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Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing Essential reading Kotler, P. and G. Armstrong Principles of Marketing. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004) tenth edition [ISBN 0131018612] Chapters 6 and 7. Keywords:consumer market; business market; inﬂuences on buying behaviour; buying processes. References Mitchell, A. ‘The VALS Typology’ in Enis, B.M. and K.K. Cox (eds) Marketing Classics. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1991) [ISBN 0205129242]. Schiffman, L.G. and L.L. Kanuk Consumer Behaviour. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall 1994) [ISBN 013082190X]. Webster F.E. and Y. Wind ‘A General Model for Understanding Organisational Buying Behaviour’ in Enis, B.M. and K.K. Cox (eds) Marketing Classics. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1991) [ISBN 0205129242]. Learning outcomes By the end of this chapter you should be able to: • differentiate between the inﬂuences on consumer buying behaviour and industrial buying behaviour • explain the buying processes for consumers and industrial buyers. Introduction In this chapter we will deal with the factors that inﬂuence customers’ purchasing activities inconsumerand industrial (business)markets. Consumer marketing is directed at private individuals who purchase goods and services forpersonal consumption. In contrast, industrial marketing deals with customers who purchase in order to make or sell their own products or services. For both types of marketing there are two important issues to consider: a. the customer decision-making process b. the inﬂuences on customers’ decision-making. By understanding both theprocessesinvolved in customers’ buying decision making and theinﬂuenceson these processes, marketers can more effectively use the marketing mix to inﬂuence customers. Consumer markets and buyer behaviour 1 1This topic is covered in Chapter 6 of Kotler Whether it is consumer or industrial markets that are being considered, thereand Armstrong (2004). is a distinction between consumers and buyers. Whereas buyers actually make the purchase, it is consumers who use the product. Marketers need to be aware of this and to decide whom they wish to target. The factors that inﬂuence consumers’ purchasing determine whether a purchase will be ofhigh or low involvement for the consumer. A customer’s level of involvement depends on the degree of personal relevance that the 35 Marketing product holds. In turn, the level of involvement affects how much effort a consumer will put into making a purchase. For those purchases that are of low involvement, the customer will start the buying process by recognising their need for the product and immediately make the purchase. However, for purchases of high involvement, after recognising need, customers will not immediately make the purchase but will pass through other stages, such as evaluating the products offered by rival marketers. Inﬂuences on consumer behaviour For marketers it is important to understand which factors inﬂuence consumers’ purchasing, since changes in these could affect demand for the marketers’ product. Such factors can be actively manipulated by the marketer in order to improve sales. An important aspect of this process is understanding consumer buying behaviour. A useful framework can be the dimensions of buying behaviour, consisting of the following factors: • cultural • social • personal • psychological. Table 4.1 at the end of this chapter shows how these inﬂuences can have an impact on the elements of the marketing mix (which will be discussed in subsequent chapters). You should revisit this table as you study this unit because understanding consumer behaviour is of value to marketers only insofar as it has an impact on marketers’ activities – important aspects of which are: the design of products, setting prices, promotion strategies and management of distribution (place). Cultural factors Cultural factors are one dimension of buying behaviour, because they inﬂuence a consumer’s choice of product. For example, someone who has been brought up in an environment that values education would be more likely to buy books. It may be worthwhile considering consumers in terms of their sub-culture. An individual may be surrounded by people who not only value education but place a higher priority on engineering as opposed to the arts. As a result they will be more likely to buy engineering books rather than those covering the arts. Social factors Groups comprise two or more people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals. Groups can therefore be formal, such as trade unions, or informal, such as neighbours who shop together.Reference groupsare those groups of people who, ‘serve as frames of reference for individuals in their purchase or consumption decisions’ (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1994, p. 329) (i.e. they have an inﬂuence on individual behaviour). The familyis a key reference group for most people. The family into which someone is born provides their values and beliefs, which can determine their preferences. The wants of a consumer’s spouse and children will have a direct impact on their current consumption. Within families, purchasing decisions for particular goods may be split between husband and wife. But each partner may still play the role ofinﬂuencer. Indeed, small children may be very important inﬂuencers even though they may not make any direct purchases of their own. 36 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing Personal factors Apart from cultural and social factors, an individual’s purchasing activity will be determined by their age. There are obvious differences in the types of goods and services purchased by young and old people. For example, holidays for young people can stress adventure, whereas those for older tourists may place an emphasis on the fact that everything has been organised and there will be relatively little stress. For individuals of the same age, consumption will vary according to their education and occupation. For example, current affairs television programmes on state television, which are available free of charge, are more likely to be watched by educated people. Quality newspapers such as the SingaporeanStraits Timeshave a readership comprised mainly of professionals and educated people. Age, occupation and factors such as family size will have an effect on the economic circumstances of individuals. Such circumstances will inﬂuence consumers’ disposable income, savings, assets and borrowing power. Lifestylescan also affect the types of consumption undertaken – within the same social group individuals can be, for example,belongersor achievers. The former spend more time on social activities while the latter devote more 2 2Mitchell (1991) shows time to their careers. how a typology of values and lifestyles can Psychological factors be used to categorise individuals. There are Although two people may be exactly the same in terms of education, income four comprehensive and occupation, their consumption may nevertheless differ because of groups that are subdivided into nine psychological factors. In particular, individuals may have different lifestyles, each intended to describe a unique motivations to purchase. way of life deﬁned by its distinctive array of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs values, drives beliefs, needs, dreams and According to Maslow, individuals have a hierarchy of needs. In terms of special points of view. marketing, different products will appeal to consumers at different levels of the hierarchy (see Figure 4.1). The most basic needs are physiological, such as hunger and the need for clothing. Once these have been satisﬁed individuals will seek to fulﬁl ‘safety needs’. More than physical safety, these include order, stability, routine, familiarity, control over one’s life and environment, health and certainty. (Marketers of ﬁnancial products, such as insurance and safe cars tend to emphasise these needs.) Self-actualisation needs (self-development and realisation) Esteem needs (self-esteem recognition, status) Social needs (sense of belonging, love) Safety needs (security, protection) Physiological needs (hunger, thirst) Figure 4.1: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. 37 Marketing After these have been satisﬁed social needs must be met, for example, love, affection, belonging and acceptance. (This need is taken into account by marketers of personal care products.) In the penultimate stage, purchases may be made for reasons of personal esteem or ego. There are two types of egoistic needs: those that are inwardly directed and reﬂect an individual’s need for self-acceptance, success and personal satisfaction, and outwardly directed needs that require recognition by others. The ﬁnal stage of need fulﬁlment is ‘self-actualisation’. This represents an individual’s fulﬁlment of their potential, to become all they ever wanted to be. Overall, the basis of Maslow’s theory is therefore that it is dissatisfaction, not satisfaction, that drives customer need. Therefore demand ranges from the purely physiological at one extreme to purely psychological at the other. It should be noted that there is some overlap between each type of need, since no need is ever completely satisﬁed. The usefulness of the model lies in marketers being able to use it to develop advertising appeals for their products. Marketers focus on the need level that is likely to apply to the largest segment of the population and they can use the need hierarchy to position the product. A particular criticism levelled at the Maslow model is that the concepts are too general. For example, there is a fundamental difference between hunger and self-esteem; the former can be urgent whereas the latter arises as a result of a more voluntary decision. Furthermore, it has not been possible to test the theory. The buying process Consumers decide on their level of involvement in a purchase according to how important it is for them. Involvement determines how many stages of the buying process customers will employ and how long they will spend at each of the stages. Involvement will be determined by the degree of customer-perceived risk, which depends on what the customer has at stake and the chances of something going wrong with the purchase. Thus buying a newspaper is a purchase of limited perceived risk because the customer has relatively little at stake (the price of a copy) and not much can go wrong. As well as understanding the factors that inﬂuence consumer purchasing, marketers also need to understand the different stages of the actualbuying decision process. These are as follows. Need recognition The process of deciding what to buy begins when a need that can be satisﬁed through consumption becomes strong enough to motivate a person. Individual recognition of a need may be triggered for two different reasons. First, those consumers (who are labelledactual state) who perceive a purchase to be needed when a product fails to perform satisfactorily. The problems that trigger the purchase can be divided into those that are simple and occur frequently and those that are complex, where the problem develops over time. The second group of consumers (labelled desired state) are those for whom the desire for something new triggers the decision process. Identiﬁcation of alternatives If the level of involvement is high enough, customers will search for alternative goods that can satisfy their needs. The purchase of newspapers may be of limited involvement and therefore entail little pre-purchase information search. In contrast, buying an architect’s services to design a house could be of high involvement, and requires extensive acquisition of 38 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing information prior to purchase. This is because the householder has a great deal at stake – the design of their house – and quite a lot can go wrong with it. The search can be internal, where a person refers to their memory, and/or external, where use is made of advertising material or other information sources. It should be noted that consumers distinguish between different sources of information in terms of their trustworthiness. Word-of-mouth (the opinion of friends and relatives) is considered to be more trustworthy than advertising, for example. The greater the risk perceived in a purchase, the greater the reliance on trustworthy sources of information. Evaluation of alternatives There are two types of information that can be used. First, consumers have a list of brands from which they plan to make their purchase. This is called the ‘evoked set’. Secondly, there are criteria that consumers use to evaluate each brand. Products will be evaluated in terms of attributes such as prices and speciﬁcations. The attributes that people use when making a purchase will vary depending on their income, lifestyle and tastes. Table 4.2 (at the end of this chapter) shows three major models that are discussed in Kotler and Armstrong (2004) and are within the syllabus for this unit. As you will see, two of these models are related to the readings for this chapter and the third model is referenced in Chapter 7, when we deal with promotion. The reason why they have been brought together is because they share some common aspects. These are shown in the left-hand column. Each model has a cognitive stage, which refers to customers becoming aware of the product or service. Each model then shows how customers move to an affective stage, where they develop a positive attitude towards the product or service and ﬁnally the behavioural stage where activity takes place, speciﬁcally the purchase of the product or service. Each of the models has a number of different stages – but what they have in common is that their stages will fall into the categories of being cognitive, affective or behavioural. The beneﬁt of looking at the models in this way is that you can see the similarities between them, but can also identify how they are different. For example, the adoption of innovation model has a ‘trial’ stage emphasising the fact that this model is dealing with new products. Types of buying behaviour It should be noted that the above stages in the buying process need not apply in all situations. Speciﬁcally, stages may be skipped where: • a customer is buying on a repeat basis. This is referred to as routinised response behaviour • the customer’s need for the product is immediate or they are obliged to buy for legal reasons. However, the time spent at each stage and the number of stages may be increased where complex buying is taking place. This happens where consumers have no established criteria for evaluating a product category, so they will need a large amount of information prior to making a purchase. Figure 4.2 shows some of the key topics in consumer buying behaviour. For example, cultural and social factors have an important effect on buyer characteristics. These characteristics will have an inﬂuence on the buyer’s decision-making process. From the viewpoint of a particular marketer, not only will their own marketing stimuli (e.g. advertising) affect the consumer but the wider macro- and microenvironments will also have an impact. The last box in the ﬁgure shows that all the inﬂuences that will affect which products an individual buys, the speciﬁc brands, where they buy it from and the timing of the purchase. 39 Marketing Figure 4.2: Factors inﬂuencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Industrial markets and organisational buying behaviour 3 3This topic is covered in Chapter 7 of Kotler and Armstrong This topic deals with the purchasing of services and products by businesses (2004). and public sector bodies. First we will explain the key differences between consumer and industrial marketing and then the factors that marketers need to take into account when selling to business markets. Business buying is an increasingly important market. Many companies buy a growing proportion of their product from third parties. Canon, for example, supply printers to a number of computer manufacturers who sell the printers under their own brand. A number of car manufacturers buy a large proportion of components from independent manufacturers. This increase in purchases from third parties has been accompanied by increasing emphasis in the marketing literature on the beneﬁts of long-term, co-operative relationships between industrial buyers and sellers. In particular, such co-operation can enable companies to cope with increasing technological risks. For this reason this topic focuses on the reasons why closer relations between customer and supplier can be beneﬁcial. Key differences between consumer and organisation buying Additional needs Industrial organisations’ buying differs from that of consumers because they have additional needs, for example, the making of proﬁts and legal obligations to their customers. Different decision-making procedures There are also more people involved in purchasing decisions, and within the organisation there may be formal policies and procedures that must be 4Webster and Wind (1991) see 4 organisational buying as a followed. There is also administrative paperwork associated with the decision-making process carried purchasing activity, such as order forms and purchase contracts. It should be out by individuals interacting remembered, however, that the procedures in any two organisations are with other people in a formal unlikely to be the same. organisation. 40 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing Derived demand In industrial markets, demand for goods is ultimately derived, in that it depends on the demand for what the buyers are producing. This means that marketers need to pay attention to the markets served by their customers. Are these markets growing? If they are falling, could this mean a reduction in demand for their own goods and services? Marketers of industrial products can play a proactive role in stimulating derived demand by advertising their product directly to ﬁnal consumers. For example, the British glass manufacturer, Pilkington, sells the beneﬁts of its high-technology glass to householders. The intention is that when people buy glass products they will ask for those which use Pilkington’s. Another example is Intel which markets its computer chips direct to consumers in the hope that, due to consumer demand, computer manufacturers will buy Intel chips rather than Motorola or non-branded chips. Since demand depends on the health of the customer’s business, it is liable to ﬂuctuate more than is the case in consumer markets. However, demand is also moreinelastic(because their cost is often a small proportion of the purchaser’s total cost) and for these reasons demand may be insensitive to the product’s price. Professional buyers Purchasing activity is undertaken byprofessionalswho have access to more information than do consumers. This means that marketing to businesses may be more reliant on technical speciﬁcations and the salespeople themselves may need to be more technically aware. In contrast, such elements of the marketing mix as packaging may play less of a role. Why long-term relationships are useful in industrial markets There arefewerindustrial buyers than consumer market customers, but the size of individual orders can be much larger in industrial markets. For this reason individual industrial market customers can be more important to marketers than individual consumer market customers (these have little or no power of leverage over marketers). The importance of industrial customers can mean that they are able to negotiate on price, terms and speciﬁcations. (The length of thenegotiating periodmay be longer in industrial markets.) The above two factors mean that it is both important and possible for sellers to formclose, long-term, relationshipswith buyers. There are other reasons too for the importance of long-term relationships between customers and suppliers. Customised supply and dependability of supply Industrial buyers need long-termdependability of supplyfor some of their purchases. Furthermore, if their needs require customised products, customers may need to have a long-term relationship with their suppliers. In some instances staff from the two ﬁrms may work together to develop products and services. Even where supply is on a one-off basis, industrial purchasers may have a need for ongoing servicing and maintenance of products. In order to reduce inventories (stocks of parts) ﬁrms are moving towards ‘just-in-time’ (JIT) deliveries from their suppliers. This requires customers to establish a delivery system that is more integrated with their suppliers. 41 Marketing It may not just be technical factors that encourage relationships to develop, there may also be ﬁnancial considerations. If industrial customers are able to lease instead of buying outright, there will be a longer-term ﬁnancial relationship between them and their suppliers. Frequency of purchasing Industrial consumers may buy products less often than individual consumers. In order to overcome this, marketers may need to call often to keep buyers familiar with their products. Key players in the buying process In consumer markets the people involved in a purchase may be at most a husband, wife and their children. However, in industrial markets many people could be involved and, signiﬁcantly for the marketer, it could be more difﬁcult to identify who they are. People who are involved in the buying process can be described as: • users, the people who actually use the product or service • inﬂuencers, people who, because of their expertise, set the speciﬁcations of what is to be bought. They may also play an important role because of their political power • deciders, people who make the actual buying decision. How important this person is in the buying company’s hierarchy will depend on the importance of the purchase being made • gatekeepers, people who control the ﬂow of information within the organisation. These may include secretaries, personal assistants and technical personnel. Although they may not be responsible for decision- making, many sales training manuals pay a great deal of attention to the need to build co-operative relations with these important people • buyers, people who actually process the purchase orders. Which people are involved and to what extent will depend on the purchase being made. For marketers the challenge is to understand the people who comprise thebuying centrefor their products. It should be noted that in industrial buying emotional factors can play a role in the purchasing decision. The marketer of corporate jets may seek to appeal to the chairman’s ego as well as the chief pilot’s safety concerns. Factors that inﬂuence demand Just as consumer marketers seek to determine demand by calculating the numbers of people who may be interested in their products, so industrial marketers seek to ﬁnd those ﬁrms that are potential purchasers. Customers can also be segmented in terms of numbers of employees and size of turnover. This will enable the marketer to determine which companies are likely to represent important accounts. Whether demand is ‘vertical’ or ‘horizontal’ is also an important factor. If a company faces a vertical business market, the demand for its product will not extend beyond a couple of different industries and it must ensure that there is sufﬁcient demand. The ﬁrm may ﬁnd it proﬁtable to customise its products to the needs of that industry. In contrast, where there is a horizontal business market, ﬁrms can sell into a number of different industries, though they will face more diverse competition. 42 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing Factors that inﬂuence purchasing Buyer behaviour can be inﬂuenced by: theeconomic environment, environmental factors, organisational factors, interpersonal factorsand characteristics of the individual.The economicenvironment plays an important role in industrial purchasing since the outlook for a business’s sales will determine whether or not it should invest in new stock or plant. Organisational factors comprise: corporate objectives, policies and procedures. Interpersonal factors are also important and the marketer may not be aware of the internal power structures within the buying organisation. Individuals can bring their own habits and personalities to the buying situation. They may, for example, have a strong interest in technical detail and require a large number of speciﬁcations. The purchasing decision-making process The process of decision-making by business buyers is as follows: 1. a recognition by the organisation that a purchase has to be made 2. the need is described, which leads to 3. product speciﬁcation, and ultimately 4. the search for a supplier 5. proposals are then solicited, and on the basis of these 6. suppliers are selected 7. once the purchase has been made the performance of the supplier is reviewed. Although the above represents all the possible stages involved in a purchase, which of the stages is actually used will depend on the type of buying situation facing the customer. These are categorised as follows. The simplest is the straight rebuy, which is the routine repurchase of a product which a customer has bought before. Amodiﬁed rebuyoccurs when the purchaser wants to repurchase, but with changes to the original speciﬁcations (these may include changing the original supplier). Anew taskoccurs when a customer wants to buy a product or service for the ﬁrst time. The number of people involved in the decision-making will depend on the cost and the complexity of the purchase being made. In an attempt to simplify the purchasing process, buyers may usesystems buying, which involves buying all the components needed to perform a particular activity together. This method has obvious beneﬁts for marketers, who can sell to customers not just single products but a complete range of goods. For example, computer manufacturers can undertake initial consultancy work to specify what hardware a customer needs, provide the hardware, undertake the installation and also provide training for the customer’s staff. Special features of institutional and government buying The institutional market includes schools, hospitals and prisons. Buying by government departments and the public sector differs from commercial purchasing for the following reasons: • their ﬁnancial resources will be different (usually lower than that of a comparable private organisation) 43 Marketing • they will also be answerable to the government to a higher degree than private sector organisations. For this reason, they may require suppliers to comply with more regulations and complete larger amounts of resulting paperwork than commercial buyers. Usually government buyers require competitive tenders for contracts, so that they can award the contracts to the lowest bidder. However, their choice of supplier may entail employment and other economic considerations as well as price. Political reasons may also mean that governments buy within the country rather than import products. Summary • Consumer buying behaviour deals with purchasing by consumers for personal use. • Industrial buying behaviour deals with purchasing by corporations who use the goods and services with a view to producing their own. • Consumer buying behaviour is inﬂuenced by a variety of personal and environmental factors. Of these the psychological factors can be considered in terms of Maslow’s theory. • The inﬂuences on consumer buying affect the complexity of the buying process to which consumers will subject themselves. • Various factors differentiate industrial buying from consumer buying. Among these is the fact that a number of people may be involved in the decision-making process. • The type of buying situation facing the customer will determine the extent of decision-making involved prior to making a purchase. Reminder of the learning outcomes By the end of this chapter you should be able to: • differentiate between the inﬂuences on consumer buying behaviour and industrial buying behaviour • explain the buying processes for consumers and industrial buyers. Activity 1. Try to complete the following table; we have provided an example to help you. Individual Purchase Inﬂuences Student External programme course Businessman Airltikete 2. Try to obtain ‘trade’ magazines.These will carry advertising that is aimed at a business market. Compare the advertising in such a magazine with advertising for similar products, which has appeared in consumer magazines. How do the ads differ? For example, what beneﬁts are being sold to the consumer as opposed to the industrial buyer? 3. What product attributes do you take into account when making the decision to purchase? Choose any products that appeal.What attributes do your friends consider when making a similar purchase? For what reasons are the choice of attributes different? 44 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing 4. For more questions see ‘Discussion questions’ in Kotler and Armstrong, Chapter 5, particularly numbers, 5–11 and 13. See also ‘Discussion questions’ for Chapter 6, especially numbers, 1, 4, 6–10. Sample examination questions 1. Show, with examples, how: a) customer buyer behaviour b) the marketing mix relate to each of the following product categories: convenience; shopping; speciality; unsought. 2. Outline the main features of each of the following types of buyer behaviour: complex; dissonance-reducing; habitual; variety-seeking (10 marks). In what ways should the company’s marketing communications strategy reﬂect the differences between these types of buyer behaviour? (15 marks) (Zone B 2004 BSc Econ) 3. Your company manufactures military vehicles (e.g. armoured cars, personnel carriers and light tanks). Such vehicles are used by armed forces, both at home and abroad. What would you expect to be: a) the signiﬁcant characteristics of the buying organisations? b) the important types of role within the buying process? c) the signiﬁcance of (a) and (b) above for the design of your company’s marketing strategy? 4. Describe, preferably with examples, a straight re-buy, a modiﬁed re-buy and a new task buying decision. How would the relative importance of the major stages of the buy-phase model of industrial purchasing differ with respect to these types of buying decisions? 5. High involvement products, such as sewing machines and stereo systems, usually require consumers to experience all ﬁve stages of the buying process. Discuss the ﬁve stages with examples of how marketers might address the consumer needs at each stage. 6. In which ways may reference groups be signiﬁcant for marketing? What examples can you provide from your own observations or from your reading of the use of reference groups in marketing? (Zone B 1989 BSc Econ) 45 Marketing IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING MIX PRODUCT PLACE PRICE PROMOTION Cultural Cultural – what Determine where In some countries What is acceptable culturally factors marketers can take and when products buyers focus on will determine how a product can for granted (e.g. are bought. absolute price levels. be promoted. attitudes, shared People may not buy In others, what is Promotion needs to take culture meanings) products in super- important is value into account to reduce ‘noise’ Marketers – target markets for for money segments of sub- cultural reasons cultures/social classes Social Status products Status products Products that convey Marketers can appeal to status. factors sell because we may need to be status can be Advertisements can say that reference pay attention to sold via exclusive marketed for people deserve ‘luxury’ because groups what others will or selective relatively high of their status family think about distribution prices roles and products and statuses services we buy. Within families decisions may be taken by two people Personal Convenience Where a product is Price can be set to Personality and self concept age products have distributed – this reﬂect the economic of customers – marketers appeal life-cycle grown because can take into circumstances of to traits: self-conﬁdence; stage of changing account customers’ customers dominance; autonomy wealth/ lifestyles. People lifestyles (e.g. income focus on work 7-eleven occupation and have less convenience stores) time for cooking Psycho- Branding – where Prestigious stores High prices can be Advertising can appeal to the logical products are being are important where used where motivations which marketers think beliefs/ bought for self- the marketer is customers are are driving buyers (e.g. self attitudes esteem needs. trying to appeal looking for actualisation) learning If marketers know to esteem needs safety Perception (attention; distortion motivationthat customers retention) needs to be considered perceptionhave particular for advertising beliefs/attitudes, Marketers may need to take they can use this advantage of, or address, beliefs to develop speciﬁc and attitudes products (e.g. people believe products can reduce the ageing processes: Clarins skincare products) Table 4.1: Factors inﬂuencing buyer behaviour and implications for the marketing mix. 46 Chapter 4: Consumer and industrial marketing STAGE BUYER READINESS BUYER PROCESS ADOPTION OF INNOVATION 5 6 7 5 This is covered in STAGES MODEL MODEL Chapter 15 of Kotler and Armstrong (2004) COGNITIVE Awareness – Potential Problem recognition Awareness – if the product is new 6 This model is covered in This refers to customers need to know – the customer the marketer needs to ensure that Chapter 6 of Kotler and being aware of that the product exists realises that they the target market becomes Armstrong (2004). something Knowledge – They need to have a need which aware of its existence 7 This is covered in be told of the product’s can be fulﬁlled Chapter 6 of Kotler and features and beneﬁts with a product/ Armstrong (2004). service AFFECTIVE Liking – They need to have Information search Interest – buyers will only pay This refers to a favourable feeling towards – the customer further attention to the product having an the product searches for if they can see that there are attitude Preference – They need to information some beneﬁts of use to them towards it prefer our brand to in the appropriate Evaluation – the customer competitors’ brands places decides whether to evaluate the Conviction – salespeople Evaluation – Brands product or service need to overcome the ﬁnal in the ‘evoked set’ hurdles to encourage these will be evaluated people to buy using speciﬁc criteria – marketers need to know what these are BEHAVIOURAL Purchase – the promotion Purchase – marketersTrial – buyers may need to be This refers to can include some need to ensure that encouraged to try out the new taking action mechanism for the they can facilitate product or service to see that it customer to respond this: delivery times, will satisfy wants credit etc. Adoption – decision by consumer to become regular purchaser Post-purchase behaviour – marketers need to ensure that outcomes match expectations Table 4.2: Hierarchy of response models compared. 47 Marketing Notes 48
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