Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 4
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 4
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
lamamum cumu quot mmnmw comm Deuterostome Synapomorphies Blastopore fate The names protostomes and deuterostome derive from the differing fate of the initial opening of the primitive digestive tract the archenteron in an embryo In protostomes this initial opening develops into the mouth and an opening that develops later becomes the anus In deuterostomes it develops into the anus and an opening that develops later becomes the mouth 33 MM u u mm Protostome Deuterostome Deuterostome Synapomorphies Cleavage type During the earliest stage ofdevelopment in animals a stage called quotcleavagequot because the cells cleave or divide into 2 cells there are two different ways to do this spirally and radially Spiral cleavage is characteristic of protostomes Radial cleavage is characteristic of deuterostomes autumn up ampll 11 f 1C t 3 ix Wmmu WNW Protostome Deuterostome 83112 Deuterostome Synapomorphies In protostome development The splitting of the initially solid masses of mesoderm to form the coelomic cavity is called schizocoelous development In deuterostome development Formation of the body cavity is described as enterocoelous development Red represents mesodermal cells erglmDIMl m n mum musu cummun MW mam Mmmrn WluerM u m m mm Mn Ilmnmoxml mommau W W Imluiu m mm z aquot quotMM m mm W W quotMum 2mm Hemichordata halfchordates CHORDATA EUCHORDATA A E a me can Hamiclmmala Umchmdat alwnamala New m mimmgm WW lncurrum a a quotmm mm Ptmlonn lm nun lltnum Senllyllmwod m 2 mm penas Sm mm mm mum mem EM nx larlm rum 9 545 mm mm um lculum m go mm mm clrwluv m cm W um Wing39s Darwl mqu m m ClllaledpmrynvulglIsmx 4 83112 Tripartite Body Plan A Gemrllxul HurrayMm Ht lklordllr quotMinoan 39ulltu II unL Hemichordata Glomerulus a unique excretory organ in Hemichordates a combined primitive kidney and heart Buccal diverticulum stomachord an anterior extension of the pharynx forms within the collar possibly serves to support the proboscis Resembles a notochord but the structures are not homologous collar nerve cord Buccal collar proboscxs i h gm slil buccal lube smmuchord xmommum Ambuncmm 5ng l m i l r I Mingunman Ecru909mm Avmuaoda Armando unch y 7 V gt acorn mm mm m WW Momblandn m quotmum mi i 7 7 W vim many alhcv move obsculx 39 Dhle lemlmull V i J 1 Cnldl mlu v i immm k 39 7 i commute mm m k 39 I Soowu Pmmuomim mumm 83112 83112 Chordata CHORDATA EUCHORDATA A E o m E E 8 Uniumbuwli mums Ural m1 m am incurmm a mm mm olvnl lxcumnlilymm memim mur w 5 m V H mm Y quot 7 Sammaul mumm Enllrg rhlrznx Mpmllumy lbmmnuxm ml Rinaquot kiln W I39m Hamlin ummcuium ymm Ian 1 Claudclrzulum m Cnmhrln w darn n vulei L m yum napalth n m39 Dursal hulluw nerve chum Namm Daral Mle rum cord Cllluladnmrynvulgllsihs Pharyngula Dorsal hollow nerve cord Muscle V segments Notochord Bram Anus Pharyngeal Muscular slits or cle s postanal tail Chordata Synapomorphies Pharyngula tadpolelike larvae Dorsal tubular nerve chord differentiates during development into the brain anteriorly and spinal cord that runs through the trunk and tail Brain spinal cord central nervous system peripheral sensory and motor nerves connect Notochord elongate rodlike skeletal structure dorsal to the gut tube and ventral to the nerve chord In vertebrate chordates but not cephalochordates or tunicates it is replaced by a vertebral column long before maturity Chordata Synapomorphies I Visceral or pharyngeal or gill clefts and arches these clefls are continuous slitlike passages connecting the pharynx to he exterior Embryulugical rate urthese lerts varies With tne taxuriurhit subgruup 7 Functions ofpharyrigeal slits Suspensiuhrfeedirig structures iri marry invertebrate churdates Gas Exchange iri aquatic vertebrates DEVEle inte parts urthe Ear head and neck interrestnai vertebrates Tail that extends behind the anus Chordata Synapomorphies I Endostyle a ciliated mucussecreting groove in the ventral surface ofthe pharnyx of nonvertebrate chordates eg tunicates and lancelets it aids in transporting food to the esophagus Molecular eviderice supports the traditiorial View that the ehdostyle is homologous to the vertebrate thyroid glarid uiutmn an m 83112 83112 Urochordata CHORDATA EUCHORDATA A uniumtmllw Imlm ml mm mm mm mm wnm olvlnl wmommw 59W strungm Hamichomma Umhnmm amnmaxa ala oexm Elam 1mm 5 lxmmnl mmquot mu Evilraw mm nun um um mum 5am avgm mm hmn Cmmum WWW lt mnnrm mm ummculum my a imp Clasldclwuluw m Cnmhrln m am A uunllZl m um nuituw Mm cum Clllniadnmryngulglilslhs Urochordata Urochordates have a notochord that extends from just behind the head to the tail rather than from head to tail Urochordata means quottailcordquot All species are marine and occur from the polar oceans to the tropics some species are pelagic 100 and others are sessile from sea level down to about 3 miles Body covered with an opaque tunic usually composed of a material protein and polysaccharide plus cellulose secreted by the epidermis Inside the tunic is a thin transparent layer called the mantle Urochordata Water is propelled by gills and circulates in the oral siphon through the pharynx through the gills into the atrium and out he atrial siphon Filter feed wi h an endostyle Unicellular green algae including diatoms are the main food source mucous on the pharynx wall is secreted by glands in the endostyle lncurrent s siphon to mouth Excurrent phon Atrium s with num erous slits Tunic Pharynx Excu rrent phon 0 Anus Intestine 397 39 Esophagus Stomach b Tunicate Larval Metamorphosis Tunicates most resemble chordates during their larval stage which may last only a few minutes Feltilized eggs develop in 24 hrs into freeswimming larva in which a tail notochord and dorsal nerve chord are well developed The Iana undergoes metamorphosis after a few hours or days and transforms into the highly modified adult Nolochord s Dorsal ho low nerve cord Tail Excurrenl siphon Muscle lncunenl segm enls siphon lnlesline Stomach 7 Alrium Pharynx with 5i5 83112 83112 Tunicate Larval Metamorphosis With metamorphosis the larva has significant changes that make it and the adult very dissimilar changes include loss of notochord loss of postanal tail sessile life form Urochodates 39 Three classes wi hin Urochordates Ascidiacea Thaliacea and Larvacea about 1300 species Class Ascidiacea Adult ascidians commonly called quotsea squirtsquot are sessile inhabitants of the intertidal zone Depending on the species they may be either solitary or colonial and most are monoecious hermaphrodites All are filter feeders Urochodates Three classes Class Thaliacea Thaliaceans are odd barrelshaped things commonly known as quotsalpsquot They are planktonic and free swimming near the surface ofthe open sea Their bodies are surrounded by circular muscle bands and both ends of their cylindrical body are open Urochodates Three classes Class Larvacea Larvacians superficially resemble ascidian larvae most specialized of the urochordates They build a peculiar quotmobile homequot within which they travel throughout their lives sort of a pelagic Winnebago The similarity between ascidian larvae and adult larvacians suggests that larvacians may be neotenous urochordates ie larval forms have attained sexual maturity without loss of larval structures such as the tail Euchordata CHOHDATA EUCHOHDATA Unique but an mm oral haw bums dill Vislbulo VIIIEDI orgn Prmmuphnuium Scrially nungm panas Hamichomala Urochardam Cephnlochovdala Cmnlma Buml wmbetl awamwrum nun atrium Ind Vemvk some mum Ylhl lln billn Crammn inwmu a excunnm siphon Tum 5 13333 5335 T plnllu bony mmi p 5 C M mllllon coilr Imnk Hepallc awemcuium mm In myl 39 dmmuy ylllm Camiquot cm w 60ml I um ma mama Yldvala um Discuss w Cephalochordata Dorsal hollow nnNo cnvd Curated nnamww gill sins Xmoimmnm Ambrr wmm cmmam 7 Nimkhm l Edit quotMirquot ll AIUIVWDXN Mmlld NH KI W imam mm mm X V View amphmxna lrmuromum mammamur m urchuu u l 291 39 lumcllall W y Flu many utMr mm abstain phyla mammogram 39 Pmmim m 511mm Comm Ax alumni l huur mm Cmmmmm lanemo it i com Hui 83112 Euchordata CHORDATA a EUCHOHDATA a as h u g a E i a I 3 U Unigus imai unfamium urn madman dill yustlrulai rImi organ ncunenr a axcunvnl IlDMHI Tunic Enungau naran arm has an 515mllllan annllcdivnrticulum yunrlniolmyll Glow circulatory yliam Cnmhriln widorsai A mural nouns DWI Daml Mallow NW cord Clllnlu nhllynplll nill sills Cephalochordata Cephalochordata only about 25 species Knovrm as lancelets or as Amphioxus from the Greekfor quotboth ends pointedquot in reference to their shape Cephalochordates are small eellike unprepossessing animals that spend much oftheir time buried in sand Mouth Pharyngeal sits Atrium Nutuchurd Digestluetract Dursalhulluw r Atrlupura newecurd Igggmamai muscles Tal 39 Cephalochordata Exchange gases through skin Filterfeed through gills Have Atrium Closed circulatory system Excretory cells Tail n 83112 10 Movement into Freshwater Some polen ial modi cations 7 Development or lhcreaseo musculature to mamtalh oosltloh lh rast rnovlng water bottles 7 Development or lrnproved mterhal sllteletoh to ehhahce muscular attachment Final product of such anatomical changes ea neavlly armored bottom dwellmg fllterefeedlng orgamsm navlng holaws ho palred ms and a strohg cartllagmous supportrhg rod ruhmhg the lehgth or the body r e the hrst vertebrate new Mull axldlin Paadumuvohk wuebme anmswr Gene Expression and Morphological Evolution HOX genes 7 HOX gehes assrgh oartrcular oosrtrohs to orrrerehtratrhg trssues to rorm organs llrnbs etc 7 All ammals that have been examlned have at least one Hox cluster 7 Larnpreys aho vertebrates have quadrupled therr HOX gene cluster that ls vertebrates have 4 clusters or HOX gehes located oh 4 orrrereht chromosomes 7 Changes h the mteractrohs between regulatory gehes ahd thelr target locl may be one of the most lmportaht causes or morphologrcal evolutlon 83112 12
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