Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Business
This 6 page Document was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday December 21, 2015. The Document belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
Reviews for Women-empowerment-and-perception-on-gender-equality-at-work-in-Myanmar--Case-study--Candid
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/21/15
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 8. Ver. III (Aug. 2014), PP 39-44 www.iosrjournals.org Women empowerment and perception on gender equality at work in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates of EMPA& EMDevS at YIE during the 2011-2012 Academic Year) 1 2 Khin Soe Kyi , Thin Thin Oo (Military Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Sciences, Myanmar) 2(Department of Economics, Yangon Institute of Economics, Myanmar) Abstract: An Institutional-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to determine gender equality and empowerment of women in Myanmar. Data were collected from 160 candidates who studying in Executive Master of Public Administration and Executive Master of Development Studies programs during the 2011-2012 Academic year at Yangon Institute of Economics. Self-administered, structured questionnaire was used focusing on socio-demographic, working condition, participation in decision making, and perception on gender equality at work. Independent t test was used to find out the mean difference of study variables between the men and women. According to the results, mean score of women participation in household and economic decisions were significantly higher than that of men at p value of 0.000 and 0.038 respectively. Similarly, women participation in social decision making was significantly higher than the men (p=0.003). However, mean perception score on gender equality at work among the men was significantly higher than the women (p= 0.024). In summary, women's empowerment in making decision was significantly higher than men; however, their perception on gender equality was significantly lower than that of male counterparts. It is hoped that the results of this study would provide supportive information in shaping policies and programs to promote women perception on gender equality at work so as to enhance their productivity in their workplaces. Keywords: women's empowerment, decision making, gender equality I. Introduction Women are central to the development process since they have three roles in their society: reproduction, production, and community management. The role of women also correlates with children‟s survival and education levels which are indicators for country development . Previously, their control was only on the non-money economy through bearing and raising children, and providing household chores, and taking part in agricultural works. However, changing societal norm and patterns forced them to contribute in money economy through working in both formal and informal sectors. Consequently, women workforce has been a substantial component of the domestic and global labor force. According to World Bank estimates, the number of women in the global labor force has increased by 126% from 1960 to 1997 . In 2008, they occupied about 40.5% of the estimated global workforce which rose from 39.9 per cent in 1998, making them central to the development process . In Myanmar, women are traditionally taking responsibilities in bringing up the children, managing household chores and giving affection and kindness to family members. However, today business world bring the Myanmar women out of their homes to workplaces, subsequently the number of women's workforce in 2008-2009 was 11.44 million which out of 29.95 million total labour force in Myanmar . Although women‟s participation in the workforce has grown steadily worldwide, existing gender inequalities continues to be a problem drawing the global attention to promote women empowerment and gender equality. The promotion of equality means that men and women are treated equally and without discrimination in all situations including their workplaces. Job segregation, unequal pay, lack of training opportunities, lack of promotion, and exclusion from certain fields which considered as masculine are some forms of discriminations encountered by the working women . Even they take part in management and executive levels, men still continue to influence in economic and political seats and hold in most of administrative roles. Although the number of women representatives in parliament has increased, women in worldwide can hold only 16 per cent of parliament seats in 2005 . In Myanmar, less than five per cent of political seats within Hluttaws were occupied by women representatives after the Multiparty Democracy General Elections in 2010 . It is apparent that labour market is one of the common areas of gender disparity for women in Myanmar. In this regard, numerous research attempts have been made in order to understand the empowerment of women and gender equality from different perspectives. However, little is known about the situation of women in Myanmar regarding their empowerment and perception on equality at work. Hence, the present study aimed to determine women empowerment and perception on gender equality among the employed women in relation to male counterparts in the selected area. At this point, empowerment will be considered as having participation www.iosrjournals.org 39 | Page Women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates in decision making in terms of their household, economics and social matters. Furthermore, their working conditions and perception on equality will be explored based on gender perceptive. It is hoped that the result of this study would be informative for developers who would like to promote women empowerment and equality in working conditions for women in their nations. II. Literature Review Today focus of development strategy is alleviating poverty and inclusiveness where women empowerment and gender equality has become a global concern . The term gender equality means equality between men and women where both of them are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices . Especially in the developing countries, gender inequality remains a problem since the lives of women in those countries are usually influenced by cultural, economic, and institutional factors. One of the UNESCO's approaches to gender equality and women's empowerment is to promote the participation of women at all levels and fields of activity . Concerning this, women‟s participation in household decision making is a widely accepted measure to indicate women's household level empowerment, particularly in demographic and health related studies . A study in India indicated that employed women were more likely to have higher control over finances, high decision making power and a tendency toward better freedom of movement . However, there are still exit of gender inequality in labour market in terms of occupational segregation, gender-based wage gaps, and disproportionate representation in informal employment . Although developing policy and implementing actions are directed towards gender equality and women empowerment, changing attitude is still essential for developing social relations where gender disparity could be eliminated . Therefore it is noteworthy to conduct a study regarding women empowerment in decision making and their perception on gender equality at work. By comparing with male counterparts, understanding on them could be explored more fully. III. Objectives The general objective of the study is to determine the women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar. Specific objectives are: To determine the participation of women in making decisions in their household, economics and social affairs in compared with men in the selected area To compare the perception on gender equality at work between the women and men in the study area IV. Methodology Institutional-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study design was applied in this study. Data collection period took from September 2011 to November 2011. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect the survey data at the Yangon Institute of Economics (YIE) where a total of 271 candidates were attending in the Executive Master of Public Administration (EMPA) and Executive Master of Development Studies (EMDevS) programs during the 2011-2012 academic year. The candidates attending in both programs were working for various organizations and disciplines encompassing public and private sectors as well as non- governmental organizations. Questionnaires were distributed to all candidates; however, 160 respondents were included in analysis after checking the completeness of obtained data. Self-administered, structured questionnaire was developed based on related literature and theoretical background. The developed questionnaire was pretested with five men and five women who are employed at executive level and not from the study area. After that, the questionnaire was revised and modified in order to make simple and understandable. The questionnaire was framed to include questions on demographics, working condition, household decision making, and perception on gender equality at work. The first part consists of socio-demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, religion, education, employment status, marital status, and family income, and working condition of the respondents. The second portion comprises the questions regarding household decision making in order to reflect the empowerment of women. In which, 15 questions were asked to measure women‟s decision making power on household, economics, and social activities. The respondents were asked to choose one answer regarding decision making from (1) by themselves (2) by their spouse (3) with spouse (4) by their family or relatives (5) with family or relatives. Those responded as own decision making is categorized into “at all” group; those responded as with spouse or with family/relatives are entered into “some participation”; those responded as by their spouse or family/relatives are entered into “none” participation group. Scoring system was used to analyse for inferential statistics. The responses included in “at all” group were scored as “3”, those in “some participation” were regarded as score “2”; and those in “none” participation group were scored as score “1”. The last part comprises the five questions concerning perception on gender equality at work. These questions addressed on how they generally think about gender discrimination, gender equality in terms of promotion, salary, training chances, and working www.iosrjournals.org 40 | Page Women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates hours. Based on three point Likert scale, the scoring system was used –score „3‟ for disagree; „2‟ for undecided; „1‟ for agree responses. Before collecting the data, ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Yangon Institute of Economics. And then, the respondents were explained about the purpose and nature of the study and they were explained that they have right to privacy by protecting their anonymity and confidentiality. After taking informed consent form, questionnaires were delivered to the respondents and collected after completion. Obtained data were analysed by SPSS version (16.0) and then descriptive and inferential statistics were presented with appropriate tables and figures. Statistical decision making for significance of the test was set at p value of 0.05. All the respondents attending at this institute are educated and employed and thus the conclusion about working conditions and empowerment of women could only represent for those with employed and educated in the similar conditions. V. Finding And Discussion 5.1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the study population Among 160 respondents, female respondents were 102 (64%) whereas 58 (36%) were male. More than half of the respondents were aged between 30 to 40 years. Nearly 50% of respondents were married and single while only a few were divorced or widow/widower. In both groups, the highest proportion of respondents had bachelor degree, which was followed by master degree holders and only a few were master degree and diploma holders. Regarding organization, 30.6% respondents worked for NGOs or INGOs whereas 14.4% respondents were serving in military. Of 160 respondents, 80% were manager and above level while 13.5% was decision making level. Concerned with family income, 70.6% of respondents had less than 500,000 kyat/month and the remaining 29.4% had considerable amount of family income. Table (1) Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents by sex Male Female Total Characteristics Frequency (%) Age (completed year) 30-40 33(56.9) 75 (73.5) 108 (67.5) 41-50 17 (29.3) 20 (19.6) 37 (23.1) >50 8 (13.8) 7 (6.9) 15 (9.4) Marital status Single 16 (27.6) 63 (61.8) 79 (49.4) Married 40 (69.0) 37 (36.3) 77 (48.1) Divorced/Separated 2 (3.4) 0 (0) 2 (1.2) Widow/Widower 0 (0) 2 (2.0) 2 (1.2) Education (completed) Bachelor degree 42 (72.4) 65 (63.7) 107 (66.9) Master degree 13 (22.4) 26 (25.5) 39 (24.4) Master and other diploma 3 (5.2) 11 (10.8) 14 (8.8) Organization Military organization 6 (10.3) 17 (16.7) 23 (14.4) Private organization 14 (24.1) 24 (23.5) 38 (23.8) Civil ministries 12 (20.7) 26 (25.5) 38 (23.8) NGO or INGO 21 (36.2) 28 (27.5) 49 (30.6) Own business 5 (8.6) 7 (6.9) 12 (7.5) Position at work Below manger level 4 (6.9) 7 (6.9) 11 (6.9) Manger and above 42 (72.4) 86 (84.3) 128 (80) Decision making level 12 (20.7) 9 (8.8) 21 (13.5) Family income (kyat per month) < 500000 39 (67.2) 74 (72.5) 113 (70.6) 500001 to 1000000 14 (24.1) 19 (18.6) 33 (20.6) 1000001 to 2000000 4 (6.9) 7 (6.9) 11 (6.9) > 2000000 1 (1.7) 2 (2.0) 3 (1.9) Total 58 (100) 102 (100) 160 (100) Source: Sample Survey data Other* (Kayin, Shan, Rakhine, Chin, PaO) 5.2 Participation in household decision making Regarding own healthcare, 71.6% of women reported they involved in the final decision and only 27.5% jointly performed decision on own healthcare. The per cent was also similar in the male group. In the present study, all respondents were educated and employed and thus they were matured and confident regarding their own health decision. However, contrast finding was stated in a survey conducted in Nepal where only 25% www.iosrjournals.org 41 | Page Women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates of women involved in the final decision regarding their own health although 84% of them were employed . This might be due to the fact that variation in cultural background and social context across the nations. In developing countries, decision making power of women was frequently low at household level. A study from India concluded that about 50% of the women did not feel free to take a sick child to a doctor without the approval of their husband, and 70% of the women do not make decisions regarding the purchase of their own or their children‟s clothing . In the present study, about half of women were joint decision makers in seeking healthcare for their children and education of children. Besides, per cent of women who did not participate in decision in health of children was only 4.7% in the present study and it was also consistent with a study done by Jan and Akhtar which stated that who holds masculine decision making was only 6% . More men were in the non-participation group regarding decisions for daily cooking, hiring home mate, and home activities than female. It can be assumed that the concept of “Men are breadwinners and responsibility is only to earn money” is still influencing on the men involved in the study. Regarding important decision, however, over half of respondents from both male and female group made joint decisions either with spouse or relatives. Besides, over 90% from both male and female group involved in decision on own job and earning. All respondents included in this study were educated and employed, and thus they had confident enough to make decisions for important family affairs and job related issues. Table (2) Participation in household decision making among men and women Percent of women Percent of men Decisions N S A N S A Seeking own health care 1.0 27.5 71.6 3.4 27.6 69.0 Seeking health care of children 4.7 48.8 46.5 15.8 57.9 26.3 Education of children 11.6 51.2 37.2 15.8 57.9 26.3 Daily cooking 24.5 36.3 39.2 72.4 17.2 10.3 Hiring home mate 26.5 35.3 38.2 67.2 24.1 8.6 Home activities 21.6 48.0 30.4 51.7 34.5 13.8 Important decision in family 24.5 60.8 14.7 13.8 53.4 32.8 Whether to do own job and earning 6.9 23.5 69.6 1.7 25.9 72.4 Source: Sample Survey data (N= none participation, S= some participation, A= at all participation) 5.3 Participation in economic decision making Regarding economic decisions, more women were solely involved in decisions to spend money and to make small investment like purchasing in household goods than men. Concerned with large investment decision, majority of men and women were jointly performed decision. However, men were less likely to involve in buying presents. Regard with this, Department of Health Services (DHS) data of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi analyzed by Hindin (2005) stated that men are more likely to have the sole final say over women‟s own health care, large household purchases in Zambia and Malawi. This discrepancy may be due to the variation in background and socio-economic matters . Nearly all men included in the present study were positioned at manager and above level and thus they might consider that they should not participate in unimportant economic affairs. Generally, it was evident that the women in this study were more empower in economic decisions in relation to the men. Table (3) Participation in economic decision making among men and women Percent of women Percent of men Decisions N S A N S A Spending money 12.7 37.3 50.0 34.5 50.0 15.5 Small investment decision 12.7 32.4 54.9 32.8 48.3 19.0 Large investment decision 21.6 52.9 25.5 13.8 53.4 32.7 Buying presents for social activity 5.9 31.4 62.7 27.6 46.6 25.9 Source: Sample Survey data (N= none participation, S= some participation, A= at all participation) 5.4 Participation in social decisions Among the respondents, higher percent of women were found in sole participation group than in the men group. Even in decision to go health clinic alone, less men were solely made decision than women. Over 90% of respondents from both male and women were totally or partially involved in making decision regarding final say to visit city/town. Both male and female, less than 10% of respondents were in none www.iosrjournals.org 42 | Page Women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates participation in decision to go to health clinic alone. Overall social decision making power among the women is generally higher than that of opponents. Table (4) Participation in social decision making among men and women Percent of women Percent of men Decisions N S A N S A To visit relatives/friends 11.8 44.1 44.1 22.4 58.6 19.0 To visit city/town 4.9 52.0 43.1 6.9 65.5 27.6 Go to health clinic alone 7.8 38.2 52.0 8.6 56.9 34.5 Source: Sample Survey data (N= none participation, S= some participation, A= at all participation) 5.5 Comparison of household decision making between male and female respondents A comparison of mean score for decision making of male and female respondents was made by using independent t test. The mean score for household decision making among female respondents was significantly higher than that of male respondents at p=0.000 (t= 4.097). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference between the means for economic decision making of male and female respondents (t=-2.087, p=0.038). Mean score for social decision making among the female respondents was 7.13 while that of male respondents was 6.43. The mean for social decision making of male respondents was significantly lower than that of female (t=-2.987, p=0.003). It can be concluded that women were more likely to empower and have autonomy in making decisions in relation to men. Table (5) Comparison of mean score for participation in decision making between men and women Decision making Male Female p Household decision making Mean ± SD 11.97 ± 2.31 13.59 ± 2.57 (t = 4.097, p = 0.000) Median 12.00 14.00 Economic decision making Mean ± SD 8.36 ± 4.26 9.40 ± 2.03 (t = -2.087, p = 0.038) Median 8 10 Social decision making Mean ± SD 6.43± 1.33 7.13± 1.47 (t = -2.987, p = 0.003) Median 6 7 Source: Sample Survey data 5.6 Comparison of working conditions among the women and men In this study, working conditions such as whether they get promotion and training opportunities were asked to compare between men and women. Nearly all of respondents answered that they had chances to promote and training opportunities in their workplaces. In fact, the percent of men and women in getting these chance and opportunities were similar. In a highly competitive labor market in today society, employers have to find out the ways to be supportive and positive working environment in order to make productivity effectively and efficiently. In this regard, the respondents were also asked about overtime and being happy and satisfy in workplaces. It was found that majority was working overtime, but the occurrences were not much different between men and women. On the other hand, more men in this study were enjoyed and satisfied in their workplace than the women. This might well be explained by the nature of gender differences reflecting that men are usually in higher self-esteem and conﬁdence than women. Figure (1) Comparison of working conditions among the respondents www.iosrjournals.org 43 | Page Women empowerment and perception on gender equality in Myanmar (Case study: Candidates 5.7 Comparison of perception on gender equality at work between male and female respondents Regarding perception, respondents were asked about gender equality at work. In compared to men, mean perception score of women for each statement was lower than the mean except in the statements regarding equality in salaries and working hours. Mean perception score for gender equality at work among the female respondents was 12.5 while that of male was 13.4. According to independent t test result, statistically significant difference was found to have between the mean perception score of male and female respondents at t= 2.283, p=0.024. Table (6) Mean score for perception on gender equality between men and women Perception on gender equality Male Female 2.5±.84 Gender discrimination at work 2.8 ±.50 Gender inequality - In getting promotion at work 2.5 ±82 2.1±.97 - In having the same salaries 2.6 ±.78 2.7±.71 - In working hours 2.7 ±.68 2.8 ±.50 - In having chances to attend the courses 2.8 ±.45 2.4±.85 Total mean score and SD 13.4 ± 2.33 12.5 ± 2.87 Source: Sample Survey data VI. Conclusion And Recommendations According to the results of this study, women were more empower than men particularly in household, economic, and social decision making. However, men's participation was higher than women in making decisions regarding important family affairs, job and earning, and large investment. Generally, women participation in decisions making was higher than that of male counterparts. Although working conditions were not much different between male and female respondents, men were more likely to enjoy and satisfy at work than women. Furthermore, men had more positive perception on gender equality at work than women. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that women in this study were more empower in decision making, however, men were more positive attitude towards gender equality. Since the study was conducted among the candidates attending in EMPA and EMDevS programs, it was difficult to generalize in every institutions and any conclusion drawn about the population as a whole would be tentative. This study was being conducted within the feasibility of the researcher, and thus further research such as nationwide survey with more rigorous research method and more specific tool would like to recommend in order to uncover empowerment of women and gender equality in Myanmar. By doing so, appropriate policies and development programs could be formulated so as to enhance women empowerment and gender equality in Myanmar. References  J Momsen, Gender and development (2nd ed.) (USA: Routledge, 2010).  World Bank, Engendering development (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).  International Labour Organization ILO, Global employment trends for women: March 2009 (Geneva: Author, 2009).  Department of Labour, Handbook on human resources development indicators, 2009 (Nay Pyi Taw: Ministry of Labour, 2011).  World Health Organization (WHO) Gender, health and work (Geneva: Author, 2004). Retrieved December 10, 2011 from http://www.who.int/ gneder/documents/en  UNFPA, The State of World Population. The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals 2005. Retrieved November, 23, 2011 from http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2005/presskit/ factsheet/facts-gender.htm  The Union Election Commission, The new light of Myanmar. (2010, November 16).  Unit for the Promotion of the Status of Women and Gender Equality, Gender equality and equity: a summary review of UNESCO's accomplishments since the fourth world conference on women (Beijing 1995), (2000).  M. M, Kritz, P. Makinwa-Adebusoye, and D.T. Gurak, The role of gender context in shaping reproductive behaviour in Nigeria, in B. Harriet., & G. S. Presser Women‟s empowerment and demographic processes, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).  S.J. Jejeebhoy, Women‟s autonomy in rural India: Its dimensions, determinants and the influence of context, in: B. Harriet., & G. S. Presser Women‟s empowerment and demographic processes, New York: Oxford University Press. (2000).  M. Furuta, and, S. Salway, Women‟s Position within the Household as a Determinant of Maternal Health Care Use in Nepal. International Family Planning Perspectives, 32(1), 2006, 17–27.  M. Jan and S. Akhtar, An Analysis of Decision-Making Power among Married and Unmarried Women, Stud. Home Comm. Sci., 2(1), 2008, 43-50.  M.J. Hindin, Women‟s autonomy, status, and nutrition in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi, in: S. Kishor. (ed). A focus on gender: collected papers on gender using DHS data (Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro, 2005). www.iosrjournals.org 44 | Page
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'