Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 3
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 3
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
83012 Earth History amp Biogeography Geologic Timescale You are responsible for knowing the timescale presented inside the cover of your book Also need to know the major events relative to life on earth during the major time periods as discussed in class Plate tectonics Biogeography Lecture 3 2 ii the evolutionary play is performed in a geological theater 39 GE Hutchinson 1965 Lecture 3 3 Geologic Time Scale Wanna Vim 34mm Qummary jncem Paleocene mammals 3 2 mllllall Caucasus 135 V 5 lliilllori Jurassic i asslc MESOZOIC CENOZOIC 230 A 10mllllan ZKOV i0 mllllon 310 o m mllliun 345 m mllllon PALEOZOIC 6m 39 so mllllorl Lecture 3 Earth History Pr2czmhrizn anendizn Perind A 5 bye 7 543 mya raegmswiimheiuvmaiiun mm Eanh 6 5 biiiiunveavs am 7 Cummemai smeiusmym rVEN mug iand rMaimciimaiiciiuciuaiiuns m1 mam um buiidrup in atmosphere rounimemsunned m a supercummem annm mhem cammemsm mm and mm cammemsmthe Earth History Earth History Precambrian urVendian Period 4 5 bye 7 543 mya rLungihuuthu be devoid UHWE PmkathicandEukaNmmiweamse sumnms Hm Mmmysmmg bumbvmmvavmmvmicmbiai emum mvgmsmmmmw mammastth 1 my anvauna in Miami m5 tummyquot m Wmquot vans m 5m Bay mm 83012 Lecture 3 Earth History Earth History Precambrian or Vendian Period 45 bya 543 mya Long thought to be devoid of life 0 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic life arose Vendian Ediacaran fauna 650 to 543 mya first appearance of a group of large fossils Lecture 3 Lecture 3 MESOZOIC CENOZOIC PALEOZOIC Geologic Time Scale th ad Ye durum Qummary muavy cmmus 135 5 iulllion Jurassic 230 10 miiiian ZKO w miiiian 310 v m mitiiun 345 10 miiiion 6m so mimen 83012 Earth History Cambrian 543V 49D mya rSumhem andmasses are unned m a Supercummem Gnndwanz Fa sumhstmddhngthesamh pare rNunhAmenca Lmrmllz pans ufnunhem Eumpe and pans m Smena are sheddwvuthe equaluvrsepamted rPamhaWassm mean rema chmatewas pmnamv warmer and mare umYurm than n studav Earth History Lnu 5mmquot 5 M Earth History Cambrian 543 r 49D mya Amunam pm m the ms1urv um un mm m sthe tum when m1 u he may gvuups mammsm appear m the Vussu 12mm 13mm mew metaman mm m mm was and NEW mm raw mm was was nsma BPPEHanue nthe Cambnan exueman Emma mm m mm M mm pmtasmhessam mew mum verethe mmapawmha ena and mast mm red and yeenathJthat papumedthe v avtd swa wseas 83012 Earth History omn 4917443 mya rGunwana s mmng nunh rEnmand NewEnmand and Nwa Some are meme quotem tuwam Equatuv Jane quunhAmenca Summer and Nunhem Eumpe are waddhnuwualm roumthe am e Mmme Ovduwman the eanh Expenenced a mmev chmale mwhmhthe mathevvvas vvavmand the atrmspheve eemamee a M U1 meme Earth History Mm umewmn MM 7 mm Earth History Ordnvlclzn 49m 443 mya 7E251 knuwn Yuvthe presence U1 n5 dwevse rmwve mvenebvales and the mmmnms Camdamsvmethe me venehvmesvwlh mmemhmd were erememSmmew math and pharynx 7A prca mne cumunm censmee U hese amma S mus van and men amae pnmnueusn cephampuds cura S cwmms and gashupuds wants waded the and a mshme 83012 Earth History aanaasat Lecture 3 Earth History Silurian 443 417 mya Gondwana slips south over south pole North America Laurentia England New England Nova Scotia and Northern Europe merge Stabilization of the earth39s general climate ending the previous pattern of erratic climatic fluctuations One result of these changes was the melting of large glacial formations This contributed to a substantial rise in the levels of the major seas Lecture 3 18 Earth History MIGde Silurian 425 Ma Lecture 3 19 83012 83012 Earth History Sllurizn 443 7 417 mya 70mm 12215 made thewhv appEavance duvmg ms mg and the suunan was atsu a yemavkame me m the evmmmn m shes was and we mean anang sh Appeame atwewvuetev asquot Appeamncemm mm 7H rs atsu at mum that mm gum ewdence m Me an ram spvesewed Rerauvesmspmysana mmeues and mm games tusstsatvasmtavptams Earth History Dwnnizn 417 7 354 mya rGundWana muves nunh 7Emamenca and Gundwana are appvuachmg une anuthev Samhem Emape7pan Dreams rs appvaammg mm E umpe 7 Dwemence m maruwascmav mam hneages 7mquot huvseta s and seed mamsaPPEav 7 Devetupmem mueemke vauetahun 7 Raprd mvevsmcatmn umshes mg mthe ms samamwgransaabemeu shes and rm tagged vertebrates mam rnvade Wand 7renes1nar arthmpuds Wade and vvmmessmseusappear Eavhes1 arachmds Earth History my BMW Earth History Czlhnn emus 654 7 29m mya rCquwun uVLzumsZ masemrdar Eumpe and Nunh Amenca mm Gundwana masemrdav Am and Suuth Amenca pmduces Pangaea 4mg ummvm quotunmet and mm chrmte thvuughuunhe yeah seasun n any Ware mmswmt rone mme gleam mlmmnmy mnwamns mlhe Czhnn unus was the mumc an Wmch aHuWEd m the 1mm exmunalmn mm ram bv cenam telvapuds The mmmu egg aumm anuesms mar1s mama and thuey m repmmg an andhvpvevemngthe desmalmn mm mm mxde Earth History brw Gamaymucus Earth History L m Lallmmtemu m M 83012 Earth History Permian 290 248 mya Last period ofthe Paleozoic Era Pangea continues to form as Asia is consolidated but still separate from rest of Pangea Climate inland was extremely dry and variable in temperature Reptiles develop and diversify diapsids and synapsids Mass extinction at the end ofthe Permian Largest in the history of life 0 Devasted the sea 95 and land 75 Lecture 3 26 Earth History Late Pern uan 255 M3 Lecture 3 27 Geologic Time Scale th ad Yeas durum Qummary jzcem muavy cmmus 135 5 mllllon Jurassic ih asslc MESOZOIC CENOZOIC 230 A 10 mllllan ZKO 10 million an o in million 345 s 10 million 0 O N O m I I n we a so million Lecture 3 83012 Earth History Triassie 2487 me mya rMaxvmm Extent evpaneea Chm andMa BvPemnsAaand Brahman nm muse Mh paneea rReached pub m pub Omancuna sheav wmpa ed rSquuvs mthe perrmarr emrmurr urreeveu adapwe ramanurr rDmusauvs undemu vapm vamatmn Earth History Early mm 37 Ma Earth History Jurassic 2157 144 mya rPanuea peemsm breakup Eumpe andNanh Mencabegmm swarms crrnaana Ma awmn Mh arpepa Samh aenrar mammus nmawnnesmh spena rarrrme aerw Ma murmurs dummale Em and war are cumrmn m the sea 7 pteruaurs appear rams appear igawr valrslzed mamma s appear 83012 10 83012 Earth History Earth History tale 1am Earth History Crenaeenus 144 e 55 mya epanaea s hymen Laumsa mane Nanh Mew ma saparsleswam eanavana Arum and Samh Menm sapavae wamthe rest m eanavana Madawsmvand hydra separate mm Ausvaha and Antame Ausvaha and Newlea and sepavae quotam Antavmca Nanh Menm separateswm Emape e A shanawaea swarms easen and western th Menm cameenan tam NanhAmenmm Ma scmss aenna swan rst m manv smh canredmns 11 Earth History Iquot Lecture 3 35 Marginocephalia fringed dinosaurs Found only in Western North America Asia and Europe Found only in Cretaceous strata Triceratops s Lecture 3 36 Marginocephalia fringed dinosaurs mnvncnun an a k T pmmum r vununaaumxu Lecture 3 37 83012 12 83012 Earth History Cretaceous 144 65 mya Dinosaurs continue dominance and to diversify Modern groups of mammals insects and birds appear First owering plants appear Ends with extinction of dinosaurs Period in which life as it now exists on Earth came together Lecture 3 38 Geologic Time Scale Vezs Balm mum gloom 7 million 2 million an a 1 million 53 2 milian munms 135 smililan Jurasllc 2 O N D 2 m U u G N O m In E A in million m million in mlllinn Mississlvplan l million PALEOZOIC Lecture 3 Earth History Tertiary 65 18 mya Madagascar separates from India and India races north toward Asia Continents drift to modern positions Younger mountain ranges develop Land bridge between North and South America forms late in Tertiary Tentative contact between Africa and Eurasia Modern orders of birds and mammals appear Incredibly rapid diversi cation by mammals and modern birds to fill niches vacated by dinosaurs Lecture 3 0 13 Earth History Earth History Pleislncene 1 a e m pun yrs rountmems are we wees at thew eunem pusmuns earmasvew swm avtu renew were Maw genem and even speeee mP erSauene canxtevs masses navermg meme meeas News We were and mhers sAMve m We dav echayauenzeu w verv revue mamma s and hm Mammmhs enemeyemneme meemns anghamed mm smegma eater em ewe sums and NEW mhev avge mamma schamdem d P exsacenehahmmsm Nanh Menm we and Euvape Name harsesand mme sga aped aaassthe memo Nanh Menm Grea evatam was wm 254m anspanssatked prev Amundthe end mthe P ersauene achese creatures v em extan e mum and weed mmadem humans Earth History I m Gum Mmmmum Mm w w 83012 14 83012 Earth History Holocene 10000 ears to toda Mmbm u Nurlvj Lemvei Evidence for Continental Drift Continental Fit In 1858 geographer Antonio SniderPellegrini made these two maps showing his version of how the American and African continents may once have fit together then later separated Left The formerlyjoined continents before their separation Right The continents afterthe separation Lemma Evidence for Continental Drift Stratigraphy Alignment of stratigraphic features on continents hypothesized to be previously connected tum 15 83012 Evidence for Continental Drift 39 I l Paleocllmatlc evrdence n 39 l gt l 39 39 i 3 rSr I 1 A E i I x r r a I 39 p M r39 a I 39 Lecture 3 Evidence for Continental Drift Paleontological evidence AFRICA 39 mm mm um mpnl Lecture 3 Evidence for Continental Drift Marine Geology Sea mounts Guyots formed by volcanic action above the surface later truncated by wave action finally sunk to 12 km Emperor Seamount Chain Differential in age of continents older versus ocean basins younger Seafloor spreading midoceanic ridges as spreading centers Trenches location of crust recycling Lecture 3 16 mama tnanssunu DNEMENI coNVEMENI courwaltmmruons Hum me PLAIEEOUMDM IY ruvaauuunam rurzaouumnv lvuunnrweawunmvp Lecture 3 5n Evidence for Continental Drift Paleomagnetism Ocean ridges Basaltic rocks a the midoceanic ridges have normal field presentday magnetic properties Vl dths of the alternating magnetic stripes on the opposite sides of a ridge are often roughly symmetrical and the stripes are generally parallel to the long axis ofthe ridge Banding pattern of any one ocean closely matches that ofthe others and the ocean patterns correspond approximately to reversal timetables from terrestrial lava flows Lecture 3 51 mlgk qlumuln Narmgl magnetic polanty Reversed magnetic polarity crm u cm W Lecture 3 52 83012 17
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