Note for CH 105 with Professor Woski at UA-Exam 4 Outline
Note for CH 105 with Professor Woski at UA-Exam 4 Outline
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2010 Chapter 21 Energy and Biochemical Reactions Sectio 21 82110 l Citric Acid Cycle a Utilizes acetylCoA from glycolysis to make reduced electron carriers NADH amp FADHZ C02 and some ATP b Know the reactants i Reaction 1 Formation of Citrate acetyl CoA oxaloacetate gt citrate 2 C 4 C 6C ii Reaction 2 Isomerization citrate gt isocitrate 6C 6C iii Reaction 3 151 Oxidative decarboxylation Isocitrate NAD gt a ketoglutarate NADH COz 6C 5C 1C iV Reaction 4 2nd Oxidative Decarboxylation ocketoglutarate NAD CoA gt succinyl CoA NADH Co SC 4C lC V Reaction 5 Hydrolysis succinylCoA GDP Pi gt succinate GTP 4C 4C Note GTP is equivalent to ATP Vi Reaction 6 Dehydrogenation succinate FAD gt fumarate FADH2 4C 4C Vii Reaction 7 Hydration of the alkene fumarate H20 gt malate 4C 4C Viii Reaction 8 oxidation of alcohol malate NAD gt oxaloacetate NADH 4C 4C c Net reaction simplified AcetylCoA gt 3 NADH FADHZ ATP 2 C02 2 Electron transport chain mitochondria 3 Uses the energy stored in the reduced electron carriers to make ATP b Rough outline unbalanced NADPUFADHZ O gt proton gradient HzO gt ATP c Reactive oxygen species i Oxygen radicals produced as 02 is reduced to water can get loose ii These are reactive species that can cause damage to cellular components d Synthesis of ATP i Protons are pumped across impermeable membrane ii Excess protons on one side of membrane represents potential energy iii ATP synthase uses energy from protons moving back across membrane to make ATP from ADP Ch apter 22 Carbohydrates l Classify carbohydrates by size and functional group aldehyde I ketone 3 carbons aldotriose ketotriose 4 carbons aldotetrose ketotetrose 5 carbons aldopentose ketopentose 6 carbons aldohexose ketohexose All carbohydrates with free terminal aldehydes are reducing are oxidized with Tollen s or Benedict s reagent Some ketoses like fructose are also reducing 2 Distinguish between monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides 3 Label the Fischer projection for a monosaccharide as the D or Lisomer a Look at chiral carbon furthest from the carbonyl group b Hydroxyl group on the right is R on left is L 4 Haworth structures for cyclic hemiacetals of monosaccharides a Remember that these drawing look at the ring edgeon b Identify glycosidic bond c If 70H 70R group down then 1 alpha d If 70H 70R group up then 3 beta 5 Describe the structural units and bonds in disaccharides and polysaccharides a Disaccharides know constituent sugars and the type of glycosidic bond i Maltose glucose glucose a l4 glycosidic bond ii Lactose galactose glucose B 14 glycosidic bond iii Sucrose glucose fructose a B 12 glycosidic bonds Note sucrose is not reducing sugar because both the aldehyde of glucose and the ketone of fructose are involved in glycosidic bonding b Polysaccharides know constituent sugars types of glycosidic bonds and geometry i Amylose starch straight chain of glucoses joined by a 14 glycosidic bonds ii Amylopectin and glycogen branched chains of glucoses joined by a 14 glycosidic bonds straight runs and a 16 glycosidic bonds branches iii Cellulose straight chain of glucoses joined by 14 glycosidic bonds Chapter 21 Carbohydrate Metabolism l Carbohydrate metabolism a b c d Catabolism breaking large molecules into smaller Begins in mouth enzymes break down complex carbohydrates Continues in intestines Monosaccharides absorbed into bloodstream and then by cells 2 Glycolysis a b c d Anaerobic catabolism of glucose 6 carbons Forms 2 pyruvates 3 carbons each 2 ATP and 2 NADH Step 1 glucose ATP gt glucose6phosphate ADP hexokinase Step 2 glucose G phosphate gt fructose 6 phosphate THIS IS AN ISOMERASE RXN 0 Iquot Step 3 fructose6phosphate ATP gt fructose16bisphosphate ADP Step 4 fructose16bisphosphate gt glyceraldehyde3phosphate dihydroxyactone lphosphate Step 5 dihydroxyactonelphosphate gt glyceraldehyde3phosphate Step 6 2 glyceraldehyde3phosphate 2Pi2NAD gt 2 l3bisphosphoglycerate 2 NADH Step 7 2 l3bisphosphoglycerate ZADP gt 2 3phosphoglycerate 2 ATP Step 8 2 3phosphoglycerate gt 2 Zphosphoglycerate Step 9 2 2 phosphoglycerate gt 2 phosphoenolpyruvate THIS IS A LYASE RXN Step 10 2 phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP gt 2 pyruvate 2 ATP 3 Fates of pyruvate a b c Aerobic pyruvate CoA NAD gt acetleoA NADH CO Anaerobic pyruvate NADH gt lactate NAD Fermentation pyruvate NADH gt ethanol NAD CO 4 Overall production of ATP energy from glucose 36 ATP a b c Glycolysis 6 ATP 2 directly 4 from NADH Pyruvate 6 ATP from NADH Citric acid cycle 24 ATP 2 from GTP 22 from NADHFADHZ 5 Glucose in the body a b c d Glucose is primary energy source for some tissues especially the brain Some excess glucose is stored as glycogen When glucose levels are low glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose Insulin i Hormone secreted in response to high blood glucose levels ii Stimulates l Glucose uptake by cells 2 Glycolysis 3 Glycogen synthesis Glucagon i Hormone released in response to low blood glucose ii Stimulates 3 l Glycogen hydrolysis 2 Gluconeogenesis biochemical synthesis of glucose iii Slows cellular uptake of glucose Chapter 1 7 Lipids 1 Describe the properties and types of lipids a All are hydrophobic b Fatty acidbaseditypically contain 1218 carbons with COOH group i Fatty acids 1 Saturated a only alkyl b can pack closelyitend to be solids at RT 2 Unsaturatedicontain alkenes a Cis i kink in chain disrupts packing ii liquids at RT b Trans i Straighter chains pack like saturated FA ii Solids at RT 3 Polyunsaturatedicontain 2 or more alkenes ii Triacylglycerolsiester of glycerol HOCHzCHOHCHzOH and three FA 1 Solid at RT fat 2 Liquid at RT oil 3 Reactions of triacylglycerols a Hydrogenation of unsaturated triacylglycerols i Add Hz to alkene groups in presence of metal catalyst Pd Ni Pt etc ii Increases mp liquid oil gtsolid fat iii Side reaction is major source of transfatty acids b Saponification i Strong base for example NaOHHZO or KOHHZO ii Makes glycerol 3 RCOOM soap iii Soap forms micelles in water 1 Spherical structure with hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic exterior 2 Single layer of fatty acid salts composes shell iii Glycerolphospholipidsiglycerol 2 FA and l polar head group linked through phosphate group 1 Cell membranes a Composed of double layer bilayer of lipids glycerolphospholipids cholesterol and proteins b Hydrophilic head groups pointed inward and outward into water c Hydrophobic lipids point toward middle of bilayer d Proteins ow in sea of lipids uid mosaic model 4 2 Transport a Diffusionipassive transport of particles from high gtlow concentration i Must cross hydrophobic part of lipid bilayer ii Often slow b Facilitated transportidiffusion from high gtlow concentration through protein channels i Bypasses hydrophobic barrier ii Much faster for charged compounds c Active transportitransport from low gthigh concentration i mediated by proteins ii requires input of energy iV Waxesiesters of FA and longchain alcohols V Steroidsiall contain nucleus of 3 cyclohexane and l cyclopentane rings 1 Cholesterol 2 Lipoproteins and the transport of cholesterol a Ball of triacylglycerols and cholesterol surrounded by single layer of glycerophospholipids proteins and cholesterol b Polar groups on glycerophospholipids and cholesterol point outward into water making hydrophobic particle soluble c Used to transport cholesterol and triacylglycerols in body d LDLlowdensity lipoprotein bad cholesterol icarries cholesterol to cells and can deposit excess in arteries e HDLhighdensity lipoprotein good cholesterol icarries cholesterol to liver for conversion to bile salts or elimination
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