Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 8
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 8
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Subclass Holocephali ratfish and chimeras Synapomorphies Teeth in the form of toothplates that are slowly replaced Upper jaw element palatoquadrate fused to neurocranium autostylic jaws First dorsal spine erectile Clasping organ on head of males tentaculum 3 families approx 30 species mostly deepwater marine few species in coastal waters Subclass Elasmobranchii sharks skates rays Origins Evolutionary relationships among elasmobranchs unclear Lots of extinct fossil forms 0 Early fossils have been recovered from freshwater depos s Teeth jaws and fins may have evolved independently multiples times Xenacanz hus Megaodon Ancient vs Modern Sharks Shared characters Cartilaginous skeleton Secondarin derived Replaceableteeth Toothlike scales placoid Multiple gill slits Paired pectoral and pelvic fins Claspers Bckbones extending into the upper lobe of the tail Heterocercaltailfin Ancient vs Modern Sharks Snuut characters Ancestrai eendmun Shun mundedsnuuth Lungjaws Lucated at 1mm uihead Mudem eendmun Lend pumly snuut ShuMaWs Lucated undemeath head Signmcancer iungjawsave stvuctuvaiiy Weakevthan shun jaWS vesuitsm iesspuwe ui bites Jaws Up Hv paiatuquadvate Jaw suspensmn Ancient vs Modern Sharks pev and iuwev cumpunentsyeiiuw Paiatuquadvate Meckei39 s camiage umandibuia puipie suppunsthe Amphisly ic e paiatuquadvate is idedmme bvamcase in 1mm and back Hynstylicr paiatuquadvate is nut media bvamcase entweiy suppened by Wumandibuia Weed mmwuunru i Civommnuww Teeth An Medem cundmunr sermed teeth Ancient vs Modern Sharks mem eendmen rclzdndnnlleeth Smuuthredged Muitircusped Lavge centvai biade Best sdded rm grasping may and swaiiuwmgwhuie Senated edges Singiercusped Enabies deddmd piecesimm may we iavge m be swaueed and shcmg thmugh tuugh 5km Subclass Elasmobranchii sharks skates rays Synapomorphies Advanced forms with hyostylic jaw support Hyomandibular is a mobile connection between braincase and palatoquadrate postorbital connection lost Result is a protrusible upperjaw Mouth frequently opens ventrally Resting pusitiun Snuut lifted invveriavv depressed Paiatuuuadrate rotated forward Snuut drupped duvvn paiatuquadrate and duvvn iuvverjavv rotated retracted forward and up Ci Subclass Elasmobranchii Synapomorphies Placoid scales are modi ed to form teeth 57 pairs ofgill slits with separate external openings and a spiracle Vertebral centra strongly calci ed Enlarged nasal capsules chemoreception Sensitive to one part in 10 billion Neuromast organs mechanoreceptors Ampullae of Lorenzi electroreception for detection ofprey possibly for navigation l lly il umle v pul a 039 lll1 i m Superorder Euselachii Sharks about 400 species worldwide Synapomorphies Gill slits lateral not covered dorsally by expanded pectoral n Fin not joined to head Order Squatiniformes angel sharks This highly distinctive group of sharks comprises a single family of about 13 species Raylike fishes with mottled backs have two dorsal fins no anal fin and large pectoral fins that reach fonNard overthe gills The upper lobe of the tail fin is shorter than the lower lobe Its mouth has small teeth for impaling Shallow to moderate depths on the continental shelves and upper slopes from intertidal zones to depths of 4500 ft Often found during the day on sandy or muddy bottoms Broadly distributed in cool temperate to tropical waters in most seas except the central Pacific and most of the Indian Ocean Order Pristiophoriformes sawsharks Sawsharks are a small group of bottom sharks with five species in a single family The sawshark snout may be used to disable prey Sawsharks have long flat bladelike snouts edged with 12 739 slender needlesharp teeth and a pair of long barbels in 39 front of the nostrils They have two dorsal fins and no anal fin short transverse mouths and small teeth in both jaws Moderate depths on continental shelves and upper slopes on mud sand and gravel bottoms Occur in marine and freshwater habitats The Bahamas sawshark ranges down to a depth of 39 3000 ft About 710 species Different species occur in the western Pacific the western North Atlantic the southeastern Atlantic and the western lndian oceans Order Squaliformes spiny dogfish bramble and sleeper sharks Three families and more than 80 species Cylindrical bodies bearing two dorsal fins some with spines no anal fin and long shouts Both jaws in many species have strong cutting teeth in short mouths Dogfish sharks live in all oceans reaching depths of almost 20000 feet Order Hexacanthiformes sixgills sevengills and frilled sharks Five species Wideranging in coastal and offshore waters of temperate and tropical seas none is oceanic occur mostly in deeper water on outer continental shelves and upper slopes from about 3006000 ft These sharks sport a single dorsal fin six or seven pairs of gill openings and an anal fin Bigbodied sharks with high fins and lengthy snouts Their upperteeth are ideal for impaling prey while their lower cusps are designed for cutting Order Heterodontiformes bullhead and horn sharks Single family with just eight species the bullhead sharks constitute the only living sharks that feature n spines on their two dorsal ns and an anal fin Large thick heads with a broad crest over both eyes They have snub snouts and short mouths with grooves connecting to the nostrils and teeth both for holding in the front and crushing in the rear Shallow to moderately deep continental and insular waters at depths from intertidal to at least 900 ft Warm temperate to tropical waters in the western Indian and the western and eastern Paci c oceans Order Orectolobiformes carpet blind nurse zebra whale and wobbegong sharks Seven families 33 species Have piglikequot snouts and short mouths that in most species connect by grooves to the nostrils Their nostrils boast unique barbels on their inside edges These attractively colored sharks have narrow heads and slender bodies and tails They have color patterns of dark and light spots and saddle markings Moderate depths on continental and insular shelves from close inshore to 600 ft The western Paci c Ocean Order Lamniformes sand tiger goblin thresher basking mackeral make and great white sharks 39 Most mackerel sharks have long snouts and mouthsthat stretch behindthe eyes Large heavybodied sharks with fairly long attened or conical pointed snouts small to fairly large eyes protrusible jaws with large slender cusped teeth The gill openings are short and there are precaudal pits but no lateral caudal keels Two dorsal ns and an anal n These species range 39om intertidal areas to open ocean at depths ofnearly 4000 ft These sharks are associated with continental or insular landmasses none is oceanic They reach depths of 630 to nearly 4000 ft Found in all warm temperature and tropical seas though distribution ofindividual species may be patchy Order Carcharhiniform es cat hound leopard soup n tiger gray blue lemon and hammerhead Thrs rs the most dorhrhaht or shark groups wrth nearlyZOO deserrbed speeres The order rahges rrorh the prrrhrtrve eatsharks to the large harhrherheads ahd requrerh sharks These sharks feature an ahat fl two dorsal nS ah elongated snout ahd a long mouth that reaches behrhd the eyes wrth teeth rahgrhg rrorh srhatt ahd cusptdate to large ahd bladeltke They have a thrrd eyelid as well Commol l rhtropreat ahd temperature waters aha eertarh species such as the blue silky ahd oeeahre whttettp sharks are the most HUmel OUS ofpelagtc sharks Marty shetrspeeres have colorful ahd varregated patterhs or spots blotches saddles Stripes ahd reticulations butthose found ll l deeperwateroteh lackthem ahd rahge trorh U lfol m whrtrsh orprhkrsh totet black Order Carcharhiniform es cat hound leopard soup n tiger gray blue lemon and hammerhead Superorder Batoidea Skates and Rays about 476 species worldwide Synapomorphies Dorsoventrally attened bottom dwellers large pectoral ns dorsal ns reduced to absent caudal n reduced Large dorsal spiracle External gill openings are on the ventral side of the body water for breathing is taken through the large spiracle on the dorsal side Teeth usually attened and united to form a pavement for crushing mollusks also feed on crustaceans and occasionally sh Order Rajiformes sawfishes guitarfishes rays and skates Family Rajidae skates Caudal fin reduced or absent Tail extremely slender Weak electric organs derived from caudal muscles Dorsal fins 02 Oviparous or ovoviviparous Order Rajiformes sawfishes guitarfishes rays and skates Family Torpedinidae electric rays Disc truncate or emarginate anteriorly Jaws extremely slender No labial cartilages Rostrum reduced or absent Order Rajiformes sawfishes guitarfishes rays and skates Family Mobulidae manta rays Head distinct from disc Eyes and spiracles lateral on head Tail much longer than disc Members of this group are the only living vertebrates with three pairs of functional limbs the cephalic pair assist in feeding and are essentially the anterior subdivision of the pectorals 10 Elasmobranchii General biology Large bodied Feeding Many sharks but not the rays and skates are specialized as piscivorous predators In these sharks the lower teeth are usually spiky upperteeth bladelike Cow shark Make Elasmobranchii General biology Feeding Many sharks but not the rays and skates are specialized as piscivorous predators In these sharks the lower teeth are usually spiky upper teeth bladelike A few filter feeders megamouth whale shark basking shark also the manta ray Elasmobranchii General biology Feeding Many sharks but not the rays and skates are specialized as piscivorous predators In these sharks the lower teeth are usually spiky upper teeth bladelike A few filter feeders megamouth whale shark basking shark also the manta ray The rays and skates are usually hard shelled invert feeders teeth from multiple rows form pavement Marine 5 found in freshwater as casual visitors or lifelong resident Bull sharks in Lake Nicaragua Amazon stingray 11