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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 1. Ver. VII (Feb. 2014), PP 70-76 www.iosrjournals.org Entrepreneurship Education for Out-Of-School Youths in Nigeria Dr. (Mrs.) Ugomma Ebirim Department of Adult Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Abstract: This study focused on the investigation of the relevance of entrepreneurship education for out-of- school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South Local government area of Enugu State. A sample size of 267 respondents was proportionately selected from youths of Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South. The design adopted for the study was a descriptive survey. A simple structured questionnaire based on the purpose of the study was used to elicit information from the subjects. Data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and standard deviation. Some of the major findings and recommendations were: entrepreneurship education creates job opportunities, leads to poverty reduction, increases economic development in the areas, helps in the re- orientation of the individuals towards innovation, improves backwardness, etc. The findings showed that provision of properly planned entrepreneur centres in each of the Local government areas will go a long way to alleviate poverty and create job opportunities for many youths Key words: entrepreneurship education, job creation and youths I. Introduction Entrepreneurship means the capacity and the attitude of persons or group of persons to undertake a venture with the probability of success or failure. Iheduru (2002) views entrepreneurship as a process whereby an individual becomes aware of business ownership as an option of viable alternative development, learn the process of becoming an entrepreneur, the idea for the business and then undertakes the initiative to develop the business system. Whereas Druker (2007) says entrepreneurship is a process of creating or seizing an opportunity pursing it regardless of the resources currently controlled. Goswami et al(2008) in a report for National Knowledge Commission, defines Entrepreneurship as the professional application of knowledge, skills and competencies and/or of monetizing a new idea, by an individual or a set of people by launching an enterprise de novo or diversifying from an existing one (distinct from seeking self-employment as in a profession or trade), thus to pursue growth while generating wealth, employment and social good. It further opined that while there are various deﬁnitions of Entrepreneurship, there are some common themes. Entrepreneurship involves risk taking, being innovative as well as using knowledge and skills to set up new ventures or diversify from existing ones. Entrepreneurship adds signiﬁcant value to the economy by creating wealth and generating employment. Entrepreneurship is not just skill acquisition for acquisition sake, it is acquisition of skills, ideas etc for the sake of medium and sometime large scale businesses based on creativity and innovation. The success of these businesses in turn helps in building and developing the Nation through reduction in poverty rate with a viable increment in employment rate among out-of-school youths (Shirima, 2010). Entrepreneurship is widely viewed as a fundamental driver of economic growth. (Morgan et al, 2013) According to Gartner (2001), Entrepreneur is a person who started a new business where there was none before. Business expert Peter Drucker (1909-2005) took this idea further, describing the entrepreneur as someone who actually searches for change, responds to it, and exploits change as an opportunity. Schumpeter‟s (1950; 1961) well-known view is of the entrepreneur as the coordinator of production and agent of change („creative destruction‟). As such the entrepreneur is an innovator. Kirzner (1973) described the entrepreneur not primarily as someone who initiates change, but who facilitates adjustment to change by spotting opportunities for profitable arbitrage. Out-of-school youths refer to young boys and girls who are of different school ages, from primary, secondary and tertiary but, are not in any of these school systems. Entrepreneurship education is a carefully planned process that evaluates into the acquisition of entrepreneurial competence. On the other hand, entrepreneurship education skills refer to having enough ability, experience and knowledge to do something well, whereas education is a set of very valuable skills needed by the entrepreneur to avoid future trials and errors. Entrepreneurship education has many values to both individuals as well as the nation. This education has the following values according to UNESCO (1997): a) It helps in the orientation of individuals towards innovation. It also produces individuals who are capable of foreseeing the future needs arising from new ways of thinking. b) It creates awareness to the fact that the key to development is human resources. It further, emphasizes the need to human abilities, change their values and attitudes in order to accelerate the process of development; c) It emphasizes entrepreneurship as a significant variable in the development process and points it out as a career option. www.iosrjournals.org 70 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria d) It instills in the youths a longer need to achieve a larger segment of the population. Entrepreneurship education skills for out-o-school youths will foster skills, attitude and values among the youths, appropriate to start owing or working in successful business enterprise. It will give the youth the sound knowledge of the local technology, tradition and culture that are sustainable for economic development and this enables them to be self-reliant. Entrepreneurship education skills for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze local government, Enugu State will include fundamental education such as health education, work-oriented education, continuing education, nutrition, family planning, liberal education, remedial, cultural and civic education. Basic learning content include knowledge, skills, values and attitude required by human beings to be able to survive, develop their full capacities, live and work in dignity, participate fully in development, improve the quality of their lives, make informed decisions, continuing learning. Providing entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South will improve their backwardness, assist develop special attention to take up new activities, enable them make proper utilization of their potentials to increase economic growth in Nsukka region, create self-employment and generate employment opportunities and reduce poverty (Manu, 1998). There are lots of entrepreneurship education skills available for out-of-school youths which include pottery and clay work, pottery is an art of making pots for drinking water, cooking pots, plate, cups and all kinds of drinking jugs. This is a skill dominated by female members of the rural communities who do not have high level of education. Pottery and Clay Work: Youths can be empowered to produce clay materials of various designs for family use and commercial purpose by equipping them with new skills and modern techniques of working with clay. Such modern skills which will enable them produce quality clay pots, tea cups, plates, etc. they will equally glaze them to an acceptable national and international standard. Wood work: They could also be exposed to wood work. This is important for out-for-out-of school youths since the raw materials are easily and readily available in many parts of Nigeria. Wood is used by skilled carpenters in building furniture, doors, caskets, handls for building homes, animal pens cages and sculptures. No doubt therefore, that improved skills in wood work will help raise the standard and quality of lives of out-of school youths. Needle Work and Weaving: Needle work and weaving are economic activities embodied in entrepreneurship that could be made available to out-of-school youths. These out-of-school youths need modern training in the art of producing various designs in cloth making, handkerchief, table cloths and some stitches in embroidery. People in this profession are making it real big time, for instance, one buys a material for a thousand five hundred and makes it with three thousand five hundred. Farming and Gardening: Farming is the art of tending to crops and animals. It is a welcome idea, but the problem here is, that they are still practicing them the traditional way. With proper education, education, they would be able to expand and diversify in the areas of farming like venturing into rearing of snails, piggery, fish pond, plantain and coconut plantation, because these areas are very lucrative, easy to handle and have a short term maturity if, one gets the improved species, since, sustainable rural development requires that new knowledge and skills be taught to out-of-school youths through organized vocational training provided in farm centres, adult education etc. The out-of–schools youths need to be educated on the application of new technologies and techniques in farming, sources of inputs for farming, organizations or cooperative societies including ways of harvesting and preserving of the harvested and processed. They should be exposed to record keeping, accounting, decision- making and profitable marketing of these products. Out-of-school youths, should be exposed to such skill as snacks production, barbing, hair dressing, G.S.M repairs, graphic art, tie and dying, bakery, soup, cream and air fresher making. They need to have the knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which would give them the basic computer knowledge and help to have access on the recent happening in the world. ICT has improved the quality of life of people through the use of the computer and the technological devices such as the internet. It is surprising that at this age and time when ICT is bridging the world to a global village. Many Nigerian youths who are the futures of tomorrow are out-of-school. This situation would deny them the opportunity of accessing alternative means of skills acquisition, information gathering and other advantages which the ICT offer. Through ICT, out-of-school youths in Nsukka can engage in distance education (DE) or adult education to improve their educational standard. Out-of-school youths in Nsukka can also engage in the learning of computer application such as Corel draw, card making which, can help them in generating income which can assist the youths to be self-employed (Chimezie, 2003). It must be noted that virtually all the entrepreneurship efforts in Nigeria is problematic in nature may be as a result of lack of fund and political will to implement it, since most of the entrepreneurship establishment is capital intensive. Some of the business enterprises are beyond the financial capabilities of out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South, making unemployment, illiteracy and poverty level to be high. Filson (1991) says illiteracy is a giant hindrance to effective participation and contribution of out-of- school youths in business activities like clothing, bakery, furniture making, etc. In relation to entrepreneurship www.iosrjournals.org 71 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria business, illiteracy breeds superstition, lack of self-confidence and incompetence in handling one‟s business in a given environment and lack of motivation to embark on entrepreneurship skills. This may be as a result of inadequate or lack of finance or low level of education. The out-of-school youths may need to be sensitized and motivated to engage in employment-oriented training or manpower development programmes. There is high rate of unemployment, the facts on ground or literature review show that the population is increasing and job opportunities are getting leaner. The implications of these are the wholesome attitude of restiveness by out-of- school youths, unemployment among others which have exacerbated social ills and delinquent behaviors, like armed robbery, political thuggery and advance fee fraud, kidnapping, hired assassins with the government spending a lot of money on crime control (King, 1998). Statement of the Problems The availability of capital is central to the establishment and continued existence of any enterprises irrespective of size, focus and objective. The problems or some of the problems facing out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South may be lack of moral and financial support, inadequate working capital, lack education or low level of education, lack of motivation, lack of relevant skills and training and absence of entrepreneurship education. Based on the above reasons and may more, the researcher deemed it necessary to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area Enugu State. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship education for out-of- school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South Local Government Areas. Specifically, the purposes are: 1. To identify the influence of entrepreneurship for out-of-school youths in Nsukka. 2. Find out the type of entprepreneurship for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South. 3. To investigate the problems facing out-of-school youths in Nsukka from the acquisition of entrepreneurship education skills. 4. To determine ways of overcoming these problems. Research Questions 1. What is the influence of entrepreneurship for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South of Enugu State? 2. What types of entrepreneurship education skills are available for out-of-school youths in Enugu State? 3. What are the problems facing out-of-school youths from acquiring 4. In what ways can those problems be solved? Significance of the Study The findings of this study will be of interest to a large segment of Nigerians and out-of-school youths of Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South in particular. The findings will reduce poverty rate with a visible increment of employment rate among out-of-school youths. Ikeme (2007) is of the view that entrepreneurship education will enable potential out-of-school youths to create avenues for people to manage innovations, manage entrepreneur processes and keep out-of-schools youths to develop their potential as managers of creativity in a given field. It will expose entrepreneurs to a set of valuable skills they need to acquire avoid future trail and errors in the business. Finding will equip out-of-school youths with desired ski8lls for decision-making, acquisition of new ideas, new methods of raising fund and maintaining it, conservation and establishment of business relationships. It will also be of use to policy maker when formulating policies on employment. It will be of immense use to the three tiers of government as they will now be exposed to the possible and best ways of creating job opportunities for youths thereby reducing poverty. II. Methodology Design of the Study Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study to investigate the relevance of entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South Local Government of Enugu State. Population of the Study The population of the study comprises 567 out-of-school youths from the two local government areas, made up of 40 motor boys, 60 groundnut sellers, 47pure water seller, 70 barrow pushes, 261 motor-cycles riders and 89 other hawkers. www.iosrjournals.org 72 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria Sample and Sampling Technique A sample size of 267 out of the 567, out-of-school youths from Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South were proportionately selected as follows, 20 motor boys, 30 groundnuts/banana sellers, 23 pure water sellers, 33 barrow pushers, 118 motorcycle riders and 43 from other hawkers given a total of 267 respondents which is about 47.68 of the population. Instrument The major instrument used for the study was a simple questionnaire constructed based on the purpose of the study. The instrument is called Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire for out-of-school youths (EEQOSY) in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South Enugu State (EEQOSY). The questionnaire was made up to 32 items generated from the research questions. Validity of the instrument The instrument was face validated by three experts in Measurement and Evaluation, Adult Education and Centre for Entrepreneurial Development of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The comment from the expers led to some minor modifications before it was put into use. The instrument was then structured on four- point rating scales of strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD). The observation and comments by the experts gave the work a better focus. Reliability of the instrument The validated version of the instrument was trial tested to ascertain the reliability of the instrument using Cronbach Alpha method. The internal consistency coefficients of 0.67, 0.71, 0.76 and 0.72 were respectively obtained. The reliability co-efficient of 0.82 indicated that the instrument was reliable. Procedure for Data Collection The instruments were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The research question items with mean scores of 2.5 and above were regarded as accepted while mean scores below 2.5 will not be accepted. Table 1 Influence of entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youth in Nsukka Igbo-Eze South Enugu State. S/N Nsukka SD Decision Igbo-Eze SD Decision Youth (x) South(x) 1 Improve backwardness 3.43 0.70 A 3.45 0.67 A 2 Develop social attention to take up 2.72 1.10 A 2.71 1.02 A activities 3 Make proper utilization of the human2.57 0.97 A 3.22 0.93 A potentialities 4 Increase economic development of 3.14 0.92 A 3.22 0.93 A Nsukka region 5 Create self-employment 3.27 0.89 A 3.25 0.88 A 6 General job opportunities 3.12 0.98 A 3.24 0.85 A 7 Lead to poverty reduction 3.36 0.80 A 3.26 1.87 A 8 Exposes them to independent decision3.27 0.84 A 3.05 1.86 A making 9 It helps in the reorientation of ind2.91ual 1.05 A 2.88 1.18 A towards innovation. Grand mean score 2.87 1.06 A 2.87 1.06 A Data on table one reveal that entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youth in Nsukka and Igbo- Eze South is relevant with mean scores of 3.43, 2.72, 2.57, 3.14, 3.27, 3.12, 3.36, 2.91, 3.45, 2.71, 3.22, 3.22, 3.25, 3.24, 3.26, 3.05, 2.88 and a grand mean score of 2.87 and d2.87 respectively, indicating in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South local government of Enugu State. www.iosrjournals.org 73 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria Table 2 Type of available entrepreneurship education kills for out-of-school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South S/N Nsukka SD Decision Igbo-Eze SD Decision Youth (x) South(x) 10 Snacks making 2.72 1.01 A 2.68 0.99 A 11 Barbing and hair dressing 2.97 1.07 A 2.78 1.18 A 12 GSM repairs (mobile phone) 2.82 1.06 A 2.73 1.07 A 13 Graphic art, dying & bleaching 2.54 1.16 A 2.95 1.06 A production. 14 Catering services. 2.93 1.01 A 2.82 1.08 A 15 Fashion and Designing 2.94 1.04 A 3.11 1.02 A 16 Weaving and knitting 3.21 0.91 A 3.15 0.96 A 17 Poultry farming, piggery and animal 3.15 0.98 A 3.13 0.89 A rearing. 18 Bakery 2.92 0.99 A 2.97 1.00 A 19 Soap and cream making 3.35 0.76 A 3.32 0.94 A 20 Air Freshener and disinfectant makin3.04 0.94 A 3.06 0.91 A Grand mean score 3.14 0.16 A 3.13 1.07 A Table 2 shows that all the variables on the table are types of entrepreneurship education school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South with mean scores of 2.72, 2.97, 2.82, 2.54, 2.93, 2.94, 3.21, 2.15, 2.92, 3.35, 3.04, 2.68, 2.78, 2.73, 2.95, 2,82, 3.11, 3.15, 3.13, 2.97, 3.32, 3.06 and a grand mean score of 3.14 and 3.13 respectively revealing acceptance of the items. Table 3 Problems facing out-of-school youths of Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South from utilizing entrepreneurship education skills. S/N Nsukka SD Decision Igbo-Eze SD Decision Youth (x) South(x) 21 Illiteracy 3.35 0.76 A 3.32 0.84 A 22 Lack of relevant skills and training3.32 0.79 A 2.84 1.09 A 23 Lack of moral and financial support 2.86 1.06 A 2.94 1.08 A 24 Inadequate working capital 3.15 0.73 A 3.13 0.89 A 25 Low income earning. 2.92 0.99 A 2.97 1.00 A 26 Lack of motivation 3.04 1.00 A 3.09 1.97 A 27 Unemployment 3.27 0.91 A 3.06 0.98 A Grand mean score 3.10 0.95 A 3.02 1.13 A Table 3 above reveals that the problems facing out-of –school youths in Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South from utilizing entrepreneurship education with mean scores of 3.35, 3.32, 2.86, 2.86, 3.15, 2.92, 3.04, 3.32, 2.84, 2.94, 3.13, 2.97, 3.09, 3.06 and grand mean score of 3.10 and 3.02 respectively showing that the respondents are of the view that all of them are problem facing them. Table 4 Ways of solving the problems S/N Nsukka SD Decision Igbo-Eze SD Decision (x) (x) Youth South 28 Practical skills for out of school y3.04s 1.00 A 3.09 1.97 A will empower them for self-reliance and enhance crime reduction often attributed to them. 29 Creation of vocational skills remedi2.86 1.06 A 2.94 1.08 A and continuing education 30 Should be giving access to soft loan3.27 0.91 A 3.06 0.98 A 31 Should be giving access to soft loan3.32 0.79 A 2.84 1.09 A 32 Develop programmes that will assist 3.15 0.98 A 3.13 0.89 A youths to acquire skills. Grand mean score 3.10 0.95 A 3.02 1.13 A www.iosrjournals.org 74 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria Table 4 above suggest ways of solving these problems. The respondents accepted that all the items on the table are ways the problem can be solved with mean score of 3.04, 2.86, 3.27, 3.32, 3.15, 3.09, 2.94, 3.06, 2.84, 3.13 and grand mean score of 3.10 and 3.02 respectively showing agreement. III. Discussion of Results The result on table one, showed a general acceptance of the variables from respondents of both local government, that entrepreneurship education exposes the beneficiaries to the following: how jobs opportunities are created, to be employer of labour, reduce poverty, enable them to make proper utilization of their potentials and increase economic growth. These findings are in agreement with the findings of Ngwu (2003), which says that establishing entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youths in Nsukka senatorial zone will reduce their backwardness, develop special attention to take up new activities, enable them to make proper utilization of their human potentials, increase the economic development of Nsukka region, create self-employment and generate employment opportunities. Equipping out-of-school youths with entrepreneurship education will actually enhance skills for job creation and poverty reduction. The findings of research question 2 showed that there are various types of entrepreneurship education skills in both Nsukka and Igbo-Eze South local government of Enugu State. All the variables were accepted as being available by the respondents. These findings are in line with King (1998) that entrepreneurship education includes snacks production, soap making, cream, poultry farming, bakery, wood work and weaving. Though a long list of some other activities is possible. These findings are truly entrepreneurship skills which are available in various localities of Enugu state, which if properly utilized by the out-of-school youths in this part of the country will go a long way to create jobs and in-turn reduce poverty and crime rate in the area. The results on the problems of out-of-school youths from utilizing entrepreneurship education skills are many and can‟t be overemphasized as seen in this work. The result revealed that all the items were problems. These findings are right, because illiteracy, lack of relevant skills and training, lack of moral and financial support are some of the problems identified by Filson (1991) when he said that illiteracy is a giant hindrance to effective participation and contribution of out-of-school youths in business activities. This is also in agreement with Manu (1998), some of the hindrance of effective and efficient entrepreneurship education for out-of-school youths are: lack of motivation and low income earning. The finding on motivation agreed with that of Fabiyi (1995) that banks are reluctant to give out loans to intending entrepreneurs, especially when they are young. The procedures for accessing such loans are often rigorous and dependent, on the provision of collaterals which the potential entrepreneurs may not possess. The results on table four suggested that exposing out-of-school youths in both areas with practical skills would empower them to become self-reliance, training them on how to manage their own business to encourage wealth creation, generate employment opportunities will reduce poverty. These findings were in agreement with Nebo (2010) who said that given vocational educational skills to out-of-school youths will give them sense of belonging and build their self-confidence. Therefore, there is need to establish programmes in entrepreneurship centres where out-of-school youths will be trained to develop and acquire life skills. They should be provided with relevant information, knowledge, skills and attitudes that would enable them perform effectively as business men and women. Recommendations 1. In order to improve the lots of out-of-school youths, there are high needs for training in entrepreneurship skill by the Federal, State and Local governments. 2. The banks should fashion out ways of motivating this group – through soft loan provision. 3. The three tiers of government should endeavour to set up functional planned entrepreneur centres in every state of the federation to assist these groups of people. 4. Some micro-credit initiatives and facilities for small scale production should be made accessible to the out- of-school youths in both areas by the government of Enugu State. 5. Since the University of Nigeria, Nsukka is build freely on the lands of Nsukka people, its Department of Adult Education and Extra-Mural Studies should be trusted with the responsibility of organizing remedial and continuing education for them to enhance their educational status thereby improving their knowledge and motive them. References . Amlanjyoti Goswami, Namita Dalmia and Megha Pradhan (2008), “Entrepreneurship in India”, National Knowledge Commission. . Chimezie, O.S. (2003). Computer Phobia in Higher Education: How to go About it: Nigeria Journal of Curriculum Studies 10(2) 457-460. . Drucker, Peter F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper Business, . Druker, A.I. (2007). Entrepreneurship and Empowerment. New York: ODEP Publications. www.iosrjournals.org 75 | Page Entrepreneurship Education For Out-Of-School Youths In Nigeria . Gartner, William B. (2001). "Is There an Elephant in Entrepreneurship? Blind Assumptions in Theory Development.(Business research)", Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Summer 2001. . Iheduru, N.G. (2002). Women Entrepreneurship and Development: The Gendering of Micro-Finance in Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the 8 International Interdisiplinary Congress on Women 21-25, July. . John Morgan, Henrik Orzen, Martin Sefton, and Dana Sisak (2013), “Strategic and Natural Risk in Entrepreneurship: An Experimental Study”, Retrieved from http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/rjmorgan/Risk%20in%20Entrepreneurship.pdf, . King, K.S. (1998). Rethinking Small Enterprise Development between Poverty & Growth. California: Large Publication. . Kirzner, I.M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. . Ludovick Leon Shirima, PhD(2010), “Alleviating Poverty Through Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E)”, Department of Management, Warrington College of Business, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117165, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA . Manu, G. (1998). Enterprise Development in Africa. . Schumpeter, J.A. (1961). The Theory of Economic Development. New York: Oxford University Press . UNESCO (1997) Small Relevance of Entrepreneurship Education. New York: A Political Economy of Adult Education in Nigeria, Ibadan University Press. . www.iosrjournals.org 76 | Page