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Week 14: (April 4 - 8) Political Organization and Social Control - Cultural Anthropology

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 14: (April 4 - 8) Political Organization and Social Control - Cultural Anthropology ANT2410

Marketplace > University of Florida > ANT2410 > Week 14 April 4 8 Political Organization and Social Control Cultural Anthropology
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 14: Political Organization and Social Control
Cultural Anthropology
Crystal Felima
Class Notes
Cultural Anthropology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Monday, April 4, 2016 Political Organization and Social Control Power: ability to bring about results Authority: socially recognized right to exert power Dimensions of Political Organization  Extent to which political institutions are distinct from other aspects of the social structure  Extent to which authority is concentrated into specific political roles  Level of political integration (the size of the territorial group that comes under the control of the political structure) Political Structures Uncentralized political systems:  Band o The basic social unit found in many hunting-and-gathering societies o Characterized by being kinship-based and having no permanent political structure o Most bands number between 30-50 o Egalitarian o Oldest form o High value on sharing, reciprocity  Tribe o Small-scale societies composed of a number of autonomous political units sharing common linguistic and cultural features o Found most often among food producers Centralized political systems:  Chiefdom o Political authority is likely to reside with a single individual, acting alone or with an advisory council o Integrate a number of local communities in a formal and permanent way  State o Most formal & complex form of political organization o Authority of the state rests on two important foundations  Holds exclusive right to use force and physical coercion  Maintains authority by means of ideology Why the state? From band to state  More wealth  More people  More sedentism (the practice of living in one place for a long time)  More inequality and ranking  Less reliance on kinship  More internal and external conflict  Increased power and responsibility to leaders  Increased burden to citizens to support political organization  Increase use of formal, legal structures of adjudication The Modern Nation-State  Nation: a group of people who share a common symbolic identity, culture, history, and often, religion (more male attributes: Powerful, Assertive)  State: a particular type of political structure distinct from a band, tribal society, or chiefdom (more female attributes: Beautiful, Motherland)  Nation-State refers to a group of people sharing a common cultural background and unified by a political structure that they all consider legitimate. Nation as “Imagined Community” “…it is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their community.” Changing State Systems of Government  Democracy refers to the type of political system in which power is exercised, usually through representatives, by the people as a whole  Autocracy refers to the type of political system that denies popular participation in the process of governmental decision making The internet and democracy “The internet makes it possible for anyone with Internet access to have free access to information, for opposition parties to spread their agendas, and for formerly oppressed people to connect with others via e-mail to present a united front against those who would exploit them. The internet has the potential to serve as a powerful tool to fight political repression, racism, and economic exploitation” Wednesday, April 6, 2016 Political Organization and Social Control Social Control  Social norms — expected forms of behavior in a society  Deviance is a violation of social norms  Sanctions are institutionalized ways of encouraging people ton conform to the norms Universal Mechanisms  Socialization  Public Opinion  Supernatural belief systems/Religion Social Control in Small-Scale Societies  Formal laws are limited/rare  Punishment is often through naming and shaming  Punishment is legitimized through belief in supernatural forces. Social Control in State Societies  Increased specialization of tasks relating to law and order  Process is more formal and based on law The Purge Power:  People that can’t afford protection are victims of the system and the government weeds-out. Eliminates the poor and needy, it’s kind of a social natural selection  The idea of the purge is based on the American value on individualism, not caring for anyone else but yourself and maybe your immediate relatives Class Inequality:  Poor can’t afford protection  Only rich have the power to be safe during the Purge  It entitles people to kill and torture Social control:  The government control the people by regulating the aggression and mediating the violence that is “natural” for human beings. Allows people a release of all the hatred they have inside Friday, April 8, 2016 War  War is the result of antagonisms that emerge when two or more groups struggle for control of resources  War benefits corporate, military, and political elites. Causes of War  Social Problems  Perceived threats  Political motivations  Moral objectives Functions of War  Gives members a “common cause” and a common enemy  Serves as a way to gain resources (i.e. land or natural resources)  War increases employment and stimulates economy  Inspires developments that are useful to certain civilians  Serves as a way to foster patriotism  Change in family and demographics Technology and War  Nations use technology in wars for various benefits. What are those benefits? Also, what are the disadvantages?  With the increase of technology in war and presuming that nations will continue have conflicts, what could war look in the future?


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