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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 8. Ver. I (Aug. 2014), PP 75-82 www.iosrjournals.org Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees Performance Acase: Public Hospitals – Libya 1 2 Abdullah Elhamaly Imhmed Ali , Dr. Kertahadi, M.Com , Dr Hamidah Nayati Utami 3 1(Administrative Science, Business Administration, University of Briwijaya, Malang, Indonesia) 2 3(Lecturer, Business Administration, University of Briwijaya, Malang, Indonesia) (Lecturer, Business Administration, University of Briwijaya, Malang, Indonesia) Abstract: This study Aimed to explain and help how to improve the employees’ performance, and effective human resources management take high priority in health institutions and hospitals in developing and generally developed countries particular in Libya. And eliminating the main obstacles and hinders on the development of human resources in public hospitals. there for we selected there factors which has effect on medical service and inefficient human resources management and the factors which are job satisfaction , organization behavior and training. we found there is negative effect on improvement and facing many problems associated with limited incentives, low salaries, poor following-up by managers to the performance of employees, neglecting customer satisfaction, and many other negative signs of improper human resources management. I. Introduction The development of human resources will be reflected directly on employees’ performance, and effective human resources management take high priority in health institutions and hospitals in developing and developed countries. The management of human element in a way to develop the performance of employees requires special management styles and eliminating the main obstacles and hinders on the development of human resources in public hospitals. Job performance is the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It is also part of human resources management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well. Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined, performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success (Farh, 2012). It has been observed by researchers that there is positive relationship between human resources management and employee performance (Gould-Williams, 2003; Park et al., 2003; Wright et al., 2003; Tessema and Soeters, 2006) and organizational performance (Quresh et al., 2010). HR plays its role as a plus which may be a source of competitive advantage (Schuler and MacMillan, 1984; Pfeffer,1994). Delaney and Huselid (1996) found HR practices impact on the perception of organizational performance. Past studies have acknowledged that HRM practices play a significant role in influencing the performance of employees (Shahzad et al., 2008; Tessema and Soeters,2006). But in the case of developing countries there are some challenges specific to these countries which restrict and affect the role that HRM practices can play in influencing employee and organizational performance. Ghebregiorgis and Karsten (2006) in their study found that the knowledge and the concept of HR practices, including training, recruitment, compensation, performance. In addition, HR managers must analyze their hospital's pay structure to ensure that employees are compensated fairly according to their position and experience level Job satisfaction describes the saturation which is about the individual and his or her job. Primary function shows the goals that enhance job satisfaction and performance , and methods that include rotation, expanding scopes of work and enrich the job. This is the culture and management style, activating the role of workers , giving powers to the joint working groups that make up the effects of job satisfaction. job satisfaction may originally appeared in the industrial and service field , but he has gained special importance in the field of education as that human beings are the most important input , and so are they the most important outputs , but it can evaluate all the outputs of the educational process in the field of education in general and job satisfaction for the teacher or administrative Engine the educational process in particular.(Robertson et al, 2012). the factor of Organization Behavior plays an important factor in leading the hospital staff to do their job properly and in time. Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on Behavior within an organization. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory (which is more macro-level) and human resource studies (which is more applied and business-related). www.iosrjournals.org 75 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. Training affects humans through the processing of motivation. These motivations can emerge from the people themselves, for example by representing processes at the cognitive level a stimulus for change on the physical and emotional level (Jones, 2000) The on-the-job training method takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. The concern for the development of human resources in healthcare institutions in Libya become an imminent requirement due to the recent political and economical changes in the country, given that investment in human resources is the best investment and the Libyan citizen is the goal of the development plans of the state Libyan after the recent changes and new government trends to develop the country so that the health care systems in Libya will be in the same level as in the neighboring countries. Libyan hospitals suffered from poor services and low performance by the working staff in the public hospitals, and this was due to lack strategic plans and attention on the importance of HRM in public hospitals. The management of human resources departments should realize the importance of the human resources to their organization, and integrating and coordinating of available resources (human and material) to the maximum possible energy to achieve the goals and mission of the medical institution, which include (planning, organization, direction, and control). The highest efficiency and adequacy and less effort and greater return (Aldhyan, 2002) II. Method In this study we used a mixed approach (quantitative and descriptive) because the two approaches complement each other, and also using both approaches will help to make accurate conclusions about the topic of this research. The descriptive approach used in this study in the earlier phases of the research to describe the current status of HRM in public hospitals in Libya. The next part of the research the quantitative approach will be applied. The reason to use the quantitative research in the next stage of this research is to help the researcher to have a better picture of what to expect after developing human resources management in Libyan public hospitals and know from managers involved in HRM management in Libyan public hospitals about the current practicing of HRM and the problem they are facing with the patients and hospital staff. In addition to that applying the descriptive approach only will not be adequate to have precise conclusions and set the right recommendation, therefore using quantitative methodology will enhance the reliability of the study. 2.1 Population and sample The studycommunity were medical staff working in public hospitals in Libya. The number of the study population equal 80. A total of 5 questionnaires were distributed per day. The aim of the questionnaire is to understand the impact of HRM on the job performance in public hospitals, and to understand the variables that cause poor performance and inefficient healthcare giving to patients in recent years. Researchers rarely survey the entire population for two reasons (Adèr, Mellenbergh, & Hand, 2008): the cost is too high, and the population is dynamic in that the individuals making up the population may change over time, therefore the study selected staff from human resources departments in public hospitals by using non-random sampling. The three main advantages of non-random sampling are that the cost is lower, data collection is faster, and since the data set is smaller and selective, then it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data. 2.2 The Research Instrument The data-gathering instrument that used in next phase of the research (the quantitative approach) is questionnaire distributed to hospital staff in HR department in selected public hospital who are currently responsible for healthcare in public hospitals in Libya. 2.3 Data collection procedure The type of data obtained from the quantitative research is phrases from the questionnaire, while the type of data collected from the descriptive approach will be associated with personal characteristics and psychological attributes of the staff in the hospital. The main data is concerned with personal attitudes what patients expect from the nurses and hospital services, and what are the main factors affecting the job performance of hospital staff consist of 3 factors : Job Satisfaction, Organization Behaviour and Training . www.iosrjournals.org 76 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. 2.4 The Research Framework The research is divided to two structures by analyzing the primary data from the quantitative approach and discussing HRM in hospitals through literature review. The finds from both structures will be used to make the final conclusion of the study. Figure-3.1 shows the design of the research. 2.5 The Type of Data The study will utilize by both secondary and primary data. The secondary data will be based on different literatures associated with this subject. The secondary data will be collected from published journal about the topic. The main reason for conducting a literature browsing is to understand the main factors that affect the job performance of hospital staff in public hospitals in Libya. III. Results And Findings 3.1 Introduction In this chapter we analyze job satisfaction, organization, and training in public hospitals in Libya. The first part of the analysis discus the background of hospital’s staff and their working environment to have better understanding on their working situation and level of employee performance , this section will discuss the results from different perspectives in order to identify the negative and positive points found from the results. Similar to other organizations, hospitals are concerned with maximizing effectiveness of medical services through the adoption of appropriate policies and practices by human resources department. Unlike most other organizations, however, the employee performance in hospitals can be measured partly by their success in treating illness and patients with high level of medical service and avoiding deaths. Also unlike many other sectors, little research has examined and identified employee performance that promotes quality of medical services in hospital settings. In this section, we examine the impact of three main factors (Job satisfaction, Organization Behaviour, and Training) on the efficiency of human resource management and examine the influence of these factors on the performance of nurses and hospital staff. The analyses we conducted to explore whether (Job satisfaction, Organization Behaviour, and training) had stronger associations with job performance than others factors. We interpret these results to suggest that the arbitrate mechanisms in our sample for the relationships between the three factors (Job satisfaction, Organization Behavior, and training) and employee performance to the medical service provided by the public hospitals in Libya The Likert scale was used in the questionnaire. The Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale, or more accurately the Likert-type scale The questionnaire indicates five options for each question as below: 1) Strongly agree 2) Tend to agree 3) Undecided 4) Tend to disagree 5) Strongly disagree 3.2 Background of the respondents The total number of respondents is 80, the number of collected responses equal 56 where 71% of them were female and 29% male, their ages 48% are above 25 years old, and 52% less than 25 years old. The result showed that the hospital’s staff who are low level educated ( High school, ) 49% and 51% are educated. With regards to working experience in hospitals; (42.50% less than 5 years, 34.60% less than 10 year, 12.80% less that 15 years, 8.90% less than 20 years, and 1.10% less than 20 years). 0nly 1.10% of hospital staff are highly experiences, and this is very low value which show the needs for more highly skilled and experienced hospital staff in public hospitals in Libya. Regarding the working hours, 73.20% are working less than 8 hours per day, and 26.80% are working extra hours more than 8 hours daily. Thus result showed that the percentage of hospital staff who working less than 8 hours per day needs to improve to be above average or more than 50% due to the increasing demand for more working hours in public hospital. When we asked the hospital staff about human resources managers’ commitment to their working time, the result showed that 22.90% of managers came to work after 12:00 pm and only 34.60% came in time at 8:00 am, where managers should not be late after 8 am in order to guide hospital staff to their work every day early morning, being late will give negative signs to hospital staff and let them neglect their duties without monitoring and control by the manager of human resources department. www.iosrjournals.org 77 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. 3.3 Discussion HRM Efficiency is defined in this study as “the effectiveness of doing and accomplishing the medical services and task to get positive output and high performance”. In the following section, the employee performance from the perspective of hospital staff will be described according to the obtained results, and considering the impact of three factors (Job satisfaction, Organization Behaviour, and Training) 3.4Job satisfaction Job satisfaction has many definitions and many studies have conducted to measure job satisfaction in different types of organizations, according to Oshagbemi (2006), he defined job satisfaction “an individual’s positive emotional reactions to a particular job”. This definition is very important and frequent in many studies. In this research we included this definition in our questionnaire in order to know the individual reaction of hospital staff at work in public hospitals in Libya. Schou (2007) states that it is getting more and more common for public and government organizations to ask their employees to assess their working situation by conducting employee surveys Job satisfaction factor for the hospital staff scored a high mean value (3.83) which confirms the importance of satisfying the hospital staff at the workplace in order to receive good performance from them. The absence of incentive system and low salaries was two main reasons and of poor job satisfaction, and according to the Job Satisfaction factor in medical sector has a negative effect on HRM Efficiency and staff’s performance, and without loyal and satisfied hospital staff, the HRM Efficiency will be low and their commitment and performance will be low as well. Evaluation the factors that affect job satisfaction The study included the main elements and actions that affect Job Satisfaction of nurses and staff during work. These elements are (salary & incentives). These two factors play an important role in improving and raising the level of job satisfaction therefore the study has focused in these factors and measures each factor separately in order to reach a precise conclusion about the reality of job satisfaction among hospital staff in Libyan public hospitals. - Incentives The study measured the incentives that employees they were received during their past period working in public hospitals. The result showed that among the 56 respondents; (0 strongly agree, 1 tend to agree, 17 undecided, 21 disagree, and 17 strongly disagree). Incentives are one of the main factors that increase and improve performance at any organization. Public organization managing big public hospitals in Libya neglect this factor for decades which is reflected badly on their annual revenues and productivity as well. The result obtained is shown below in (Fig-1) illustrating that the incentive systems to medical and staff in Libyan public hospitals was approximately absence and the major percentage of hospital staff revealed no incentives have been given to them in the past, which shows the lack of real incentives giving to hospital staff in order to give them higher motivation and push them to work better and give their best output to their organization. Fig-1 (Chart illustrating the incentives to hospital medical staff during the past years) Many theories on incentives have been proposed. In 1959, Herzberg recognized two categories of factors relating to people’s attitude and motivation to work better called “the two-factor theory. The researcher used the concept of this theory in the analysis in order find a new incentive system that suite the type of work in public hospitals in Libya. www.iosrjournals.org 78 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. Herzberg during his observation to hospital staff in different type of works observed that particular factors tended to be associated with satisfaction while others tended to be associated with dissatisfaction. The theory specify to categories; job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. (Herzberg, 1959) referred to healthy factors as essentially defensive actions taken to remove sources of dissatisfaction; these actions include the workplace conditions, unfair pay system, organizational policies, internal treatment, interpersonal relations, insufficient status and lack of job security. Salary The study measured the salaries paid for hospital staff during their past period working in public hospitals. The result showed that among the 56 respondents; (0 strongly agree, 1 tend to agree, 17 undecided, 21 tend to disagree, and 17 strongly disagree). The overall percentages is shown below in Fig-2. Fig-2: The impact of Salary on hospital staff The impact of salary on job satisfaction is higher than other factors. The survey indicated two questions to measure the salary impact on nurses and staff satisfaction. The result showed that about half of respondents (49.72) were not satisfied with their salary, and 29% are strongly not happy with their salary. Nurses and staff attitude was very low because of low salaries they received during the past years without any bonus and paid incentives. When asking the hospital staff if they agree that the salary is enough. None of the respondents were satisfied with the current salaries. As we can see from this result that hospital staff stating clearly that salary was not enough to cover their living expenses which is highly affect their attitude during time of work and in some case cause distortion to their concentration on doing their job perfectly. This is one of the main factors that affect job satisfaction and lead to poor HRM Efficiency. The human resources managers in public hospitals should consider the result of this question in predicting better salaries to the hospital staff in the future. The mean value is high and the standard deviation is very low, which shows that low salaries have being paid to hospital staff which is reflected on their job satisfaction. None of hospital staff were satisfied with the payment system of the public hospitals. It is interesting to note that the percentage of those hospital staff who was not satisfied with the salary amount is near to 0%, The mean value (4.0894) and the standard deviation (0.69739). 3.5 Organization Behaviour plays an important factor in leading the hospital staff to do their job properly and in time. Organizational Behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on Behaviour within an organization. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory (which is more macro-level) and human resource studies (which is more applied and business-related). It may also be referred to as organizational studies or organizational science. The field has its roots in industrial and organizational psychology. The study identified two elements that affect the Organizational Behaviour (Encouraging systems & internal treatment). Encouraging system The question associated with Organizational Behaviour in public hospital are about the existence of internal systems used to encourage hospital staff and other staff in public hospital. More than half of the respondents tend to disagree with these systems. 59.2% of hospital staff tends to disagree where 17.9% are strongly disagree and not happy with non-existence of any encouraging system inside the public hospital that rise hospital staff motivation to do their job in best way with high performance. There is a complete absence of any system that encourages hospital staff and bonds them to their hospitals and encourages nurses and staff unity. Poor HRM Efficiency is a clear result of long time of neglecting to hospital staff basic needs and www.iosrjournals.org 79 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. providing planned systems to encourage hospital staff to do their jobs with high attitude and unity with their HR managers and hospitals. HR Managers should create and design goals which are realistic, achievable, target-set and clear. Fig-3 (A chart showing the percentage of encouraging system) The mean value (3.9497) and the standard deviation (0.63841).The overall percentage of hospital staff as follow; (0% strongly agree, 0% tend to agree, 23% undecided, 59% tend to disagree, 18% strongly disagree) Internal relationships Regarding the relationship between hospital staff and HR managers, the survey showed that hospital staff are not decided whether the relationship is good or not, about have of the respondents (49%) are not decided about this question. The relationship between hospital staff and managers is sometimes breakable. The nurses and staff may feel pressured to keep his job in the hospitals while giving unfavorable opinions about his manager, while the manager or supervisor wonders if the nurses and staff is working good and doing his best to perform his task with maximum ability. Managers in Public hospital are also concerned about the morale of hospital staff, because low morale could lead to expensive issues with turnover or low productivity of the hospitals. It is not clear what is exactly the relationship inside the public organizations between hospital staff and managers and supervisors, the other percentages are also tends to give big deviation from the mean value. The standard deviation value equal to (0.94271) and the mean is (2.8994). Fig -4 (A chart showing the internal relationship between hospital staff and HR mangers) The mentioned potentially unstable relationship between managers and hospital staff is getting caused by different reasons. One theory that deals with this relationship is the so-called “Principal-Agent-Theory”. The main focus of this theory lies on the different amount of information each party has; which may lead to a constantly unstable relationship between employees and managers. The Behaviour of the organization was the weakest factor for the hospital staff, and scored the lowest mean value (3.51) comparing to other factors, this stress the need to pay higher attention the organization Behaviour and its main elements such as internal treatment, healthy working environment, and organizational culture. The Behaviour of the organization that guarantees the rights of the hospital staff has a positive effect on HRM Efficiency and performance. Also the internal regulations needs for improvement to organize the performance of human resources department. 3.6 Training has relationship HRM Efficiency and performance of hospital staff . Training was the strongest factor that affecting HRM Efficiency and scored the highest mean value (3.97). In our survey we asked the www.iosrjournals.org 80 | Page Job Satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training to Improve Employees …. hospital staff definite questions in order to know more information about training available for hospital staff in public hospital and the level of their skills. We ask the respondents about the location of their training, the first question check if the hospital staff has already took training sessions outside Libya showed that the majority of hospital staff did not expect to take training inside Libya, the second major percentage confirm that hospital staff did not took training sessions outside Libya, both percentages equal to 68.15%. The chart below show the final result about training inside Libya Fig -5 (A chart showing training to hospital staff inside Libya) As shown in this chart, the majority of hospital staff did not take any training sessions to help them improve their skills which reflected badly on their performance. Hospital staff in Hospitals need for intensive training courses to increase their awareness and improve their job performance, however good training will be positively reflected on HRM efficiency. Training is essential to improve performance of HR department and employees, and performance is correlated to HRM efficiency. Ballot et al. (2002) and Delame and Kramarz (2001) used French firm-level panel data to look at the effects of training on management value added and found positive and significant effects of training on the performance of organizations. Therefore assigning frequent training courses to the hospital staff will improve the overall HRM Efficiency. The study found that the majority of hospital staff did not take any training sessions outside or inside Libya to help them improve their skills and develop their job performance. Lack of periodic training was strongest factor that lead to poor medical service and low service by the HR department in the public hospitals in Libya. IV. Conclusions The medical sector in Libya was facing many difficulties and obstacles which leads to very poor medical service and inefficient human resources management. In addition to that the effectiveness in doing the medical service was very poor and medical staff complained from unfair treatment and poor job satisfaction. The inefficient medical services have led to migrating of patients outside Libya. The study have specified three factors that affect the HRM Efficiency which are (Job satisfaction, Organizational Behavior, and Training), these factors found directly correlated to the performance of medical staff and the efficiency of HR department. References . 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