Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 9
Note for BSC 373 with Professor Harris at UA-Lecture 9
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Actinopte rygii Samaglemu unharmed shes and fomrlegged vertebrates m rayrlinned lishes cslemmhyes rainstorml l Nada II Ammud 39 4 Chondrichthyes sharks rays sawlish and chimeras Placodermi armoredlawed vertebrates Class Actinopterygii First appeared ca 425 mya Dominant freshwater shes for about 340 my Began to invade marine habitats about this same time Radiation late Paleozoic coincided with extinction of ostracoderms placoderms acanthodians Characteristics ofActinopterygii Most actinopterygians have Fins attached to body via n rays Branchiostegal rays Distinct pelvic and pectoral girdles Bony skeleton 39 Mm l imumc marer mm muv armat u mmmnm naumuuv Immoln Subclass Chondrostei Subclass Chondrostei Order Palaeonisciformes extinct Order Polypteriformes bichirs OrderAcipenseriformes sturgeons paddlefish Characteristics of modern chondrosteans Cartilaginous skeleton secondarily derived Heterocercal tail Spiral valve intestine Heavy ganoid scales Spiracles One branchiostegal ray Order Polypteriformes bichirs and reedfish The most primitive living Actinopterygians Dorsal finspines with branches Cladistia is diagnosed by the presence of ontogenetic fusion of the infraorbital bones with the maxilla Two genera Polypterus and Erpetoichthys 10 species all tropical freshwaters of Africa Young Polypterus have external gills adults have highly vascularized lung Order Acipenseriformes Sturgeon large primitive fishes found in the Northern Hemisphere Five rows of bony scutes on body Mouth inferior Teeth absent in adults Four barbels anterior to mouth Many species are restricted to freshwater but several are anadromous Sturgeon use their protrusible mouths to grab fishes and invertebrates along the silty bottom The most significant commercial use of sturgeon is the harvest of their eggs for caviar 24 species from northern hemisphere fresh and marine waters j i Jquot ACipenser Scaphirhynchus Pseudoscaphirhynchus Order Polyodontiformes Paddel sh paddlelike snout Densely packed gillrakers On its rostrum Polyodon has electroreceptors that allow it to detect electrical impulses produced by the muscles of swimming plankton The large gill rakers lter plankton out ofthe water The paddlefish hiccups to dislodge the prey and then swallows Two species Polyodon Mississippi R and Psephurus Yangtze R PALEDVISCWORMES39 l l y a z 2 OLVPVERIPOHUS7 a SEMlO OTWUHME 5 l wry 3939L 7 x r Aw FO iMES 74 v 71gt Li A J c t quot r nommonunv F HOLllbl OlU WES39 7 81903131 Subclass Neopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Order Semionotiformes gars OrderAmiiformes bowfins Division Teleostei modern bony shes Neopterygians first appeared about 345 mya Began evolutionary radiation 290190 mya but most extensive radiation was 8065 mya Neither gars or bowfins are considered to be ofthe same evolutionary lineage as Teleosts Leedsichthys probably the only actinopterygian ever mistaken for a stegosaur at 10 15 m 100 ft it is supposed to have been the largest actinopterygian of all time G di Order Semionotiformes Gars Toothed infraorbital bones ars are now restricted to North America but were once Pangean in stribution They are specialized fish eaters and are covered with heavy bony scales ganoid scales ganoine covering gives the scales an enamel like cover Order Amiiformes Bowfin An ancient family of fishes represented by only one living species Arnia cava found in North America rivers Heavy bodied widely distributed predatory fish has a long dorsal fin reaching nearly the length of the body Retain several primitive characters Spiral valve intestine Ganoine covering scales Solid jaws Large lunglike gas bladder can breath air similar to gar and survive in low oxygen environments Gular plate effective predators on fish and crayfish Teleosts make up the greatest diversity of the rayfin fishes Arose middle or late Triassic 200 mya 0 Four 0 Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Subdivision Elopomorpha Subdivision Clupeomorpha Subdivision Euteleostei Division Teleostei mrwmmww 4739 mtvmtnmnw snl msomm Ilmuumuv major evolutionary radiations momma Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Bony tongues These are the most primitive teleosts They are found in Asia Australia South America North America and Africa The bony tonguequot is a specialized basihyal bone found in many members ofthe group Can breath air 220 species all weakly electrogenic Mooneyes Hiodon in N America Subdivision Elopomorpha Eels tarpons ladyfish bonefish All elopomorphs share a specialized larval stage called a leptocephalus larvae 800 species Subdivision Clupeomorpha Herrings Sardines Anchovies Have a special connection otophysic connection between their ears and their swimbladder that gives them enhanced hearing 360 species Subdivision Euteleostei Large toothed maxilla Adipose n an additional often small and fatty fin between dorsal and caudal fins without separate skeletal support Tubercles develop on breeding males nuptial tubercles pattern timing and location of tubercles often diagnostic ca 24000 species ADIPDSE FIN Superorder Ostariophysi Minnows suckers catfishes knifefishes Ioaches Make up about 75 of freshwater fishes Twochambered swim bladder Weberian apparatus is a linkage of bones called ossicles derived from the vertebrae immediately following the skull connecting the inner ear and the swim bladderthat enables the fish to hear high frequency sounds The swim bladder serves as a resonating chamber and the bony connection amplifies the sounds and transmits them to the skull where they are detected by the inner ear This effectively magnifies sound and enables Ostariophysans to hear frequencies much higher than most other fish ca 6500 species Swimbladdev Ostariophysi Phylogeny Gonorynchiformes Superorder Protacanthopterygii Trouts Salmon Smelts deepsea smelts slickheads pikes Most have an adipose fin Lack spines but name means original spiny fin Abdominal position of pelvic fins pelvic and pectoral girdles are not connected Cycloid scales Upperjaw includes maxilla not protrusible Physostomous swim bladder connection between swim bladder and GI tract Probably polyphyletic About 300 spp Older fossils from Cretaceous including pike and salmon fossils If Neoteleostei Evolution of the retractor dorsalis muscle Evolution of Pharyngeal Jaws One ofthe most striking innovations during the evolution of Euteleosts is the appearance and differentiation of the retractor dorsalis muscle in the Neoteleosts Bilaterally paired muscle the anterior end of each muscle inserts on the dorsal gillarch pharyngobranchials Posterior end may originate from any ofthe 1St 16th vertebrae mewcm pm 7 r Wpogmmm ceralobranchial gt hypnbranchml llL mm hasrbranclual A inlemyal basmyal whys suiarumzum glossnhya poslnmhyal quotprth K branchiasmgals f celalan a 3 lamerohyal lQWEquot quotHNWNul Ai mum sun mohyal uPrER Pvmnvau mow muss quotW39VNGOEMNCHW mummoosmNciiw sw Evolution of Pharyngeal Jaws One of the most striking innovations during the evolution of Euteleosts is the appearance and differentiation of the retractor dorsalis muscle in the Neoteleosts Bilaterally paired muscle the anterior end of each muscle inserts on the dorsal gillarch pharyngobranchials Posterior end may originate from any of the 15h 16h vertebrae Forms the rectractive component of the upper pharyngeal jaw complex Originated from the dorsal inner striated muscle fibers of esophagus Evolution of Pharyngeal Jaws Liparis tanakae Mela lanceolata Evolution of Pharyngeal Jaws r7quot 39 I 39 Mme rrmrm W4 Caulk o39 tx b uawrs l ldl iquot3939l Superorder Paracanthopterygii Cods anglerfishes pirate perches troutperches Ctenoid scales Advanced placement of pelvic fins thoracic orjugular Benthic marine fishes ca 1200 species 10 Superorder Acanthopterygii Spinyrayed fishes A monophyletic group Modifications of branchial skeleton and upperjaw enhancing protrusibility Pelvics anterior one leading spine 5 rays Pectorals placed laterally Two distinct dorsal fins anterior fin is spinous true spines posterior fin is rayous Anal fin also has spines ca 13500 species Relationships among lineages uncertain Acanthopterygii was mu 1mm 39 u Atherinomorpha Aura mmrvu lshuk si 39 summmccewnurm I vnmclxymm 5 i y nlmr l Axumll lvquot 39 mienca mm anal r rygmwnum Percomorpha 39nlmvlnnhlnmm imwmms V Series Atherinomorpha Nearly worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate regions 2 orders 18 families ca 170 genera ca 1100 species About 25 are marine 75 are brackish or freshwater Contains the orders Atheriniforrnes rainbow shes silversides priapum shes Beloniformes needle shes sauries ying shes halfbeaks Cyprinodontiformes killi shes topminnows livebearers pup shes Defining characters Unique pattern of upperjaw suspension that allows for independent left and right movement of premaxilla differs from percimorph condition in lacking ball and socket joint between palatine and maxilla Eggs with long adhesive filaments and numerous oil droplets except in viviparous forms Characterized by poorly developed 1st dorsal fin with feeble spines or none in Cyprinodontiformes and Beloniformes 11
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