Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 6
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 6
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
91012 Early Vertebrates Earliest Evidence of Vertebrates Hyperomm bmpreysl I Euconcdonta f Ptemspdomorphn f Thebdonlu f 7 Anaspm f Galeaspm f Node 2 Pdumspm f Node 3 E Osleoslmc f Gnalhoslomata jawed vertebrates l uNodel The main characteristics supporting the nodes ofthis phylogeny are Node 1 Mineralized exoskeleton sensoryline canals and grooves Node 2 Perichondral bone or calci cation Node 3 Paired ns containing musculature and concentrated in pectoral position two dorsal ns epicercal ie upwardly tappering tail sclerotic ring and scleral ossi cation cellular dermal bone Compare with Fig 33 in book Early Vertebrates A few definitions Perichondral bone or calcification v endochondral bone Endochondral endoinside within bone is formed by ossification from within the cartilage Dermal or Perichondral peri around about enclosing is ossification around cartilage from the outside Sclerotic ring a ring of bones found in some animals that supported the eye When present the sclerotic ring is located in the orbit the eye hole of the skull Tylnsauw pro90 FFHM 199740 Hyperotreti Hagfishes CRANIATA VERTEBRATA 0 3 s 9 a C 2 E E E b a 5 Amory ham in swam region I V Myxinoidaa True dolsal and anal Ilns Mlh Iln rays 520 quotIn Llw Ovoov Kld ey Trunks mm Cranium came 39 us Tmhnmbered been atrium and venmc e Muscular pharynx 50030 divans for malequot audition and Choureception Neural 07851 00 Hagfishes are a group of marine eel shaped jawless fishes There are about 20 species of hagfish referred to four genera Hyperotreti Hagfishes Hyperotreti Hagfishes Among craniates hagfishes are unique in many respects High body fluid content more than 10 Whereas it is less than 10 in all other craniates lsosmotic ie same osmotic pressure osmoregulation Low oxygen affinity of their blood cells Lack of cardiac innervation three veinous hearts No cerebrum or cerebellum Lack of sensoryline neuromasts although they have acousticolateral nerve fibres Comparativer simple pituitary gland Lack of muscles in caudal fin web Have a partial cranium skull but no vertebrae and so they are not truly vertebrates The skeleton is composed of cartilage and lacks bone Hyperotreti Hagfishes Hagfishes are characterized by Exlsmzl all Four pairs of tentacles surrounding the mouth and the opening for the nasopharyngeal duct 39 is R V A duct leading from the WMquot esophagus to the exterior on the left side only and opening behind the rear Pulnsal l Mmim suimundm uy balbels slime ms 3 Exxemal anatomy 91012 most gill opening Aventrolateral series of very large glands which produce a slime made up by large thread cells Barbelsltr 39 Mouth l l nntl an m 13 mm U Wamal ripening in gill sacs lb Saglual mum 0 ma melon Vertebrata mm vznrzamm Myxmmdaz nimmymmoinea Gunnmslnmnra MW mm wsanwmnsimmwm FWWWIM m gamma Nate this equals nudes 4 l mu puni n 5 cm Fig 7 w mumquot Yumamwmmwa m tw mum m Wampum m wit quota waryan I marII mm mm warm 5mm whilarvuw mmnnammm mum manila Vertebrate Synapomorphies Vertebrates are characterized by a vertebral column that is a variable number of endoskeletal elements aligned along the notochord green and flanking the spinal cord yellow In Iampreys top the vertebral elements are onl the basidorsals red and the interdorsals blue In the gnathostomes there are additional ventral elements the basiventrals purple and interventrals orange and the notochord may calcify into centra pink The basidorsals interdorsal interventrals ant basiventrals arcualia The ensemble ofthe arcualia centrum the vertebra and the ensemble of the vertebrae is the vertebral column Vertebrate Synapomorphies Extrinsic eye muscles these muscles are attached to the eyeball and orbital wall and ensure eye movements Radial muscles in fins these are small muscles associated with each of the cartilaginous radials of the unpaired and paired fins They ensure the undulatory movements of the fin web Atrium and ventricle of heart closelyset Nervous regulation of heart the heart in the embryo of the vertebrates is aneural like the heart of adult hagfishes In adult vertebrates however the heart is innervated by a branch of the vagus nerve 91012 91012 Vertebrate Synapomorphies Typhlosole in the intestine this is a spirally coiled fold of the intestinal wall In the Gnathostomes it can be developed into a complex spiral valve eg in sturgeon and sharks At least two vertical semicircular canals in the labyrinth True neuromasts in the sensoryline system Hyperoartia Lampreys CRANIATA VERTEBRATA Pemmyzonloidea Gnatmgtomala Myxxnoudaa W Mart ln mst legion Pill 01 tannin mm tattau m semicumlat canals Oral tentacles Slime genus snugTquot Neural arches Lalem39 ma nyslnm 2 semiarcular canals Phomscnwty ohm organ Dunnnlly nomad Ca Po skeleton Duo new and anal Ilns with Iin mys lt 520 m LW Croattent Kidney Tri 39 lls brain omntum tumugmuap m madman alllum and venmcte Btlncmal upperm mh gut and pharyngeal t marl swim Muscular cnarynx 5mm ugans Int vision swimquot am cmnmptm Neural crest coils Hyperoartia Lampreys Lampetra Lethenteron Entosphenus Tettapleurodon Eudo nto myzon N0 3 Ichthyomyzon Petromyzon Cas tom zon Node p y Geotria Node 1 Mordacia Plpiscius f Mayomyzon Hardlstlella f Node 1 Piston cartilage in lingual apparatus loss of anal fin Node 2 Horny plates or denticles on sucker Node 3 Seven gill openings gill pouches larger and more posteriorly placed eel shaped aspect Hyperoartia Lampreys 4mm muqu m Characterized by 1 A large sucker surrounding the mouth m mam u strengthened by an annular quot75quot MP39914iami cartilage 2 Spineshaped processes on gill arches The gills although enclosed in muscularized pouches in the adult are supported by unjointed gill arches which form a quotbranchial basketquot Hyperoartia Lampreys Nthu Hyperoartia Lampreys Lampreys always spawn and lay eggs in freshwater Lampreys undergo a larval development which can last up to seven years The larval lamprey or ammocoetes has no sucker and poorly developed eyes Between the mouth and the pharynx the ammocoete has a two valved pumping and antireflux device the velum which in the adult plays no role in the respiration 91012 91012 Gnathostomata cw vanvzamm E a Myxmwu Pummymmolnea mmmmsimmwm m Lgmln mi plum fma mu m m m Mm in my mm man u mm unlagmnuil vmmm mm mm m mm mummym mm W quota WWW l mail Mi Mmii warm 5mm wnmww Miamnn tmmmn mum manila Origin of Jaws Why did jaws evolve Improved Feedingquot hypothesis traditional hypothesis associated with feeding Began with lterfeeding where cilia around the mouth drew food in and strained it through basketlike lter bars Cilia were lost and lters were modi ed to pump water and food through strainers They began to function as gills Bones ofthe rst gill arch became upper and lowerjaws Scales around mouth were transformed into teeth allowing grasping Finally the second gill arch moved forward to bracejaws at back of scull hyomandibula and and the rst gill slit shrank forming the spiracle The teeth and muscles became fully developed Origin of Jaws Why did jaws evolve Mallatt s hypothesis improved gill ventilation Most generally accepted hypothesis Initial enlargement ofmandibular arch into proto jaws was for improved gill ventilation Facilitated buccal pumping of water over gills for increased respiration to meet increased metabolic demands of increased activity relative to agnathans mm i nun Origin of Jaws Two Theories of Development Serial Theory first or perhaps second ancient branchial arch gave rise exclusively to the mandibular arch the next branchial arch exclusively to the hyoid arch and the rest of the arches to the branchial arches of gnathostomes Composite Theory proposed that ten branchial arches were present in primitive species the first and following arches being named terminal premandibular mandibular hyoid and six branchial arches Instead of one arch one mandible view requires a complex series of losses or fusions between selective parts of several arches that came together to produce the single composite mandible G II slit 1 Cnmrrbuliunilo Oiic shell Neurucranlum r 39 Fir Branchial Hymn Mandibular Brancmai Hyold Mandibular n arch ar arch a Serial lheory in Compusue meow Origin of Jaws Splanchnocranium that part of the skull derived from the embryonic pharyngeal arches Arises from neural crest cells In vertebrates cells of the neural crest depart from the sides of the neural tube and move into the walls of the pharynx between successive pharyngeal slits to differentiate into the respective pharyngeal arches Pharyngeal arches of aquatic vertebrates usually are associated with the gill system branchial arches or gill arches 91012 Origin of Jaws Splanchnocranium Hyomandlbula Paialoquadraie Pharyngeal sits Hymd Mandibular arch arch Pharyngobvanchial 7 Epibranchiai 7 M i Ceralobranchialw Origin of Jaws Origin of Jaws Yukon newJung Max um Amr Am M Runaux um um hun39 W tutmu nunpa u mu m u u bwmu nunm w Cnml39l awn mm ne vim W w w Mameq may a W MIM Bum1w Mami an r Maw mamam hwywalkquot Wl topic Md hulatn mmmmaw um maw Wmm mm mu1n urna m4 in v Imth harmm urn1mm law1mm Irvlaw vi humidquotIA kp a um um w pm in 91012 1 lam r4 ut mum t IwIln t mm ntmw u t 4 t I I a mamt t nun lump uni arm munt lawum tm in eariysyhapsids thctudes mammais and aii extinct amhtotes t more ctosety reiated to mammais thahto reptiies Letyyettayy ihEiudES the math beahhg dehtary th additiun tn severai pustdehtary bethes in mammaist thts set at pustdehtary thES has been ehtttety instfrum the iDWErjaW and the dehtary has Ehiarged tn assume tn the Exciusive mile at iDWErjaWtuhEtiDh The articuiar future maiieus t resides atthe baeh at the mahdibie r and estabttshes tetyyettayy r artteuiattuh wtth the quadrate future theus in eariy tn iatertherapsids mammairitke tebtttest these Wu bethes bEEDmE reduced aiuhg thh the pustdehtary buhes eyehtuatty i thetythg nut ufthe tetyyettayy and t taking up a busttteth th the mtddie eatttuhettethat resuit better heahhg Types ottaw attachment 7 Paleostylic r huhE Elf the arches attach themseiyes directiy tn the skuii Euautostyiic e tetuhu th btaebuetms mahdibuiar ateh ts suspended truth the skuii by itseif Withuut hetb truth the hyutd arch Amphistylic 7 Eariy sharks setthe bethy fishes tayys are attached tn the btathease thruugh Wu primary amEUiatiDhS ahterturiy by a itgameht euhheetthg the paiatuquadrate tn the skuii aha bustehbtty by the hyumahdibuia Hyostylic 7 must bethy fishes mahdibuiar arch ts attached tn the braihcase bhmahty thruugh the hyumahdibuia Metautosyiic 7 must amphibian tebtttes ahu birdsyjaWS are attached tn the btathease directiy thruugh the quadratet a thE frumed th the pDStEHDr part at the batatbquautatet hyumahdibuia has het part in Suppumhg thE jaW Craniostylicrmammais ehttte utbbet tayy ts thebtbbtateu thtet the braihEaSE but the ibyyettayy ts suspended truth the dermai squamusai thE at the btathease Origin of Mammalian Inner Ear Bones but hm musty Uniwits W tutthtmwkt smttmte gt betttatt 7 t t J ts LEE1 Veiiww fzzj39 I Hummuin Why W Eimrut ahtmit T mutt up am L sweaty I at Wm pstmttttmtn r SK 2 Wt 91012 10 Gnath ostomata cam vsmsaamx T a nanmmunm gt Wmn un W mm in mm mm Damn amac rm mm mm mm uninummwumvl mm mv cam c tiiIwwusi rmhnnbsui tun mm mm Sandal lavmu m m m pumau i4 menu dimKw What differentiates Gnathostomes JimAu Juan Mum mum in m Teeth mimmi min i Chondrichthyes Some bony fishes modern amphibians somelizards MW Most bony fishes I some reptiles Wm WHEN m j quot 4 Archosaurs and mammals 33 my mmm 91012 11 Fin Evolution Fins control and stabilize movement The ability to exert pressure or to create resistance provided a more ef cient way of maneuvering Dorsal and Anal ns control the tendency to roll or yaw Paired fins pelvic and pectoral control pitch facilitated acceleration coasting speed and deceleration Fins were also useful for defense ie spiny ns or conspeci c signaling sexual selection Fin Evolution Gnathostomata Saimgterygil lobertiniied tishes and tourrlegged vertebrates Osteichthyes E Te eusm Actinogterygil irayrtinned fishes Nader Acanthodii Placudermi armored lewee vertebrates The main characteristics supporting the nodes ofthis phylogeny are Node 1 Superior oblique muscle ofeye attached anteriorly to eyeball braincase including nasal capsulesjaw muscle external to mandibular arch Teleostomi Mouth terminal in position narrowbased braincase three otoliths in ear Osteichthyes Endochondral bone lepidotrichs on nsjaws lined by dentary premaxillary and maxillary 91012 12 Gnathostomata A few definitions Otoliths ear stones Lepidotrichia dermal fin rays in fishes rays spinous rays true spines anterior vertical canal posierior ampuuae vertical accuius 37 G th 1 t S napomorphies Wed Features 01 Gnarhuswmes Cranial Clmmdrrs I Cranium chimpqu nnkriorly m the end in a pmcvmlwral funmnvllc 2 ranium chunng poslunurl am that um w more ucdpiral neural arches an imnrpnmtu l in the war or lhc skull 3 lkwlopment of a pasturth punw on the tmmum wparaung hc fum mms ur supporting its jaws and undohug rim eyew L Intrirwir musculature in the eye fur muninn rhr Irma lullmu Anatomical Cburucfmr Fa Atrium lies mmlcrrnlmmlly H39fkkh luh39mllyj In mtriclu I Runul pm hll u m pn wni 77 Hrnral valw pnmatwcly mund wnlhm nutstink l anumn wilh hum rmimrinr md mmnm tum39iimru 1 Distirm x iwn Iii Kuinm39u lurnwd only hy mum pmroriul x lima in min Imr muphn and nwuurphrm 11 NL Oll gnmds lmkcd by dun kn cuntmy drthinvphml dud l2 lealv gruurds wnh dminn miduuls H hm l v l f39sll one mnlmclilv mm pmtmma Innc apn iriu lu alriah39d muva Iml mm spvcilic to mmmh muaclr Sensory Charadrn39 H Nerves uncirmd in myullmud sinam 5 Large intum wn39hcllum in the han brain In 39lwn distinc nilactnn Imus loading to Widely separated olfanmjv bulhx i7 Thicker spinal mm with harm of gray mum in aw inn 18 Dunnl and mini spinal nen39u mum linked l0 furm compound spinal mrws 19 Mrs quotI r L quot mum in samuraduir amph wimu mdarmimaai 2L1 lzrlvml line on trunk regmn aner or mumd by speciaiimd scales larval hm Ins in some adult ar nplubmm amnimue 21 Third horizontal semiciuular canal 38 Placoderms Sarcogterygii lobefinned fishes and fouregged vertebrates Osteichthyesi u f df39 h Teleostomi Actmogterygll rayrnne IS es Node 1 Acamhodii Chondrichthyes sharks rays sawfish and chimeras 91012 13
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