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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 5. Ver. III (May. 2014), PP 01-06 www.iosrjournals.org Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia Harmadi¹, Djumilah Hadiwijoyo² Solimun³ Faturachman 4 1.2.3Doctoral Program in Management Sciences, Faculty of Economic and Business Brawijaya University. Abstract: Phenomena that occur on land acquisition, in general often lead to conflict between landowners and the government, so the implementation of road construction in the public interest does not run on time. The purpose of this research is to understand the process of land acquisition and pricing on toll road projects Cijago. This study used a qualitative approach with a knife phenomenological analysis involving 10 informants drawn from elements of society landowners and government representatives. The results showedthat theland acquisitionindevelopmentCinereJagorawi toll road, the sosialitation and Apraisal with objectiveto encourage the growthof public understanding aboutthe importanceof developmentin the public interestthat ultimatelypeopledo notfeelforcedtosurrendertheir land. Governmentprice-setting process is done bythe government powerthroughgood communicationwiththe fulfillment ofcommunityexpectations, will encourage the growth ofthe carrying capacity(being supportive) community towardssustainable developmentin the public interest . Keywords: Phenomenology, land acquisition, compensation, toll road. I. Introduction The issue of land acquisition always involves two dimensions that must be placed in a balanced manner that the interests of " government " and the interests of "Citizens". The two parties involved it should be equally concerned and comply with the applicable provisions of the land acquisition . If it is not honored the terms will arise problems that can lead to disputes . Dadson  said Land is a finite asset and therefore ought to be treated as such . Limited amount of land but the human need for soil tends to increase so as to make the land has a value of physical economic .Characteristic affect land values include the size and shape, the effect of soil angle, pottage , excess soil , topography, utilities , site development , location and environment . Factors that affect the economic value of the land concerning the physical characteristics of the land such as state of the environment, the shape, the size, the capacity of the land . Usilappan  explains that it takes three basic principles in managing the land acquisition management , the use of appropriate human resources , using the proper knowledge , and decision-making in the right way. Similarly, Omar and Ismail  provide information that most people are not satisfied with the amount of compensation offered by the government to land owners . Consultation with landowners merely a formality , since the actual amount of compensation has been determined by the Government. Land Acquisition in developing countries has become an interesting issue since 2007 and became a debate between land owners with those who need land [ 6 ] ;  ;  ; . Empirical studies on the land acquisition is a recent phenomenon, generally requiring land for public purposes often have difficulty in dealing with the land owner . Research on the land acquisition for public use have been conducted , but the results of the study the researchers varied. Someone mentioned that the land acquisition process has been successful because of lack of agreement in the deliberations in the pricing of land  ;  ; . There is also stating that no land acquisition successfully carried out because the land owners are not satisfied with the pricing of land given by the government such ;  Harju and Clauretie  conducted research on compensation for land owners affected by the construction of road infrastructure. Pricing is based on current land values and consistently implemented by the Government so that the construction of road infrastructure goes according to time . Similarly, research Gomes and Morgan  that the amount of compensation to people whose land was hit by the development of infrastructure , land pricing should be based on the prevailing land values. The results of the study conducted by researchers before the two differ, the land acquisition and pricing nothing works and there is not, so it becomes a crack research to conduct further research on the construction of toll roads Cinere - Jagorawi Depok , West Java. The purpose of this research is to understand the phenomenon of land acquisition and pricing by local governments in building toll roads in the region Cinere - Jagorawi Depok , West Java. www.iosrjournals.org 1 | Page Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia II. Literature Review 2.1 . The Land Acquisition concept. Land and humans have multidimensional relationships between other land as a factor of production , land as an element of the environment , land as property , as goods that have emotional value, as space and location . In the system of property right , land and human relationships set about to divide, weaken , suppress and take a right  or one bundle property rights consist of the right to own, use and transfer of land rights  . Actors involved in land is government , private landowners and parties . Government to acquire land must have clear rules that put through the standard acquisition compensation in accordance with the prevailing value of land prices . The acquisition process is not transparent much cause dissatisfaction, tension, distrust between landowners and government, as well as carrying a negative effect on the planning, implementation and development of road infrastructure development [ 23 ] In this case , Kenneth P. Davis  says The basic concept of ownership is that of tenure. This means the right or capacity to have and to hold land for certain uses. Historically,the concept of tenure long preceded the idea of individual ownership. The word “tenure” means “the holding of property, especially real estate, of or by reference to a superior. Inherent in the woed “held” is the idea of exclusion, that is to set aside and keep as one’s own by shutting out and excluding others. Another indispensable dimension of tenure is the period time for which the property is held”. The acquisition consists of three dimensions, namely fair compensation, and courage proactive decision making  2.2 . Pricing soil Concepts Dundas & Evans  stated that the determination of the price of land on the basis of the market value of the land is considered to satisfy the landowners. Kotaka  states that sufficient land pricing must meet what has been agreed in consultation . In general dissatisfaction among owners of land expropriated for public use remains a prominent phenomenon in developing countries . Ogedengbe  states that the provision of road infrastructure facilities should be compensated with reasonable pricing . Munro Faure  states that when the compensation paid to the fair and efficient procedures, the development of infrastructure will go well. Land acquisition compensation is compensation for losses is both physical and / or non-physical as a result of acquisition of land , buildings , plants , and / or other objects relating to land can provide better survival than the level of social and economic life before exposure land acquisition . Replacement land acquisition compensation is appropriate and fair to the parties entitled to the land acquisition process , while the compensation awarded land and buildings on the land and or building by simply passes through the network , and only given once . III. Metode Research 3.1 . Research Design The method used is a qualitative method of analysis knife phenomenology. Phenomenology study, according to Creswell  is " in addition, in phenomenological interviews, asking questions and relying on iinformants to discuss the meaning of their experiences require patience and skill on the part of the researcher " . This approach was chosen because this approach is able to provide a deep and detailed understanding of an event or social phenomena, as well as be able to explore the realities and social processes which are based on a growing understanding of the people who become the subject of research by the number of respondents is not a major consideration but , more emphasis on the adequacy and depth of information. This research was conducted in the village of Kalimanggis , located in the Village Harjamukti Cimanggis Depok . 3.2 . Subjects Research The subjects in this study was the informant . The informant is a party to provide information about the other party and its environment . Sampling technique was performed in this study using purposive sampling , where the researcher determine their own samples taken because there was a certain consideration to the criteria are able to explain about the land acquisition. The criteria used by : Tim Appraisal ; community leaders ; Society landowners at the site of liberation ; Society which maintains the land ; People who have received compensation ; certified land owners ; Both owners and community leaders willing to become informants . Stages proximity to the informants are investigators look for information to Sugandi land acquisition team, who have been known to appear in the print media . Of informal talks on the issues of land acquisition , researchers gain an overview of community land rights owners who refuse to support the acquisition and the ground. This stage produces 14 informants who are willing to become informants , researchers explore further the information and see where the open land rights owners to share the experience and want to become informants. www.iosrjournals.org 2 | Page Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia In-depth information needed to locate informants characterized in land acquisition. The hallmark for example , insist not want to give up their land for public use though . Then the researchers propose interviews and form filling willingness revelation . Interviews were conducted between 60-90 minutes for a total of interviews with community land rights owners . The rights of informants who submitted no compulsion to become informants , identity , and photos taken by the researcher kept confidential. Daymon and Holloway  when requested by the informant, investigators disguise the name of the informant, does not provide the data , transcripts of conversations, photos and videos to any party results (right to privacy). But of all the informants did not object name not disguised , so researchers do not disguise the name . The consideration is based on the belief that the informant was not in a depressed state informants used in this study landowners 5 ( five ) people, public figures 2 ( two ) people, land acquisition team two (2 ) persons, and the government 1 person . 3.3 . Informants The subjects in this study is composed of community informants landowners who gave the land and who refuse to be acquired . Appraisal Team , Land Acquisition Team ; P2T, community leaders and NGOs. Sampling technique was performed in this study using purposive sampling, researchers determined that the sample was taken as the criterion that is able to explain the acquisition of the land and figure out the problems examined in depth and can be trusted to be a source of information needed research . Informants who have been presented in the following table Table 3.1 Informant identity No Name, age,work, Adress Informant status 1. Sugandi, 50 years, Govermemt Jl. Mampang Prapatan 23 Jaksel Land AcquisitionLeader 2 H.Toti, 56 years, Tim Appraisal Jl. Margonda 45 Depok. AppraisalTeam Leader. 3 H Yunus, 51 t years, Goverment Jl. Margonda 34 Depok Community Leaders. 4 Zamrowi, 57 years, LSM Forkot Jl. Margonda 3 Depok. Chairman ofNGOForkot 5 Wiwin, 45 years, Goverment Jl. Margonda 67 Depok. ChairmanP2TDepok 6 Sodiyatun, 43 years Kp. Kalimanggis Cimanggis Depok. Communityland owners 7 Mudjiatun, 40 t years Kp. Kalimanggis. Cimanggis Depok. Communityland owners 8 Agustinah, 40 years Kp. Kalimanggis.Cimanggis Depok. Communityland owners 9 Nawawi Sanjaya, 60, merchant Kp. Kalimanggis.Cimanggis Depok. Communityland owners 10 H.Jalaludin, 58 years,merchant Kp. Kalimanggis.Cimanggis Depok. Communityland owners Sources: The results2012 3.4 . Data Analysis Techniques Analysis of the research data analysis refers Cresswel analysis model involves four activities that occur simultaneously , 1 . Selection meaningful statement Selection is the process of identifying meaningful statement portions of the transcripts of each informant who explains the phenomenon ( Moustakas in Chennasetti [ 34 ] . Informant Each statement read carefully and identified its meaning . Also performed on the data collected through observation and documentation. Revelation - meaningful statements (significant statetment ) made by direct response to the interview questions and explanations of experience. 2 . Description of the setting , the themes to be analyzed Coding results significantly different from the statements of each of the formulations meaning informants . Against the coding results and the provision of meaningful statements theme description is done . Description is not only done to the theme , but also carried a description of the setting 3 . Linking between theme and describe At this stage the shape patterns that show the relationship / attachment / causal themes that emerged in the study . The relationship between these themes in the form based on the premise that arise from significant statements of informants for each theme . Description is then performed based on the pattern of relationships that formed the theme . Description of relationships between themes were calculated using narrative . This narrative method is supported by a discussion of the chronology of events , pictures , helped present the results of the analysis . subsequently used to describe the prototype model of land acquisition as well as formulating the proportion of research. 4. Revealing the essence of the research findings Captures the essence of the research findings is the final step in the process of data analysis . used to help researchers uncover the essence of this research. conducted to examine the research findings in essence www.iosrjournals.org 3 | Page Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia Constructing meaning and knowledge from the research findings and explain the important findings, why is it important and what can be learned from these findings to abstract attitudes , statements and actions of informants IV. Result 1. LandAcquisitionProcess Proposition : "Socialization andgood judgmentaccompanied bythe appropriategovernmentalauthority, encouragesthe publicto supporttheprocessof landacquisition". Basedon thepropositionthatlandacquisitionhas beenraised, and thenformeda prototypemodel oflandacquisitionmodelspresentedin Figure4.1asfollows: Figure 4.1. PrototypeModelCollaborativeLandAcquisitionProcess Based on themodel ofFigure4.1thatthe factorsthatsupport thelandacquisitionprocessissocialization, assessment, controlandsupport. Socializationfactorsarewell builtofprocesscoordination, consultation, speedin decision-making, the creation ofa conducivesituation, accurate informationanddidexcellent service. FactorsGood judgmentis alsodonethrougha surveylayout, the involvement team, highobjectivity, generatepublic understandingand not causepeopleto losea goodopportunity. While thepowerfactoriswell donewithnotbehavearbitrarily, unilaterally, compulsionand surrenderto society. While thesupportfactorisraisedsincerityofthe community in supportingthe success ofthe landacquisition. 2. PriceDeterminationProcess. Proposition :"Socialization andgood judgmentaccompanied bythe appropriategovernmentalauthority, encouraging peopleto supportthe landpricing” Basedonpricingpropositionshave been put forward, thenformeda prototypemodel ofpricingmodelsis presentedin Figure4.2asfollows: www.iosrjournals.org 4 | Page Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia Based pricing prototypemodel as the model presented in Figure 4.2 , can be explained that the factors that make up the process of fixing theland price in the construction of toll roads Cijago is socialization that includes speed in decision-making by government , deliberation and consensus , and provide insight the public about the meaning of development in the public interest . Similarly, in terms of the assessment can be done well if the team reporting that prioritizes Appraisal objectivity and survey layout in accordance with field data , using the formula calculations in assessing the land and buildings that create justice and public expectations are met and ultimately successful pricing process Once grouped between the meaning turns out there are the meanings of the two have the same focus , then the meaning is considered to be saturated so that only one is raised . Furthermore, in the wake of a prototype model of land acquisition and pricing . The results ofthis studyprovethattogainsuccessin the acquisitionof landintollroad constructionCijago neededsocialization, assessment, supportand powerof thegovernmentthatfocusis directedtowardslandacquisitionandpricing. When comparedwith the results ofDing(2005) thattoobtainsuccessin the acquisitionof landinChina'sgreat economiccapitalrequiredissupportedbythe people's economy. Allactivitiesunderthe directsupervision ofthe implementationof governmentcloselyaccompanied bythe applicablerulesso there is noconflictoflandowners V. Conclusions In the construction oftollroadscijago, the most importantthingfor the governmentissocializingandgood judgmentso as toarousepeople's heartsin the success ofthe acquisition ofland. Good socializationcanbe reached bycross coordination; deliberation and consensus, rapidandprecisedecision, givethe correctinformation, provide an understanding ofthe groundrulesandprovide excellent serviceto the community. Governmentprice-setting process is done byusing the forcethat puts thewelfare ofthe community throughappropriatepricingso that peopledo notfeelforcedandno objectionin handing overthe land, which in turn expressedsupport for theconstruction oftollroads. .Existence ofthe supportofthe community, the governmentshouldincreasesocialvalueandimprovethequalityof public facilitiesweregood. References  James Dadson Optimizing Land Asset Management in Ghana – A Shared Responsibility and Recipe for Good Governance Shaping the Change XXIII FIG Congress Munich, Germany, October 8-13, 2006 1/16  Nuhu, M. B. (2007). Compulsory acquisition and payment of compensation in Nigeria: A case study of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. Being a paper presented at the FIG Commission workshop on compulsory purchase and compensation 6th - 8th Sept, 2007 at Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo,Finland  Mendie, A., Atser, J. & Ofem, B. (2010). Analysis of Public Lands Acqusition in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 31 (3), 197-203  Usilappan, M., (2000), Issues Affecting Land Acquisition in the Context of National Development, Valuation and Property Services Department, Ministry of Finance Malaysia, Unpublished  Omar and Ismail, (2005), Discrepancies in Defining Adequate Compensation in Land Acquisition: A Case Study in Malaysia, 1st REER Conference and General Meeting, UTM City Campus, K.Lumpur, 6-7 September 2005.  Von Braun, J and Meinzen-Dick. “Land Grabbing” by Foreign Investors in Developing Countries: Risks and Opportunities. IFPRI Policy Brief 13, 2009.  Cotula, Lorenzo, S. Vermeulen, R. Leonard and J.Keeley (2009). Land Grab or Development Opportunity?Agricultural Investment and International Land Deals in Africa. London; Rome, IIED;FAO; IFAD. www.iosrjournals.org 5 | Page Land Acquisition Cijago Toll Road Development In Depok City, West Java Indonesia  Zoomers, A. (2010) „Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab‟, Journal of Peasant Studies 37(2): 429–447.  DeSchutter, Oliver. “Large Scale Land Acquisitions and Leases: A Set of Core Prioncipoles and Measures to Address Human Rights Challenge.” Louvain: United Nations Special Rapporteir of rthe Right to Food, 2010.  Cuffaro, Nadia and Hallam, David. “Land Grabbing in Developing Countries: Foreign Investors, regulation and Codes of Conduct”. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, April 2011.  Ajayi MO 2001. The Landuse Act in the Context of Urban Development Policy. 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Compulsory Acquisition of Land and Compensation. 7th FIG Regional Conference Spatial Data Serving People: Land Governance and the Environment – Building the Capacity Hanoi, Vietnam,19-22 October  Presidential Regulation No. 36 of 2005 Jo Presidential Regulation No. 65 Year 2006 on Land Acquisition  ActNo.2of 2012 on land aquisition for public infrastruktur  Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among ve approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage  Daymon, C., Holloway, I., 2002. Qualitative research methods in public relations andmarketing communications, Routledge, London  Chennasetti 2010 phenomenological research method, Psicologia desd www.iosrjournals.org 6 | Page
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