Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 5
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 5
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
Reviews for Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
9612 Craniata The Craniata or craniates include all animals having a skull or cranium either cartilaginous or bony Craniates comprise all fishes including suchjawless fishes as hag shes and lampreys amphibians rep iles birds and mammals Craniates evolved at least 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion The majority of extant craniate species are represented by one group of fish the actinopterygians and by the tetrapods Other craniate groups jawless fishes sharks and chimeras the coelacanth lungfishes are considerably depauperate by comparison with their past diversity Lecture 5 l Craniata The most primitive craniate fossils are those ofthe 3 cmlong Haikouella Discovered in 1999 in southern China Haikouella had eyes and a brain but lacked a skull a derived trait of craniates Lecture 5 2 Craniata 0 In other Cambrian rocks paleontologists have found fossils of even more advanced chordates such as Haikouichthys c5mm h Haikouichthys had a skull and thus is considered a true craniate Lecture 5 3 12 Craniata vsmzanm T Frluvvvsl mm r CRAMAYA Myxmnldla Pimmyxamolnaa Gummer mnwlnulunmmym my mm m quota will llna mu uh rm m 7 mm mm Ym nmmllwmhgmmwkamllmm Bay1 m l mm o a W 5 u Weill mules Craniate Synapomorphies Cranium initially cartilaginous and brous A box of hard tissues which encloses the brain olfactory organs eyes and internal ear hag sh lamprey sh ark mules 5 Craniate Synapomorphies Neural crest cells Dorsal edges otheural plate Neural crest Neural tube Ectogerm Ectoqerrh Mlgratlh39g heural Notocmm crest cells a The heural crest conslsts of b Neural crest cells rhlgrate to bllateral bands orcells hearthe dlstaht sltes tn the embryo rharglhs orthe embryorllc rolds that MM form the neural tube Craniate Synapomorphies Neural crest cells cont 7 Neurai crest ceiis giye rise to a yariety of structures inciudi g some ofthe bones and camiage ofthe Skuii c The ceiis giye rise to some oftne anatomicai structures unique to vertebrates inciuding some oftne bones and amiage oftne skuii tmms Craniate Synapomorphies Sense organs 7 Three types of sensory organs denyeo in ontogeny frorn ectodermal placodes i e thickened patones of embryonic Skin that Sink inward toward the brain Where tney oeyeiop into sensory onarnoers oifactoiyorgan Eyes Paired acoustic ufgansufinnefeafs Tripartite brain 7 Fufer mi nindorain Muscularization of he wall ofthe pharynx Craniate Synapomorphies Diiferentiated digestive organs and extensive regionalization along the length ofthe gut tube 7 Longitudinaiiy differentiated into rnoutn and orai Eavityi pharynx Esuphagus intestinei recturn and anus e A stornacn is deyeioped in tne Gnathusturnata iavyed yerteorates and some fossii iavyiess Vertebrates 7 AH craniates naye a pancreas that produces digestiye enzyrnes and norrnones insuiin and giucagontnat reguiate biuud sugar ievei Tne pancreas Was ancestraiiy disserninated aiong tne anterior part of tne gut but becornes condensed into a Weiirdefined ufgan in tne Venebrata 7 AH craniates and cepnaiocnordates naye a iiyerornepatic ufgan thatsENEs rnany functions inciuding food sturage and production of fat ernuisifiers oiie Craniate Synapomorphies Circulatory system Composed of arteries capillaries and veins and a chambered muscular main heart located ventrally and anteriorly in the trunk In the Vertebrata the circulatory system is entirely closed The two heart chambers the athurh ahd Ve trlcle are Well apart There are additional accessory Ve ouS hearts W the head and tail which help in venous blood circulation but these are lost in the Vertebrata laws in Craniate Synapomorphies Circulatory system In gillbreathing craniates the heart pumps venous blood anteriorly into arteries and capillaries in the gills for gas exchange with water Oxygenated blood collects dorsal to the gills and ows anteriorly to the head and posteriorly to the organs and muscles and back to the heart mama M Craniate Synapomorphies Circulatory system In some Vertebrata Osteichthyes diverticula outpocketings of the digestive tract lungs or air bladder supplements or replaces gills as the respiratory organ mama 2 9612 Craniate Synapomorphies Gills Cranial nerves olfactory I optic II trigeminal V facial VII acoustic VIII glossopharyngeal IX vagus X Additional cranial nerves the ocqumotor III trochlear IV and abducent VI occur only in the Vertebrata Lecture 13 Craniate Synapomorphies Kidneys Chief excretory organs of vertebrates Although kidneys vary greatly in size shape and position among species all contain nephrons as the basic functional units Nephron is a nearly microscopic tubule that receives a filtrate of blood lacking blood cells and very large molecules The filtrate is processed by selective secretion and re absorption of materials to produce an excretory product generally urine that contains nitrogenous waste and other materials Long and complex kidney tubules occur only in the vertebrates Lecture I Vertebrata CRANIATA g s 2 a E E E 2 I VERTEBRATA Gmmoswmaia pansavvy nun In sum mam m a mum my um semacuhi mm Wows m wt mmquot um um mquot 0mm u Ymhumod mu Imm m mva Burmaquot woun m an a WWII vnurll mum umr Illaan Sam 0mm m moo mm m muspim NunII m call Lecture 15 Why are Vertebrates Chordates Pharyngula stage during ontogeny Dorsal tubular nerve chord Notochord Visceral or pharyngeal or gill clefts and arches Tail that extends behind the anus Lecture 5 Why are Vertebrates Chordates Lecture 5 Lecture 5 All chordate features are typically evident only during development Embryonic vertebrates Notochord Dorsal nerve chord Gill pouches pharyngeal clefts All vertebrates have a tail during Brain posterior part Pharyngeal cletts Notochord Nerve cord development a Tetrapod embryo early development stage c th than uhuuun lv tk It 9612 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Embryogenesis the development and growth of an embryo Vertebrate zygote fertilized egg A zygote is a typical eukaryotic cell except that 39 it contains yolk inert nutritive material 39 has the internal capacity to undergo differentiation and division Zygotes are classified on the basis of yolk deposition Oligolecithal little yolk cephalochordates marsupials placental mammals Mesolecithal medium yolk lampreys lung sh amphibians sturgeon Macrolecithal large yolk hag sh sharksrays teleost other tetrapods lama 19 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Zygotes are also classified based upon the distribution of yolk Oligolecithal eggs also isolecithal yolk thin and evenly distributed Macro Mesolecithal also telolecithal yolk thick and more concentrated at one end lama m Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Cleavage development begins after fertilization with a proliferation of cells through division but with no increase in the size of the embryo ie cleavage cells get smaller and smaller and more numerous 2vcells1ag Me 9599 Mail stage mcmis Day 2i Day 34 lama 21 9612 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Blastulae a horrow baH or ceHs one rayer thick 7 AH eerie can be rammed up D the brastura stage and Wm we d a hhaie Embryu Therefure they are said D have indeterminate cleavage e FnHuvvrng this stage if devetupment eaeh eerr is Said D have determinate developmentdependrng upun their rueatruh in the urgarrrsm The brastura Wm have a huHDWDpEmng h the bait uf eerie Dr between the brastagrse and the yurk brastocoer Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Gastrulation formation or germ rayers e The brastueuer is impunaht W the gastruratruh stage when the gut ahg the germ ayers are farmed chordamesodeml mesugenhar errsthat aggregate tn mm the Nutuchurd Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Neurulation process leading to the formation of the nervous system Accomplishes three major Namathquot things in vertebrates mm quot 39 quot Creates the neural tube which gives rise the central Nomchm 1 nervous system Creates the neural crest Epidermis V cells which migrate away mms from the dorsal surface of Neural tube the neural tube and gives 2 rise to a diverse set of cell Cmquotvquotsmum39wm wkmquotwquot types Creates the epidermis which covers over the neural tube once it is created Lecture 5 25 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Mesoderm on either side ofthe notochord become several types ofthings These cell types become such things as Myotomes muscle blocks Coelom body cavity Dermatome deep portions of skin Sclerotomes vertebrae Nephric ridges kidneys Genital ridges gonads Lecture 5 26 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Tissues in the development of different cell types these cells ultimately come to have specialized roles that are reflected in their morphology These coherent groupings form tissues There are five types of tissues Epithelial Connective Blood some do not consider this as a tissue Muscular Nervous Lecture 5 27 9612 Ve ebrate Embyrogenesis Mesenchyme Cells wandering cells Some cells are not part ofthis organized system of differentiation oftissues These cells break loose from the germ layer at some part of development and migrate through the embryo to other locations ofthe body to differentiate They come from different locations in the body ofthe embryo Primitive sex cells Skeletogenous septa Neural crest cells Ve ebrate Embyrogenesis Neural Crest Cells Parts ofthe peripheral nervous system nerve ganglia Schwann Cells myelin sheath Endocrine glands Pigment cells Skeleton and connective tissues of head Ve ebrate Embyrogenesis In the head region here are placodes that are neurogenic epidermal thickenings that evolved at the same time as NCC However their association is unclear Cells of placodes contribute to developing sense organs Olfactory placode nose Optic placode eyes Otic placode ears Lateralis placode lateral line mechanism and electroreceptors Taste buds and cranlal sensory ganglla also cornefrorn tnese olacooes 39 The erltlre lateralls S Stern offlshes and amphlblans l5 derlved from tnese olacooes These cells rnlgrate over the body of the nsn or arnonlolan to helpforrrl the lateralls System 10 Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Pharyngulation development of pharyngeal pouches aw n m am 5 u Vertebrate Embyrogenesis Pharyngulation cont um ma 1 m arth 4 mad mull um 5 32 Vertebrate Organ Systems Integument System Largest organ system ofthe body constitutes roughly 1520 ofthe body weight ofvertebrates much more in armored species Includes the skin and a series of derivatives like hair feathers scales hoofs horns glands etc The integument system includes the layers knovm as Epidermis Dennis Hypodermis am 5 33 12 11 lntegu ment System Hair d r Epidermls r quot DErmlS Sweat pure Muscle Nerve Sweat r we Adlpuse tlssuek M Elluud vessels 7 oh gland Hypudermls 39 f 7 Halrfulllcle Vertebrate Organ Systems Mineralized Tissues Hydroxyapatite a complex compound ofcalcium and phosphorus Four major types oftissues can become mineralized in vertebrates Enamelr dentine and bone are found only in the mlnerailzed Condition in the adult Cartilage l5 usually unmlnerallzed h tetrapods but l5 the mam mlnerallzed internal skeletal tissue lrl sharks cartilaginous hshes have lost true bone Osteocytes bone cells osteohlasts cells that actually make the bone Chondrocytes cells that form cartilage These CeHS are derlved from mesoderm dentlne Comes from neural Crest enamel lsfrom ectoderm Vertebrate Organ Systems Bone Dermal honeformed in the skin primitive type of vertebrate bone rst seen in jawless vertebrates like ostracoderms Endochondral hone formed inside cartilage 12 Vertebrate Organ Systems Structure of the Teeth The basic structure of the teeth of gnathostomes is like that of the odontodes the original toothlike components of primitive vertebrate dermal armor I mw Only mammals and some reptiles v t I jgfnjgggmgam archosaurs have truly rooted teeth 5 39 set in sockets thecodont teeth Acrodont teeth fused to the jaw bone Pleurodont teeth set in a shelf on the inner side of the jawbone lDenime Enamel or an 9 Replacement et39mal papllla 00quot 51 Lecture 5 Vertebrate Organ Systems Endoskeleton includes the axial and appendicular skeletons Appendicular Skeleton paired fins or limbs and girdles Lecture 5 Vertebrate Organ Systems Endoskeleton Axial Skeleton includes the cranium pharyngeal skeleton notochord vertebrae ribs The notochord is obliterated in some species segmented into small segments in others and complete in primitive vertebrates Lecture 5 9612 13 Vertebrate Organ Systems Cranial Skeleton Chondrocranium surrounding the brain if ossified then neurocranium Splanchnocranium forming the gill suppons Dermatocranium forming in the skin as an outer cover Ledme Vertebrate Organ Systems Kidneys Function in homeostatic control of water balance and waste control Metabolism produces waste products that are poisonous and these must be eliminated from the body Both functions operate with kidneys but the ancestral function of this organ system was probably for the removal of nitrogenous wastes and other metabolic waste products In the evolution of vertebrates we will see that most groups have gone 39om aquatic to terrestrial habits Associated with this change has been an increase in the ef ciency ofthe kidney system Ledme 1 Anatomy Nephron structural umt of the kidney KW Renal corpuscle 39 Glomerulus surrounded by we lw39zV Bowman39s capsule a Glomerulus L receives and lters blood waste s collect in Bowman39s capsule and are to moved to mesonephric tubules some water resorption OCCUI S Collecting tubule A Purimlawnsquot leads to ducts that convey urine to the exterior New w mmmmm mm Ledme 2 14 Lecture 5 Kidneys g biood vesssi 5 venai corpuscie neck proximal segment intermediate segment dlstai segment cuiiecimg tubule glomerular aglom erular Comparative Anatomy of Nephrons Man1 m39ml Hnnat 341EWJE nodal vein t 397 Pen rutUta metixwr39quot A Chmtithmyuna and quotsum mama and Lecture 5 Types Holonephros l Hnrml inns my HEtel 7 nal vnn H Frml A 7 quotml EI39QIIJQ Baum vm uaua E rmni 39 39 Fa39ilmblk reml wen cuprlmm I mml luDLlZ 8 Exmshurvun listw 3er liasal mhniam C Mmrrnais Kidneys Holonephros archinephros lacks glomeruli Kidney extends full length of the body Kidney drained by the holonephric duct Kidney is diffuse Present in embryonic hagfish agnatha amp presumably in ostracoderms and protochordates Lecture 5 9612 15 Kidneys Types 7 Pronephrosr primitive kidney Nephrostomes7 anteriur hams Types funneistnat empty into body cavity by Way uf prunephn tubuies Furmsfunctiuning kidney in frag tadpuies A pair uf prunephn um deveiup and carry Wasiesfrum kidneytu nindgut This kidney is the eariies L Embryunu kidney uf aii vertebrates 7 Externai ginmeruii 7 Open perituneai funneis 7 Kidney innated in extreme antenur End uf the nepnrugeni mesuderm My aim mam new i m i iwru i W m m gem em 4quot my v mm nm em WW WNW a Mememmmmquotqu Kidneys 7 Prunepnrus7 primitive kidney This kidneyisihe eaviiesiembvyumc kidney 7 R eiamsihe um huiunephnc dud nuwievmedihe pvunephvic am 7 Fummnai kidneym embvyumc sh and amphibians but m m must ammuieswheve me iissue deveiups but vemains nunmmmnai wmumm W mm navy rmmwm m y A www mth avnvm Rrw em sum am x um em Wm WM mwnm39v man we M Kidneys Types Opisthonephros functional mesonephros adult kidney in some bony shes amphibians intemai giomemii Peritoneai iunnei vestigiai amp narrow Numerous tubuies Kidney extends mu iengtn ofthe abdomen 8 u MW mi quotimam 12 16 Kidneys Types Opisthonephros Duct is the opisthonephric duct also called the Wol an duct the duct is derived from the holonephric duct and includes all but the anterior end Embryos of sh and amphibians have a pronephric kidney which is nonfunctional in the adult my mum WNW WW mm a M wtu mu nw Hwy mmpmuw mm a mmwaupnllmurrmr39 c m WNW um 5 v Kidneys Types Metanephros amniotes Kidney type of all adult amniotes Internal glomeruli lacking funnels Millions oftubules mm m mum tram mm mm mm mm 5 i w WD 7 mum TWFE 777 bum u mm u u Mm mm mm um 5 5n Cpxsmamrhms Grastmvienm Ald maptm mu Muslim 511mm vm Alcmnep nz mer gland aw Aramy uurrmv rm me g 7 ll39ay39r39vulsnus Uio aeam WT imagine amuletmi J A English B SamHanan Melaneuhms ureter 39 Innsaw liilrgslmn g 3 Amhtmmmlc cm AICIH39IEQ39WH um 39 uwlm mm d 5 Am Tutsmmulum Mamas Pena umm Urumm Allanm W c mule D Eu39henm mamnw 5 17 Vertebrate Organ Systems ii Him Vertebrate Organ Systems glll capliranas lung capillaries lung capillaries vanllicle arrum vmllnck body capillaries Fish may Juiilmies Amphibian body capillaries Bird amp Mammal mm 5 18 9612 Vertebrate Brain Divided into three major divisions forebrain midbrain and hindbrain The Forebrain Prosencephalon is the most evolved Lecture 5 and complex of the brain divisions t is the most prominent and anterior portion toward the front t is also superior above the less evolved di 39 39 Telencephalon 39 39 Diencephalon unuml how Vertebrate Brain 0 Divided into three major divisions Midbrain Mesencephalon Found at the upper part ofthe brain stem between the hindbrain and the forebrain Tectum superior colliculus Lecture 5 rumpmm Dr preliminary visual processing and control of eye movements in nonmammalian vertebrates it is the main visual area of the kmmmf N39NN brain cerebral cortex in mammals inferior colliculus associated with relaying information to the primary auditory cortex Prat w Vertebrate Brain Divided into three major divisions Hindbrain Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Lecture 5 Cerebellum Medulla Pons 9612 19 Vertebrate Brain m mnwa a mam bmmx uduve m mu 1 v anme y Imam m nunmrhmulul lm m mm mama rm m1 Nwwmkt mm mm mum nu Klann4 umwmmmmu 031111 WNW 20
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'