exert their in uence Thus it follows that if leaders wish to improve outcomes they should enhance the motivation of their followers These result are consistent with research conducted by some research and author in many different organizations Rawung 2012 Wagimo amp Ancok 2005 Ariyani 2011 Prasastono 2012 Widyanto amp Sutamo 2011 According to Rawung 2012 work motivation or motive of work is a re ection of personal attitudes and of attitudes towards group work and collaboration Such as attitudes to every employee motivation is also to some extent in uenced by the factors of the leaders part especially by the leaders wisdom Motivation to work is a major in uenced by employee itself make high achiever employees In the results discusing leadership issues especially in relation to work motivation it can not be forgotten issue of leadership styles i where the exploitive authoritative style is very autocratic managers has less trust to his subordinates like exploiting subordinates and paternalistic act ii a good autocratic style benevolentauthoritative where the leaders or managers that are included in this system has a hidden belief trust in subordinates iii a consultative style manager where managers give little con dence in subordinates usually the case when he needs information ideas or opinions of subordinates and still want to control the decisions he made and iv participatory group style participative group where the manager has perfect con dence against subordinates In each issue always count on to get ideas and opinions are from subordinates and subordinates intends to using the opinion constructively Based on research conducted several experts associated with work motivation which essentially says that the modeloriented leadership to subordinates employees will result in increased motivation to employee work So it can be stated that the onset of the motive or motivation a key condition for the achievement of organization Based theoretical concepts above it can be expected there is a positive leadership indirectly in uence the work motivation VI CONCLUSION AND RECOMIVIENDATIONS Conclusion Leadership affectcs employee work motivation That is leadership to work motivation in higher education employee especially in Manado State University Tondano North Sulawesi Indonesia Leadership is use il to motivate employee work in the organization especially in higher education or university organization However different leaders has different style so to motivate work is very subjective to each leader Some leaders lead by iron hand style but some leader lead by transformational style especially to motivate Recommendations Based on nding leadership could become important factor to motivate employee in organization especially in higher education organization Because higher education is public service organization and usually related to students and lecturs or professors so leaders in this organization must become agent of change and agent of services for this organization thus motivate the employee of this organizations must one of many priority to be taken of the leaders in this organization kind Manado State University especially from the top leaders like head of university head of faculty head of the departement program and head of bireaucrat must focus their attention to motivate employee especially administration employee to get higher employee performance also higher organizational performance especially higher education or university performance References 1 Adams J S 1965 Inequity in Social Exchange In L Berkowitz Advances in Experimental Social Psychology New York Academic Press 2 Amabile T M 1983 The Social Psychology of Creativity New York SpringerVerlag 3 Amabile T 1997 Motivating Creativity in Organizations California Management Review 40 1 3958 4 Ariyani V 2011 Impact of Transformational Leadership to Universities Educational Work Motivation in City of Madiun Widya Warta 351 5 Bedeian A G 1993 Management New York Dryden Press 6 Buford J A Bedeian A G amp Lindner J R 1995 Management in Extension Colombus Ohio Ohio State University Extension 7 Cooper D R amp Schindler P S 2010 Business Research Methods Singapore McGraw Hill 8 Cortese A D 2013 MarchMay The Critical Role of Higher Education in Creating A Sustainable Future Retrieved August 2013 from Scoop0rg http scholar goo gleusercontent com s cholarq cache ogUf2AanOJ scholar goo gle comuniversityrolet0creatingqualitye ducati0namphlidampassdt05 wwwiosrj oumalsorg 32 Page The Effect of Leadership on The Work Motivation of Higher Education Administration Employees 9 Cuban L 1998 The Managerial Imperative and The Practice of Leadership in Schools Albany NY State University of New York Press 10 Daresh J 1998 Professional Development for School Leadership The Impact of US Educational Reform International Journal of Educational Research 29 4 32333 3 11 Dewett T 2007 Linking Instrinsic Motivation Risk Taking And Employee Creativity in An RampD Environment RampD Management 37 197208 12 Dickson W J 1973 Hawthorne Experiments In C Heyel Th Encyclopedia of Management 2nd ed pp 2983 02 New York Van Norstrand Reinhold 13 Djaali H amp Mulyono P 2008 Measurement in Education Sector Jakarta Gramedia Pustaka Utama 14 George J M amp Zhou J 2007 Dual Tuning In A Supportive Context Joint Contributions of Positive Mood Negative Mood and Supervisory Behaviors to Employee Creativity Academy of Management Journal 50 605622 15 Hair J F Tatham A R amp Black W C 2010 Multivariate Data Analysis Global Perspective New Jersey Prentice Hall 16 Harrell M M 2008 The Relationships Between Leader Behavior Follower Motivation and Performance Florida Departement of Psychology College of Sciences University of Central Florida 17 Herzberg F Mausner B amp Snyderman B B 1959 The Motivation T 0 Work New York John Wiley amp Sons 18 Higgnis J M 1994 The Management Challange New York MacMillan 19 Kreitner R 1995 Management Boston Houghton Mif in Company 20 Leadership N C 2001 First Corporate Plan Launch Year 2001 2002 Nottingham National College for School Leadership 21 Leithwood K J antzi D amp Seinbach R 1999 Changing Leadership for Changing Times Buckingham Open University Press 22 Manolopoulos D 2006 What Motivates RampD Professionals Evidence From Decentralized Laboratories in Greece International Journal of Human Resource Management I 7 616647 23 Maslow A H 1943 A Theory of Human Motivation Psychological Review 3703 96 24 Messick D M amp Kramer R M 2004 Psychology of Leadership Some New Approached Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Incorporated 25 Oldham G R amp Cummings A 1996 Employee Creativity Personal and Context Factors at Work Academy of Management Journal 39 607634 26 Prasastono N 2012 The Impact of Leadership Style and Compensation To Employee Work Motivation in Semarang Muria Hotel Jurnal Ilmiah Dinamika Kepariwisataan I I 2 323 9 27 Rawung F H 2012 The Effect of Leadership Work Facilities Work Ethic on The Work Motivation of Civil Administration in Manado State University Jakarta Postgraduate Jakarta State University 28 Ryan R M amp Deci E L 2000 Self Determination Theory and The Facilitation of Interinsic Motivation Social Developmen and Well Being American Psychologist 55 6878 29 Sekaran U amp Bougie R 2010 Research Methods for Business A Skill Building Approach London John Wiley amp Sons 30 Shalley C E amp Giilson L L 2004 What Leaders Need To Know A Review of Social and Contextual Factors That Can Foster or Hinder Creativity Leadership Quarterly 15 3353 31 Shin S amp Zhou J 2003 Transformational Leadership Conservation and Creativity Evidence from Korea Academy of Management Journal 46 703714Skinner B F 1953 Science and Human Behavior New York Free Press 32 Terpstra D E 1979 Theories of Motivation Borrowint The Best Personnel Journal 58 33 Tierney P Farmer S M amp Graen G B 1999 An Eximination of Leadership and Employee Creativity The Relevance of Traits amp Relationship Personnel Psychology 52 591620 34 Trembley M A Blanchard C M Taylor S Pelletier L G amp Villeneuve M 2009 Work Extrinsic And Intrinsic Motivation Scale Its Value For Organizational Psychology Research Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences 41 213226 3 5 UNIMA M S 2013 Manado State University in Numbers Minahasa Manado State University 3 6 Vroom V H 1964 Work and Motivation New York Wiley 3 7 Wagimo amp Ancok D 2005 Transformational and Transactional Leadership Relationship with Subordinate in Military Jurnal Psikologi 32 2 112127 3 8 Watkiss S 2004 Motivation A Study of The Motivations for Members of a Volunteer Organisation Rugby 3 9 Widyanto B amp Sutarno 2011 The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture to Employee Performance Moderating By Work Motivation Jurnal Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia 5 1 7688 40 Yukl G A 2002 Leadership In Organizations Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall 41 Zhang X amp Bartol K M 2010 Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity The In uence of Psychological Empowerment Instrinsic Motivation and Creativity Process Engagement Academy of Management Journal 53 107128 wwwiosrjouma1sorg 33 Page
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