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GRE HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS 1.Abate Verb The wind abated after the storm: decrease, diminish, reduce, lessen, subside, decline, fade, fade away, recede, dwindle, moderate, mitigate, weaken, wane, ebb, curtail, slack, slacken, go down, lower, fall off, fall away, taper off, lighten, soften, quiet, quell, slow, slow down, slake off, temper, cool, blunt; ease, relieve, alleviate, assuage, pacify, soothe, allay, mollify, palliate, dull; dampen, restrain, restrict. —Antonyms increase, intensify, magnify, enhance, heighten, aggravate, amplify, grow; multiply, rise, come up, strengthen, sharpen, heat up; quicken, accelerate, hurry, speed, speed up; prolong, extend. 2.Aberrant Adjective 1 The planet's orbit was plainly aberrant: straying, stray, deviating, deviate, wandering, errant, erring, devious, erratic, rambling, diverging, divergent. 2 Aberrant behavior led to his confinement: abnormal, irregular, unusual, odd, eccentric, peculiar, exceptional, weird, queer, curious, singular, strange; unconforming, nonconforming, anomalous. —Antonyms 1 direct. 2 normal. 3. Abeyance Noun The building project will be held in abeyance until spring: postponement, suspension, intermission, remission, deferral, adjournment, discontinuance, inaction, dormancy, latency; pause, delay, cessation, quiescence, recess, hiatus, waiting period, in a holding pattern; in cold storage, on ice, on a back burner. —Antonyms Continuance, continuation, continuity, ceaselessness. 4. abstemious adjective His abstemious habits allowed him few pleasures: abstinent, ascetic, austere, temperate, continent, nonindulgent, teetotal, self-denying, sparingself-disciplined, abstentious. —Antonyms self-indulgent, abandoned, undisciplined, uncontrolled, hedonistic, profligate, licentious, unrestrained, immoderate. 5. admonish verb 1 The captain admonished the guards to be on the alert: warn, caution, put on guard, tip off; advise, counsel, enjoin. 2 The preacher admonished his congregation for failure to attend weekly services: reprove, censure, reprimand, rebuke, reproach, remonstrate, chide, chasten, scold, upbraid, criticize, take to task, call to account, rap on the knuckles. —Antonyms 2 praise, compliment, commend. 6. adulterate verb The ancient Greeks often adulterated their wine with water: contaminate, thin, water, water down; depreciate, Informal cut. 7. esthetic or aesthetic adjective The course in art history is designed to develop the student's esthetic judgment: appreciative of beauty, appealing to artistic taste, having artistic tastes, artistic; sensitive, discriminating, cultivated, refined, fastidious. —Antonyms unesthetic, unappreciative; insensitive, undiscriminating. 8. aggregate noun The final plan was an aggregate of all our ideas: composite, compound, union, combination, gathering, accumulation, collection, amassing, bringing together, summation, mixture, mix, blend, mass, conglomeration, conglomerate. 9. Alacrity noun 1 She answered his call for assist-ance with alacrity: willingness, enthusiasm, eagerness, fervor, zeal, avidity; alertness, promptness, dispatch, readiness. 2 Despite his 80 years, he moved with alacrity: liveliness, briskness, sprightliness; agility, nimbleness. —Antonyms 1 unwillingness, indifference, unconcern, apathy, impassiveness, reluctance, disinclination; languor, lethargy, dullness. 2 slowness, sluggishness. 10.alleviate verb This medication will alleviate the soreness: relieve, ease, allay, assuage; lessen, reduce, abate, diminish, check, temper, lighten, soften, mitigate, mollify; blunt, dull, moderate, slake, slacken, subdue, quit, quench. —Antonyms make worse, aggravate, increase, intensify, heighten, enhance, magnify, multiply. 11. amalgamate verb Silver must be amalgamated with a harder material to make durable jewelry. The two shipping companies amalgamated into one: combine, blend, merge, fuse, mix, commingle; unite, unify, join together, consolidate, coalesce, incorporate, federate, integrate, synthesize. —Antonyms separate, part, divide, disunite. 12. ambiguous adjective "Indian" is an ambiguous word because it can refer to an American Indian or a native of India: equivocal, vague, unclear, cryptic, enigmatic, puzzling, indefinite, uncertain, doubtful; misleading, having a double meaning. —Antonyms explicit, definite, specific, direct, conclusive; clear, plain, frank, unmistakable, obvious, simple, lucid; unquestionable, honest. 13.ambivalent adjective I have ambivalent thoughts on where to spend my vacation: contradictory, conflicting, opposing, clashing, warring; confused, undecided, unfocused, mixed, wavering, fluctuating, vacillating, Informal wishy-washy. —Antonyms definite, positive; unwavering. 14. ameliorate verb 1 The council met to consider ways of ameliorating the foreign situation: improve, better, help, heal, fix up, patch up, correct, rectify; amend, reform, revise, improve upon, make an improvement upon; advance, promote. 2 Doctors say the patient's condition has ameliorated: improve, get better, grow better, perk up, pick up, progress, come along, mend , show improvement. —Antonyms 1 ruin, botch, queer, screw up, wreck, destroy. 2 deteriorat, go downhill, decline, weaken ,worsen . 15. Anachronism a•nach•ro•nism (* nak"r* niz'*m), n. 1. an error in chronology in which a person, object, event, etc., is assigned a date or period other than the correct one. 2. a thing or person that belongs to another, esp. an earlier, time. [1640–50; < L anachronismus < Gk anachronismós a wrong time reference = anachron(ízein) to make a wrong time reference (see ANA-, CHRONO-, -IZE) + -ismos -ISM] a•nach'ro•nis"tic, a•nach"ro•nous, adj. a•nach'ro•nis"ti•cal•ly, a•nach"ro•nous•ly, an•a•chron•i•cal•ly (an'* kron"ik le), adv. 16. analogous adjective The heart is analogous to a pump: similar, like, comparable, akin, equivalent, parallel, correlative, corresponding. —Antonyms dissimilar, unlike; different, divergent 17.Anarchy Noun 1 Any form of government is better than anarchy: absence of government, disorder, lawlessness, chaos. 2 Anarchists dream of an ideal state of anarchy in which people will be completely free: utopia, the millennium. —Antonyms 1 order, discipline, authority; government, organization, control; regimentation, subjection. 18.Anomalous Adjective 1 An Eskimo in native dress would cut an anomalous figure in Rio: odd, strange, peculiar, incongruous, out of keeping, bizarre. 2 Cats with six toes are anomalous but not uncommon: irregular, abnormal, atypical; monstrous. —Antonyms 1 common, usual, standard, typical, familiar, unexceptional, ordinary, natural, normal, regular, conventional, customary. 2 normal, typical. 19.Antipathy Noun I try to be broadminded but do feel antipathy toward people who are dirty and unkempt: dislike, aversion, distaste; disgust, repulsion, loathing, repugnance, abhorrence; antagonism, animosity, ill will, enmity, rancor, hostility, unfriendliness. —Antonyms affinity, fellow feeling, regard, sympathy, attraction, partiality; love, affection, attachment. 20.Apathy Noun Public apathy can lead to bad government: indifference, unconcern, lack of interest, inattention, unresponsiveness, passiveness, lethargy, lassitude; lack of feeling, numbness, emotionlessness, coolness, impassibility, impassivity. —Antonyms Concern, interest, attention, responsiveness, action; emotion, feeling, excitement, passion, zeal, vehemence, enthusiasm, fervor. 21.Appease Verb 1 Nothing would appease the crying baby: calm, make peaceful, pacify, quiet, soothe, solace, mollify, lull, compose, placate. 2 That sandwich appeased my appetite: satisfy, ease, allay, abate, assuage, alleviate, temper, mitigate, relieve; slake, quench, quell, blunt, still, quiet, dull. 3 Chamberlain should never have tried to appease Hitler: conciliate, accommodate, propitiate. —Antonyms 1,2,3 aggravate, provoke, inflame, arouse. 1 disturb, upset, bother, annoy, dissatisfy, perturb. 3 anger, enrage, infuriate; antagonize, Informal cross 22.Apprise Verb Police should apprise an arrested person of his or her rights to remain silent and to be represented by a lawyer: inform, notify, advise, tell, make acquainted, make aware, make cognizant of, disclose, enlighten. —Antonyms Keep secret, keep quiet about. 23.Approbation Noun The architect received approbation for his new office building design: praise, congratulation, compliment, good word, applause, acclaim; approval, acceptance, support, endorsement, ratification, commendation, laudation, official sanction. —Antonyms Censure, condemnation, criticism; disapproval, dissatisfaction, protest, rejection, veto. 24.Appropriate Adjective 1 A long dress is appropriate for a formal wedding: suitable, proper, well-suited, congruous, fitting, befitting, correct, seemly, apt, apropos, well-chosen; characteristic, belonging, pertinent, relevant, germane, to the purpose, to the point, opportune. Verb 2 The city will appropriate money for two new schools: allocate, set apart, allot, apportion, assign, earmark. 3 The county should appropriate land for a new highway: take possession of, take, confiscate, expropriate. —Antonyms 1 inappropriate, improper, ill-suited, unsuitable, unsuited, unfitting, incongruous, unbefitting, unseemly, incorrect, wrong, inconsonant, incompatible, outré; uncharacteristic, out of place, inopportune, irrelevant. 2 withhold. 3 give, bestow, donate; relinquish, cede, dispose of. 25.Arduous Adjective Crossing the continent in a covered wagon was an arduous undertaking: difficult, hard, laborious, toilsome, wearisome, exhausting, fatiguing, tiring, burdensome, heavytough, troublesome, onerous, trying, full of hardships, formidable, severe, Herculean; vigorous, strenuous, energetic. —Antonyms Light, facile, easy, simple, effortless, smooth. 26.Artless Adjective 1 Her love was as artless as a child's: frank, candid, open, honest, true, guileless, innocent, naïve, simple, humble, straightforward; sincere, unpretentious, trusting, undesigning, open-hearted, ingenuous, unsophisticated, unaffected, unself- conscious. 2 Nothing can compare to the artless beauty of a waterfall: natural, pure, unadorned, plain, simple, primitive, crude. 3 The painting was completely artless: inartistic, lacking art; without artistic talent, untalented. —Antonyms 1 cunning, crafty, sly, wily, dishonest, deceitful, designing, artful, insincere, pretended, faked, phony, false, counterfeit; sophisticated, affected, self-conscious; suspicious, distrustful. 2 artificial, unnatural, synthetic. 3 artistic, aesthetic. 27.Ascetic Noun 1 Most of the early saints were extreme ascetics: self-denier, abstainer, self-mortifier; hermit, recluse, solitary, eremite, anchorite, celibate, cenobite; religious, monk, nun, flagellant; yogi, fakir, dervish. Adjective 2 Trappist monks lead an ascetic existence: austere, self-denying, abstemious, strict, stern, Spartan, rigorous, self- mortifying. —Antonyms 1 hedonist, sensualist, voluptuary, sybarite, bon vivant. 2 self-indulgent, indulgent, pampered, luxurious, comfortable; abandoned, dissolute, voluptuous, sensuous, sensual, sybaritic. 28.Assiduous Adjective It takes assiduous work to learn Russian. I admire an assiduous student: diligent, industrious, hardworking, laborious, unremitting, determined, persistent, persevering, earnest, steadfast, constant, tenacious, dogged, untiring, tireless, unflagging, indefatigable, sed-ulous. —Antonyms indolent, lazy, idle; haphazard, casual, cavalier, lax, hit-or-miss, undetermined, inconstant, happy-go-lucky. 29.Assuage Verb Liniment will assuage the pain, but soaking in hot water does the injury more good: allay, ease, relieve, mitigate; lighten, lessen, soften; mollify, alleviate, soothe, calm, quiet, still, pacify, appease, temper, take the edge off, tone down. —Antonyms Intensify, aggravate, irritate, exacerbate, heighten, sharpen, increase, augment; provoke, excite, arouse, kindle, inflame. 30.attenuate Verb 1 The silversmith attenuated the ingot into one long thread: draw out, make thin, make fine, make slender, spin out. 2 Aspirin only attenuated the pain: weaken, reduce, diminish, lessen, decrease; dilute, water down, adulterate, impair, enervate, enfeeble. —Antonyms 1 broadens, make thick, make coarse, make fat, enlarge, expand. 2 increase, amplify, intensify, augment, strengthen, develop. 31.Audacious Adjective 1 Napoleon was an audacious leader: bold, daring, adventurous, venturesome, enterprising; brave, courageous, fearless, unafraid, valiant, intrepid, dauntless, stouthearted, lionhearted, stalwart, valorous, plucky, Slang gutsy. 2 We admired the audacious feats of the trapeze artists: bold, daring, reckless, rash, risky, daredevil, devil-may-care, death- defying, breakneck; heedless, foolhardy, injudicious, imprudent, desperate, hotheaded, self-willed, wild. 3 Her audacious behavior shocked us all: impudent, impertinent, insolent, brazen, fresh, shameless, outrageous, defiant, unabashed, presumptuous, assuming, forward, saucy, cheeky, bossy, pert; disrespectful, rude, discourteous. —Antonyms 1 unadventurous, unenterprising; cowardly, fainthearted, craven, frightened, timid, pusillanimous, Slang yellow, chickenhearted, lily-livered. 2 careful, guarded, discreet; prudent, circumspect, cautious, judicious. 3 tactful, gracious, unassuming, cordial, amiable, ingratiating, deferential, reverential, obsequious, Informal kowtowing; polite, courteous, mannerly, well-mannered, gentlemanly, ladylike, refined, polished, formal. 32.austere Adjective 1 In the old days, schoolmasters were thought of as austere men: stern, strict, severe, forbidding, ascetic. 2 The Puritans led austere lives: rigorous, rigid, Spartan, ascetic, self-denying, abstemious, strict, simple, spare, stark, strait-laced, chaste. —Antonyms 1 permissive, lenient, indulgent, easy, flexible, lax; frivolous, gay, cheerful, joyful, merry, lighthearted, jovial, jolly, jaunty, nonchalant, lively, exuberant, vivacious, effervescent, high-spirited, playful, convivial; kindly, kind, sweet, genial. 2 luxurious, lush, comfortable, easy; sophisticated, cosmopolitan; loose, corrupt, dissolute, dissipated, debauched, degenerate, depraved, wanton, abandoned, self-gratifying, free-and-easy, immoral, wicked, evil, sinful, impure, lewd, licentious, lascivious. 33. Autonomous Adjective The school of adult education was an autonomous extension of the university: self-governing, self-determined; self- sufficient, self-reliant, independent, sovereign, free. —Antonyms Governed, dependent, subject. 34.Aver Verb The witness averred that he had seen the suspect at the scene of the crime: assert, declare, affirm, state, avow, avouch, maintain, swear, insist, emphasize, contend, profess, represent, proclaim, pronounce, protest, asseverate; certify, verify, guarantee. —Antonyms Deny, disavow, disclaim, repudiate; doubt, be uncertain, gainsay. 35.Banal Adjective There were no new ideas in his banal lecture: stale, trite, unoriginal, hackneyed, ordinary, commonplace, prosaic, pedestrian, unexciting, unimaginative, everyday, stock, humdrum, dull, uninteresting, conventional, stereotyped, insipid, threadbare, shopworn, tired, corny, cliché-ridden, vapid, platitudinous, bromidic, jejune. —Antonyms Original, new, novel, unique, exciting, fresh, unusual, extraordinary, innovative, distinctive, stimulating, stimulative, gripping, provocative, challenging, imaginative, interesting. 36.Belie Verb 1 The facts belie your story: disprove, refute, contradict, controvert, repudiate, show to be false, give the lie to, invalidate, gainsay, negate, betray, deny, defy. 2 The author's smile belied his anger with the critic: misrepresent, falsify; disguise, camouflage, mask, conceal, cloak. —Antonyms 1 proves, verify, attest to, validate, support, confirm, corroborate. 2 represent, reveal, disclose, indicate. 37.Beneficent Adj. doing good or causing good to be done; charitable. 1.Beneficial Adjective Exercise is beneficial to good health: helpful, advantageous, propitious, useful, valuable, contributive, favorable, profitable, productive; healthful, healing, good for. —Antonyms Useless, detrimental, detractive, disadvantageous; unfavorable, harmful, pernicious, unwholesome. 38.Bolster Verb 1 More timbers are needed to bolster the roof of the mine: support, brace, prop up, hold up, buttress, reinforce, maintain, sustain, shore up, shoulder, cradle. 2 More facts are needed to bolster your argument: support, uphold, sustain, strengthen, reinforce, add to, help, aid, assist. Noun 3 Put the bolster on the couch: cushion, pillow. —Antonyms 1 weighs down. 2 diminish, lessen, weaken, tear down. 39.Bombastic Adjective No one believed his bombastic claims: grandiloquent, pompous, windy, padded, inflated, magniloquent, tumid, turgid, verbose, wordy. —Antonyms Temperate, unpretentious, modest, natural, simple, unaffected, deflated, quiet. 40.Boorish Adjective She considers the peasants boorish: crude, rude, coarse, vulgar, unrefined, unpolished, uncouth, gauche, loutish, oafish, rustic peasantlike. —Antonyms Genteel, polite, polished, cultured, refined, cultivated, gentlemanly, courtly, gallant, lady-like; sophisticated, urbane, cosmopolitan. 41.Burgeon Verb Housing developments are burgeoning on all sides. Spring has begun to burgeon in every valley and glade: thrive, flourish, expand, enlarge, grow, develop, mushroom, escalate, wax, increase, spring up, shoot up, proliferate, augment, spread; bloom, blossom, flower, blow, effloresce, open, fructify, bear fruit. 42.Burnish Verb The silver bracelet was burnished to a bright finish: polish, wax, buff, shine, smooth, and rub up. —Antonyms Abrade, scratch, mar. 43.Buttress Noun 1 The north wall of the cathedral had a beautiful stone buttress: support, brace, prop, stanchion, abutment, arch, stay, and shoulder. Verb 2 Buttress that fence with some two-by-fours. You'd better buttress your argument with more facts: prop, prop up, brace, shore, shore up, reinforce, strengthen, bolster, support, boost, steel. 44.Cacophonous Adjective The cacophonous sounds of the street came through the open window: dissonant, inharmonious, harsh, raucous, dis- cordant, unmusical, unmelodious, strident, screechy, jarring, grating, disharmonious, nonmelodious; out of tune, off-key, off- pitch. 45.Capricious Adjective The capricious man bought and exchanged three shirts in a week: changeable, fickle, variable, impulsive, erratic, flighty, skittish, mercurial, fanciful, faddish; indecisive, undecided, irresolute, uncertain, wavering, vacillating, shilly-shallying; irresponsible, inconsistent, unsteady, unstable, fitful, uneven, eccentric, quirky. —Antonyms Consistent, unchangeable, inflexible, unmovable, firm, fixed, unwavering, invariable, unswerving; resolute, determined, steadfast, certain, decided, decisive; serious, responsible, steady, stable, even. 46.Castigate Verb The principal castigated the students for their unruly behavior: chastise, upbraid, rebuke, censure, reprimand, reproach, chasten, reprove, berate, scold, admonish, criticize, chide, call on the carpet, bawl out, chew out, dress down, haul over the coals, take to task; punish, discipline, correct, penalize. —Antonyms Praise, laud, compliment, honor; reward, encourage. 47. Catalyst cat•a•lyst (kat"l ist), n. 1. a substance that causes or speeds a chemical reaction without itself being affected. 2. a person or thing that precipitates an event or change. [1900–05; CATALY(SIS) + (-I)ST] 48.Caustic Adjective 1 Acid is caustic: burning, corrosive, corroding, erosive; astringent, stinging, biting, gnawing, sharp. 2 His caustic remarks hurt our feelings: sarcastic, biting, stinging, cutting, scathing, sharp, harsh, acrid, acrimonious, tart, bitter. —Antonyms 1 soothing, healing; bland, mild. 2 flattering, complimentary; sweet, kind, loving, pleasant, pleasing, gentle, gracious, agreeable, mild, bland. 49. Chicanery Noun There was some chicanery with our reservations, and we complained to the travel agent: deception, trickery, fraud, deceit, cozenage, gulling, guile, hocus-pocus, double-dealing, duplicity, duping, subterfuge, hoodwinking, pettifoggery, humbuggery; knavery, roguery, rascality, villainy. 50.Coagulate Verb Certain drugs cause blood to coagulate: clot, congeal; solidify, set, gel, jell, jellify, harden, curdle; thicken. —Antonyms Liquefy, melt, dissolve, and soften. 51.Coda 1. A concluding passage of a musical composition. 2. A concluding section, esp. one serving as a summation of preceding themes, as in a drama. 3. Anything that serves as a conclusion or summation. 52.Cogent Adjective He gave us several cogent reasons why the plan would inevitably fail: compelling, valid, persuasive, forceful, powerful, potent, trenchant, convincing, well-founded, incontrovertible, sound, meritorious, weighty, effective, undeniable, well- grounded. —Antonyms Unconvincing, unsound, dubious, implausible, improbable. 53. Commensurate also commensurable Adjective Her salary is commensurate with her ability and experience: in accord, consistent, in agreement, suitable, fitting, appropriate, compatible, corresponding, proportionate, comparable, on a proper scale, relative, equal, equivalent, even, balanced, meet, parallel, relative, square. —Antonyms Inconsistent, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfitting, incompatible, disproportionate, dissimilar, incomparable, unequal, discordant. 54. Compendium Noun It was fascinating to browse through the compendium of quotations: digest, abridgment, condensation, abstract, brief, epitome, overview, précis, summary. 55.Complaisant Adjective The host's complaisant manner made everyone feel welcome: obliging, solicitous, pleasing, agreeable, compliant, cordial, congenial, affable, warm, gracious, friendly, pleasant, amiable, good-natured, good-humored, easygoing. —Antonyms Unobliging, contrary, unsolicitous, uncooperative, indifferent; disagreeable, unpleasant, cold, unfriendly, ungracious. 56.Compliance Noun Compliance with the traffic laws is necessary for safe driving. Yes-men are known for their compliance: conformity, conforming, obedience, yielding, giving in, submission, deference; assent, acquiescence, complaisance, pliancy, nonresistance, passivity, docility, meekness. —Antonyms noncompliance, nonconformity, disobedience, resistance, rebelliousness, assertiveness, individuality, stubbornness; obstinacy. 57.Conciliatory Adjective One conciliatory remark would make them friends again: peacemaking, reconciling, friendly, reassuring, placatory, pacifying, mollifying, accommodative, appeasing. —Antonyms Antagonistic, hostile, unfriendly, unforgiving. 58. Condone Verb Parents must not condone their children's bad behavior: overlook, let pass, ignore, disregard, put up with, wink at; forgive, excuse, pardon, justify, absolve, forget. —Antonyms Condemn, denounce, censure, disapprove; punish, castigate. 59. Confound Verb The patient's unusual symptoms confounded the doctor: perplex, confuse, baffle, bewilder, puzzle, mystify, mix up, disconcert, unsettle, nonplus, rattle, fluster, throw off the scent; amaze, astound, astonish, surprise, startle, dumfound, flabbergast, strike with wonder. —Antonyms Enlighten, explain, solve, clear up, clarify. 60. Connoisseur Noun The old gentleman was a connoisseur of fine wines: expert, judge, authority, mavin, person of good taste, cognoscente; epicure, gourmet. 61. Contention Noun 1 Border raiding led to even more contention: struggle, strife, conflict, combat, altercation, feud, wrangle, rivalry, contest; argument, debate, dispute, disagreement, controversy, dispute, dissension, falling out, opposition, discord. 2 It was his contention that she was lazy: allegation, charge, assertion, claim, position, point. —Antonyms 1 peace ;accord ,agreement . 62.Contentious Contentious (k*n ten"sh*s), adj. 1. tending to argument or strife; quarrelsome: a contentious crew. 2. causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy: contentious issues. 3. pertaining to causes between contending parties involved in litigation. con•ten"tious•ly, adv. con•ten"tious•ness, n. 63. Contrite Adjective His contrite manner made us forgives him: conscience-stricken, sorrowfulregretful, repentant, rueful, penitent, remorseful, apologetic, chastened, humbled. —Antonyms proud, pleased, uncontrite, unrepentant, unapologetic. 64. Conundrum Noun No one in the room could find the answer to the conundrum: puzzle, riddle, enigma, mystery, poser, puzzler, paradox, arcanum, brain-teaser, stumper, stopper, Chinese puzzle, rebus, problem. 65. Converge Verb The Mississippi and Missouri rivers converge at St. Louis. A lens converges light rays: come together, meet, approach; focus, concentrate, bring together. —Antonyms Diverge, separate, part, scatter, disperse. 66. Convolution Noun The children were fascinated by the convolutions of the snake: coiling, coil, twisting, twist, winding, undulation, contortion; sinuosity, sinuousness, tortuousness; maze, labyrinth. —Antonyms Uncoiling, unwinding. 67. Craven Adjective Refusing to stand and fight was a craven thing to do: cowardly, dastardly, pusillanimous; timid, timorous, fearful, frightened, scared; Slang yellow, lily-livered, chicken-hearted; mean-spirited, base, low, lowdown. —Antonyms Brave, courageous, heroic, fearless, valorous, valiant, dauntless; bold, daring, audacious. 68. Daunt Verb Crossing the country in wagons did not daunt the early pioneers: intimidate, dismay, faze, discourage, dishearten, deject, depress, dash, unnerve, subdue, browbeat, cow, abash, menace, threaten; frighten, scare, alarm, affright. —Antonyms Embolden, encourage, cheer, animate, enliven. 69. Decorum Noun Jennifer always acts with decorum: propriety, politeness; tact, gentility, respectability, dignity, taste; good form. —Antonyms Impropriety, inappropriate behavior, bad manners. 70. default noun 1 If the team doesn't show up, they will lose by default: failure to appear or act. 2 His car was repossessed because of default of the monthly installment: nonpayment; failure to pay. 71. Deference Noun Out of deference to her age and position, the committee followed her suggestions: consideration, respect, reverence, honor, esteem, regard; obedience, capitulation. —Antonyms Disrespect, contempt; defiance, disobedience. 72.delineate de•lin•e•ate (di lin"e at'), v.t., -at•ed, -at•ing. 1. to trace the outline of; represent pictorially. 2. to portray in words; describe with precision. de•lin"e•a•ble (-* b*l), adj. de•lin"e•a'tor, n. 73. Denigrate Verb He has a mentality that denigrates everything it doesn't understand: defame, malign, slander, tear down, abuse, stigmatize, tra-duce, disparage, run down, besmirch, downgrade, blacken, call names, calumniate, backbite, smear, vilify, revile, asperse, soil, sully; Slang give a black eye, drag through the mud, stab in the back, badmouth, dump on. —Antonyms Praise, commend, acclaim, exalt, boost. 75. Deride Verb They derided the new music: ridicule, mock, scoff, scorn, sneer at. 76. Derivative Adjective 1 The derivative essay received low marks: derived, unoriginal, borrowed, copied, evolved, imitative, inferred, not original, obtained, plagiarized, rehashed, secondhand. Noun 2 offshoot, outgrowth, byproduct, derivation, descendant, product, spinoff. —Antonyms 1 original, archetypal, authentic, genuine, seminal. 77. Desiccate des•ic•cate (des"i kat'), v., -cat•ed, -cat•ing. v.t. 1. to dry thoroughly; dry up. 2. to preserve (food) by removing moisture; dehydrate. v.i. 3. to become thoroughly dried. [1565–75; < L desiccatus dried up, ptp. of desiccare = de- + siccare, der. of siccus dry] des'ic•ca"tion, n. des"ic•ca'tive, adj. des"ic•ca'tor, n. 78. Desultory des•ul•to•ry (des"*l tôr'e, -tor'e), adj. 1. lacking in consistency, method, purpose, or visible order; disconnected: desultory conversation. 2. digressing from or unconnected with the main subject: a desultory remark. [1575–85; < L desultorius pertaining to a desultor (a circus rider who jumps from one horse to another), der. of desul-, var. s. of desilire to jump down] des"ul•to'ri•ly, adv. des"ul•to'ri•ness, n. 78.deterrent Noun Punishment is not necessarily a deterrent to crime: restraint, curb, hindrance, check, discouragement. 79. Diatribe Noun In her diatribe she gave full vent to all her resentments against him: verbal or written castigation, bitter harangue, tirade, violent denunciation, stream of abuse, accusatory language, invective, vituperation, contumely. 80. Dichotomy di•chot•o•my (di kot"* me), n., pl. -mies. 1. division into two parts or kinds; subdivision into halves or pairs. 2. division into two exclusive, opposed, or contradictory groups: a dichotomy between thought and action. 3. a mode of branching by constant forking, as in some stems. 4. the phase of the moon or of an inferior planet when half of its disk is visible. [1600–10; < Gk] 81.diffidence Noun His diffidence keeps him from making friends: timidity, timidness, timorousness, shyness, meekness, insecurity, retiring disposition, reserve, constraint, introversion; bashfulness, extreme modesty, humbleness, want of self-confidence, unassertiveness, sheepishness, lack of self-assurance; hesitancy, reluctance. —Antonyms Boldness, audaciousness, forwardness, assertiveness, aggressiveness; self-confidence, confidence. 82.Diffuse Adjective 1 The room was bathed in soft, diffuse light: scattered, spread out, unconcentrated, dispersed, extended widely; vaguely defined. 2 His talk was so diffuse I missed his point: wordy, verbose, discursive, rambling, long-winded, lacking conciseness, disjointed, digressive, not concentrated, desultory, roundabout, wandering, meandering, maundering, circumlocutory. —Antonyms 1 concentrated. 2 succinct, concise, terse, pithy, compact; methodical, organized. 83.Digression Noun His long digression made him forget his main point: divergence, departure, deviation, detour, straying, wandering; diversion, obiter dictum, side remark, divagation. 84.dirge Noun He composed a dirge to honor the war dead: funeral song, requiem, death song, death march, lament, burial hymn, threnody, mournful composition; mournful sound. 85. Disabuse Verb Someone ought to disabuse him of those star-struck notions: enlighten about, free from error, clear the mind of, disillusion, disenchant, rid of deception, relieve of, set straight, set right, open the eyes of, free of a mistaken belief. 86. Discerning Adjective The mediator was discerning in his analysis of the problem: perceptive, acute, perspicacious, sharp, astute, penetrating, keen-sighted, sensitive, piercing, discriminating, shrewd, intelligent, wise, judicious, sage, sagacious, clear-sighted, sharp- sighted; showing discernment, quick to discern, having keen insight. —Antonyms Undiscerning, unperceptive, indiscriminate. 87.discordant dis•cord•ant (dis kôr"dnt), adj. 1. being at variance; disagreeing; incongruous. 2. disagreeable to the ear; dissonant; harsh. [1250–1300; ME discordaunt < AF < L] dis•cord"ant•ly, adv. 88. discredit verb 1 She discredited his good name with ugly gossip: defame, abuse, dishonor, impair the reputation of, disgrace, vilify, disparage, smirch, smear, debase, degrade, demean, vitiate, tarnish, taint, undermine, slur, sully, stigmatize, drag through the mud. 2 The insurance investigator discredited his false claim: prove false, deny, disallow, disprove, reject; destroy confidence in, shake one's faith in, undermine belief in; dispute, challenge, question. Antonyms 1 credit, praise, laud. 2 credit, prove, support, accept, verify. 89. discrepancy noun There is a great discrepancy between his version of the accident and yours: difference, inconsistency, variance, disagreement, discordance, lack of correspondence, disparity, dissimilarity, divergence, incongruity, gap. —Antonyms correspondence, accord. 90.Discrete Adjective The Liberal Arts College has been reorganized into six discrete departments: separate, distinct, different, detached, disconnected, discontinuous, disjunctive, unattached, independent, unassociated; several, various. —Antonyms Merged, combined, interdependent, united, linked, connected. 91.disingenuous Adjective Their disingenuous protests irritated us: dishonest, insincere, artful, cunning, designing, duplicitous, false, feigned, guileful, shifty, sly, wily, two-faced, tricky. —Antonyms Ingenuous. 92. Disinterested Adjective We need a disinterested party to settle the argument: impartial, unbiased, neutral, free from bias, unprejudiced, impersonal, outside, uninvolved, dispassionate, free from self-interest. —Antonyms Partial, biased, prejudiced, selfish, having an axe to grind. 93.Disjointed Adjective 1 The structure of the house seemed somehow disjointed: disconnected, detached, having the joints separated, unconnected, unattached, split, divided, apart, disarticulated, helter-skelter. 2 The movie was too disjointed to make sense: rambling, mixed-up, confused, spasmodic, disconnected, disorganized, jumbled, tangled, chaotic, disharmonious, discontinuous, heterogeneous, incoherent, irrational, illogical. —Antonyms 1 jointed, connected, attached. 2 sensible, coherent, logical. 94. dismiss verb 1 The workers were dismissed for lunch. Dismiss the meeting: allow to leave, permit to go, release, excuse, send forth, let go, disperse; dissolve, adjourn, disband; free, liberate. 2 She was dismissed for loafing on the job: fire, oust, discharge from office, put out of a job, sack, can, let go, terminate, remove from service, bounce, send packing, give one his walking papers, cashier, Slang pink-slip, give the heave-ho. 3 I trust her and dismiss any suggestion of dishonesty: put out of mind, reject, set aside, disregard, disclaim, discard, lay aside, repudiate, eliminate. —Antonyms 1 hold, detain, recall. 2 hire, employ, accept, admit. 3 welcome, accept. 95. Disparage Verb Don't disparage his attempts to better himself: belittle, ridicule, discredit, run down, put down, mock, denigrate, demean, undervalue, underrate, depreciate, slight, detract from, derogate. —Antonyms Applaud, praise, laud, extol, acclaim, commend, compliment, appreciate. 96. disparate adjective Their views are unusually disparate for brothers: dissimilar, different, unlike, contrasting, at odds, at variance, discrepant, discordant. —Antonyms similar, like, homogeneous, parallel, accord-ant. 97. dissemble verb He tried to dissemble his disappointment with a joke: hide, mask, disguise, camouflage, feign, conceal, dissimulate. —Antonyms show, manifest, evidence, reveal. 98. disseminate verb Plato's philosophy has been disseminated throughout the world: scatter, spread, diffuse, disperse, circulate, broadcast. 99.Dissolute Adjective He was a dissolute young man who thought only of his own pleasure: dissipated, corrupt, loose, debauched, immoral; unrestrained, abandoned. —Antonyms moral, upright, temperate, sober, prudent, circumspect. 100.Dissonance Noun 1 The experimental music seemed nothing but dissonance to us: discord, cacophony, discordance, harshness, jangle, jarring, noise. 2 Dissonance in the merged companies broke out almost at once: disharmony, antagonism, breach, break, conflict, disagreement, discord, disparity, dissension, dissidence, disunion, division, divorce, hostility, incongruity, inconsistency, rift, rupture, schism, variance. 101. distend verb The children's stomachs were distended by malnutrition: swell, bloat, swell out, expand, bulge, inflate, billow, puff out. 102. distill verb 1 The liquid distills when heated: evaporate, condense, vaporize. 2 Whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of grain. Impurities are removed by distilling water: separate by evaporation, produce by vaporization and condensation, purify by distillation; extract, draw out, draw forth. 103. diverge verb 1 The path diverges right after the pond: separate, deviate, split off, swerve, deflect. 2 Her politics and mine diverge greatly: differ, conflict, disagree, be at odds. —Antonyms 1 converges, agree, concur. 103. divest verb 1 He divested himself of his clothing: strip or remove (clothing), disrobe; take off, get out of, peel off. 2 During the Depression, the family was divested of its home: deprive, dispossess; rid, strip, free. —Antonyms 1 clothe, dress, cover. 104. document noun 1 There are many documents containing the king's signature: official paper, record, instrument, legal form. verb 2 The lawyer gathered evidence to document the charges: support, back up, give weight to, verify, certify, substantiate. 105. dogmatic adjective 1 She's so dogmatic you can't tell her anything: opinionated, arbitrary, biased, prejudiced; imperious, dictatorial, domineering; stubborn, obstinate. 2 The Nicene Creed is one of the most important dogmatic statements of the Christian faith: doctrinal, expressing dogma. —Antonyms 1 diffident, vacillating, uncertain; docile, complaisant. 106. dormant adjective The geyser has been dormant for five years: inactive, quiescent, idle; sleeping, somnolent; hibernating. —Antonyms active, operative, moving, awake. 107. dupe noun 1 He was the dupe of the racketeers and may go to prison: pawn, patsy, fall guy, cat's paw, Slang sucker. verb 2 The agency duped her into signing up for $200 worth of lessons: trick, fool, mislead, deceive; humbug, bamboozle, hoodwink. 108. ebullience noun Her ebullience could not be denied: enthusiasm, exuberance, animation, buoyancy, effervescence, effusiveness, elation, excitement, exhilaration, vitality, vivaciousness, vivacity, liveliness, high spirits. —Antonyms apathy, lifelessness. 109. eclectic adjective The disc jockey played an eclectic selection of music: mixed, assorted, catholic, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, wide- ranging, varied, general. 110. efficacious adjective None of the prescriptions were efficacious: effective, capable, successful, serviceable, effectual, efficient. —Antonyms ineffective. 111. effrontery noun What effrontery to barge in uninvited!: shamelessness, brazenness, brashness, impertinence, insolence, impudence, presumption, arrogance, audacity, temerity, cheek, nerve, gall, brass, Yiddish chutzpah. —Antonyms modesty, reserve, shyness, timidity, bashfulness; respect, diffidence. 112. Elegy Noun The poet laureate composed an elegy upon the death of the king: poem of lamentation, lament for the dead, melancholy poem, sad poem; requiem, funeral song, song of lamentation, melancholy piece of music. —Antonyms Paean, jubilee, hallelujah, anthem. 113. elicit verb The mayor's remark elicited a flood of letters: bring forth, draw forth, draw out, call forth, evoke, extract, exact, extort, derive, wrest, fetch, cause, educe, bring to light. —Antonyms repress, discourage. 114. Embellish Verb He embellished his signature with a series of curlicues: enhance, elaborate, exaggerate, ornament, decorate, adorn, beautify, garnish, gild, color, embroider, dress up, fancy up, set off, Slang gussy up. —Antonyms Simplify, strip bare. 115. empirical adjective The old sailor had never studied navigation, but he had a good empirical knowledge of it: practical, experiential, pragmatic; experimental, firsthand. —Antonyms theoretical, secondhand. 116. emulate verb Politicians would do well to emulate Abraham Lincoln: take as a model, follow the example of, pattern oneself after, follow, copy, imitate; try to equal, rival; mimic, ape. 117.endemic Noun 1. A disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location Adjective 1. (of disease or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality. 2. (ecology) native to or confined to a certain region 3. Originating where it is found ---Synonyms autochthonal, autochthonic, autochthonous, indigenous. 118. enervate verb The long march in the sun enervated the soldiers: exhaust, weary, weaken, de-bilitate, devitalize, enfeeble, disable, sap one's energy, deplete wash out, fatigue, tire, prostrate, Slang bush, fag, tucker. —Antonyms energize, invigorate, strengthen, vitalize, stimulate, quicken. 119. engender verb Respect can engender love: give rise to, cause, bring about, beget, breed, generate, produce, occasion, precipitate. —Antonyms kill, end, crush. 120. enhance verb The splendid dress enhanced her beauty: intensify, heighten, magnify, make more attractive, make more appealing; elevate, lift, raise, boost; redouble, embellish, augment, add to, complement. —Antonyms diminish, reduce, lessen, decrease, minimize, depreciate, detract from. 121. ephemeral adjective There is no point in lamenting the ephemeral joys of youth: brief, temporary, transient, short-lived, temporal, transitory, fleeting, impermanent, evanescent, momentary, passing, fugitive, unenduring, nondurable, inconstant, fly-by-night, flitting, fugacious. —Antonyms permanent, lasting, enduring, everlasting, perpetual, abiding. 122. equanimity noun We must keep our equanimity during times of crisis: calmness, composure, self-possession, steadiness, poise, aplomb, coolness, imperturbability, presence of mind, self-control, tranquillity, sangfroid, Informal cool. —Antonyms panic, hysteria, disquiet, perturbation, agitation, discomposure. 123. equivocate verb Please stop equivocating and give me a straight answer: evade, avoid the issue, hedge, stall, dodge, beat around the bush, fudge, pussyfoot, be ambiguous, mince words, prevaricate, straddle the fence. 124. erudite adjective The professor was an erudite man. The TV newscaster was known for his erudite comments: learned, well-informed, well- educated, well-versed, literate, well-read, cultured, cultivated, scholarly, thoughtful, intelligent, well-reasoned, wise, sapient. —Antonyms uninformed, uneducated, illiterate, unscholarly; shallow, unthinking; rash, ill-advised. 125. esoteric adjective 1 Some fields of science seem hopelessly esoteric to the layman: incomprehensible, abstruse, recondite, arcane, cryptic, enigmatic, inscrutable, mysterious, obscure. 2 The tribe has an esoteric ritual that no outsider may witness: secret, undisclosed, private, confidential, inviolable, hidden, concealed, covert, veiled, cloaked; mystical, occult. —Antonyms 1 obvious, clear, plain, simple. 2 public, open, exoteric. 126. eulogy Noun Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is a great eulogy: oration of praise, praise of the dead, encomium, panegyric; high praise, tribute, homage, hosanna, acclamation, laudation, citation, paean, plaudit. —Antonyms condemnation, criticism; vilification, defamation, aspersion, calumny, slander, libel. 127. euphemism noun "Maiden lady" is a euphemism for "old maid": mild expression, restrained expression, inoffensive expression, delicate term, refined term; prudish phrase, overdelicacy, overrefinement, prudishness. 128. Exacerbate b r e V Offering your opinion will only exacerbate the situation: aggravate, exaggerate, intensify, inflame, heighten, worsen, magnify, sharpen, deepen, fan the flames, pour oil on the fire, add fuel to the flames, rub salt into the wound, add insult to injury. —Antonyms relieve, soothe, comfort, alleviate, assuage, mollify. 129.exculpate Verb Pronounce not guilty of criminal charges: acquit, assoil, clear, discharge, exonerate. 130.Exigency Noun 1 A ship's captain must be able to cope with any exigency: emergency, contingency, crisis, circumstance, predicament, quandary, plight, strait, extremity, difficulty, hardship; Slang pickle, pinch, scrape, fix, jam. 2 We have to cope with the exigencies of daily living: requirements, necessities, demands, needs, constraints, urgencies. 131. extrapolate ex•trap•o•late (ik strap"* lat'), v., -lat•ed, -lat•ing. v.t. 1. to infer (an unknown) from something that is known; conjecture. 2. to estimate (the value of a statistical variable) outside the tabulated or observed range. 3. Math. to estimate (a function that is known over a range of values of its independent variable) to values outside the known range. v.i. 4. to perform extrapolation. [1825–35; EXTRA- + (INTER)POLATE] ex•trap'o•la"tion, n. ex•trap"o•la'tive, adj. ex•trap"o•la'tor, n. 132. facetious adjective He kept us laughing with his facetious remarks: humorous, funny, amusing, jocular, joking, jovial, jesting, witty, clever, jocose, droll, comic, comical, playful, wisecracking. —Antonyms solemn, serious, sober, lugubrious, grave, sedate, staid, sad, dull. 133. facilitate verb An addressing machine facilitates the handling of bulk mail: expedite, speed up, accelerate, ease, simplify, help in, make less difficult, make easier, assist the progress of, lessen the labor of, lighten, smooth; forward, help to advance, promote, further, advance, aid, foster. —Antonyms hinder, hamper, complicate, encumber, slow down. 134. Fallacious Adjective The rumors were patently fallacious: incorrect, false, deceptive, erroneous, deluding, fictitious, illusory, fraudulent, invalid, mistaken, misleading, off, sophistic, spurious, unfounded, ungrounded, wrong, unsound, untrue. 135. Fatuous Adjective She's so fatuous she thinks all the fellows are flirting with her: foolish, inane, silly, vacant in mind, simple, stupid, brainless, witless, vapid, vacuous, asinine, imbecile, idiotic, puerile, obtuse, besotted, senseless, moronic, ridiculous. —Antonyms sensible, prudent, judicious, wise, sage, sapient, clever, bright, intelligent, smart, witty 136. Fawning Adjective In the movie he played a fawning courtier: sycophantic, obsequious, compliant, bootlicking, cowering, servile, cringing, deferential crawling, flattering, ingratiating, scraping, kowtowing, subservient, submissive. 137. Felicitous Adjective 1 Champagne is for weddings and other felicitous occasions: happy, joyful, joyous, fortunate, propitious. 2 The young man searched hard for a felicitous last line to his poem: apt, appropriate, suitable, relevant, pertinent, germane, fitting, well-chosen, well-put, well-said, pleasing, happy, inspired; effective. —Antonyms 1 infelicitous, solemn, inappropriate. 2 infelicitous, awkward, clumsy, unfortunate. 138.fervor Noun The pilgrims arrived at the shrine and offered their prayers with fervor: ardor, passion, intensity, earnestness, vehemence, verve, zeal, animation, gusto, fire, enthusiasm, heartiness, eagerness, zest, warmth; piety, devoutness, seriousness, purposefulness. —Antonyms boredom, ennui, apathy, detachment, dispassion. 139. flag noun 1 The country's flag was displayed in every window: banner, emblem, standard, ensign, streamer, pennant, colors; (in the U.S.) stars and stripes, Old Glory, stars and bars; (in Great Britain) Union Jack. verb 2 The highway patrol flagged us away from the accident: signal, warn, wave. 3 My energy flagged after climbing all those steps: decline, grow weak, wilt, give way, languish; grow spiritless, fall off in vigor, abate, slump, succumb, subside, sag, pall; fade, grow weary, tire, totter, dodder; faint, sink, ebb, wane, fail. —Antonyms 3 freshen, recover, brace up. 140. Fledgling Noun As a pilot, he's still a fledgling: inexperienced person, novice, beginner, tyro, freshman, apprentice; Informal greenhorn, tenderfoot. 141. Flout Verb She flouted convention by wearing black at her wedding: scorn, show contempt for, scoff at, spurn, laugh at, jeer at, gibe at, sneer at, defy treat with disdain, mock, poke fun at; twit, taunt, chaff, rag, insult. —Antonyms Revere; regard, respect, esteem. 142.foment verb He did his best to foment a quarrel between the brothers: stir up, incite, foster, promote, instigate, provoke, urge, excite, stimulate, galvanize, foster; rouse, arouse, kindle, inflame, spur, goad, agitate; irritate, aggravate, exacerbate, quicken, fan the fire, fan into flame, blow the coals. —Antonyms Quell, suppress, repress, quench; check, curb, restrain; allay, discourage, destroy, extinguish, extirpate. 143. forestall verb Labor and management have agreed on a temporary settlement, thereby fore-stalling a strike: prevent, thwart, ward off, avert, deter, avoid, head off, circumvent; counteract, block, preclude, obviate; anticipate, guard against; Informal steal a march on, beat to the punch. 144. frugality noun In middle age he was known for extreme frugality: carefulness, economizing, conservation, moderation, economy, prudence, scrimping, saving, thrift, stinginess, miserliness, avariciousness, parsimony 145. futile adjective His efforts to save the business were futile: useless, fruitless, vain, profitless, idle, worthless, valueless, bootless, unprofitable; ineffective, ineffectual, unsuccessful, unavailing, abortive, nugatory; trifling, trivial, insignificant, empty, petty, frivolous, unimportant. —Antonyms effective, fruitful, successful; profitable, useful, worthy; important, significant. 146. gainsay gain•say (gan"sa', gan sa"), v.t., -said, -say•ing. 1. to deny; dispute; contradict. 2. to speak or act against; oppose. [1250–1300; ME gainsaien; see AGAIN, SAY] gain"say'er, n. 147. garrulous adjective She's so garrulous you can't get a word in edgewise: talkative, effusive, loquacious; wordy, windy, verbose, long-winded; gabby, voluble, chattery, chatty, prattling, prating, babbling; gossipy. —Antonyms reticent, taciturn, quiet, reserved, closemouthed; terse, concise. 148. goad noun 1 The drovers used goads to keep the herd moving: prod, cattle prod, prick, pointed stick. 2 Fear of failure can be a goad to hard work: incentive, stimulus, stimulant, motive, motivation, driving motive, pressure, spur; inducement, encouragement, instigation, whet, fillip. verb 3 His wife goaded him to ask for a raise: prod, urge, exhort, constrain, incite, spur, push, pressure, drive, stir up, arouse, Slang egg on; stimulate, impel, propel, move, press, set on. —Antonyms 2 detriment, curb. 3 deter, keep back, hold back. 149. gouge gouge (gouj), n., v., gouged, goug•ing. n. 1. a chisel having a partly cylindrical blade with the bevel on either the concave or the convex side. 2. an act of gouging. 3. a hole made by gouging. 4. an act of extortion; swindle. 5. a. a layer of decomposed rocks or minerals found along the walls of a vein. b. fragments of rock that have accumulated between or along the walls of a fault. v.t. 6. to scoop out or turn with or as if with a gouge. 7. to dig or force out with or as if with a gouge (often fol. by out ). 8. to make a gouge in: to gouge one's leg. 9. to extort from or overcharge. v.i. 10. to engage in extortion or swindling. [1300–50; < MF < LL gu(l)bia, perh. < Celtic; cf. OIr gulba sting, Welsh gylf beak, Cornish gilb borer] goug"er, n. 150. Grandiloquent Adjective The grandiloquent speech went on for over an hour: high-flown, high-sounding, flowery, florid, grandiose, pompous, pretentious, bombastic, inflated, turgid, swollen, stilted; magniloquent, lofty, rhetorical; Slang highfalutin. —Antonyms Simple, direct, unaffected, plain-spoken, matter-of-fact, low-keyed; base, lowly. 151. gregarious adjective A gregarious person loves parties: sociable, social, genial, outgoing, convivial, extroverted, companionable, affable, friendly; vivacious, lively, talkative. —Antonyms unsociable, solitary, reclusive, introverted, retiring, shy. 152. guileless adjective The child gave a guileless answer to the question: straightforward, candid, frank, open, natural, honest, sincere, truthful, aboveboard; artless, undesigning; ingenuous, naive, unsophisticated, innocent, simple, unaffected, unselfconscious; harmless, innocuous, unoffending. —Antonyms sly, cunning, deceitful, crafty, tricky, deceptive, artful; treacherous, fraudulent 153. Gullible Adjective The youth was so gullible he bought the Brooklyn Bridge from a con man!: easily fooled, easily deceived, easily cheated, easily duped; overtrusting, unsuspicious, credulous, trusting, trustful; naive, innocent, unsophisticated, inexperienced, green, simple. —Antonyms Cynical, suspicious, untrusting, hard to convince; sophisticated, worldly. 154. harangue ha•rangue (h* rang"), n., v., -rangued, -rangu•ing. n. 1. a scolding or a verbal attack; diatribe. 2. a long, passionate, and vehement speech, esp. one delivered before a public gathering. 3. any long, pompous speech or writing of a tediously hortatory or didactic nature; sermonizing discourse. v.t. 4. to address in a harangue. v.i. 5. to deliver a harangue. [1530–40; < MF < It ar(r)inga speech, oration, n. der. of ar(r)ingare to speak in public, v. der. of aringo public square < Go *hriggs RING ] syn See SPEECH. 155. homogeneous adjective It was a homogeneous crowd of teenage girls, all wearing jeans and sweaters: of the same kind, all alike, of a piece; uniform, unmixed, unvarying, unadulterated; consistent, constant, pure; akin, kindred, similar, identical. —Antonyms heterogeneous, mixed, varied, varying, variegated, different, diverse, divers, various, divergent. 156. hyperbole noun "She's as big as a house" is an example of hyperbole: overstatement, exaggeration, enlargement, magnification, extravagant statement, figurative statement, stretch of the imagination; figure of speech, metaphor —Antonyms Understatement. 157. iconoclast noun He's an iconoclast who will have nothing to do with organized religion: dissenter, rebel, nonconformist, upstart, radical, revolutionary. —Antonyms conformist, assenter. 158. idolatry noun 1 Idolatry was commonplace in many early pagan religions: worship of an object, image-worship, reverence of idols, idolization. 2 Only a millionaire could satisfy that woman's idolatry of jewels: inordinate love, worship, adoration, obsession, preoccupation, excessive fondness, passion, devotion, veneration, single-minded attention, infatuation, senseless attachment, madness, mania. 159.immutable Adjective Platinum is one of the most immutable of metals: unchanging, unchangeable, changeless, unvarying, unaltered, unalterable, incontrovertible, unmodifiable, intransmutable; permanent, lasting, enduring, stable; firm, fixed, solid, constant, inflexible. —Antonyms Changeable, unstable, alterable, flexible, variable. .160. impair verb The water shortage impaired the city's fire-fighting capacity: hinder, damage, mar, hurt, vitiate, harm, cripple, subvert, injure, lessen, weaken, enfeeble, decrease, undercut, detract from, reduce; enervate, debilitate, worsen. —Antonyms improve, amend; repair; better, ameliorate, enhance, facilitate, increase. 161. impassive adjective The moderator maintained an impassive manner throughout the furious debate: emotionless, unemotional, unmoved, imperturbable, dispassionate, aloof, stoical, untouched, stony, calm, cool, sedate, reserved, unperturbed, unimpressible, inscrutable, impervious, stolid, apathetic, phlegmatic, unimpressionable, insensible, indifferent. —Antonyms responsive, emotional, passionate, excited, perturbed. 162. impede verb A lumber shortage impeded construction on the house: delay, slow down, block, interfere with, interrupt, check, retard, obstruct, hinder, thwart, frustrate, inhibit, arrest, sidetrack, stall, stymie, deter, hamper, hold back, halter, disrupt. —Antonyms assist, promote, advance, further, forward; help, aid. 163. impermeable im•per•me•a•ble (im pûr"me * b*l), adj. 1. not permeable; impassable. 2. (of porous substances, rocks, etc.) not permitting the passage of a fluid. [1690–1700; < LL] im•per'me•a•bil"i•ty, im•per"me•a•ble•ness, n. im•per"me•a•bly, adv. 164. imperturbable adjective The usually imperturbable man showed signs of fear: unexcitable, calm, collected, cool, serene, undisturbed, unruffled, dispassionate, unflustered, levelheaded, sedate, composed; unsusceptible, impervious, impassive, unanxious, unfazable; Slang unflappable. —Antonyms perturbable, choleric, touchy. 165. impervious adjective 1 The firemen wore masks that were impervious to the acrid smoke: impenetrable, impermeable, inaccessible, allowing no passage to, unapproachable; sealed or closed against; invulnerable. 2 The beautiful actress seemed impervious to the usual ravages of age: immune to, protected against; untouched by, unmarked by. 3 The stubborn man seemed impervious to reason: unmoved by, unaffected by, untouched by, invulnerable, closed. —Antonyms 1 susceptible, vulnerable. 2 open, exposed, susceptible, sensitive, liable, prone. 166. implacable adjective It was impossible to negotiate with such an implacable enemy: irreconcilable, unappeasable, inexorable, unamenable, inflexible intractable, unpacifiable, uncompromising, relentless, unrelenting. —Antonyms reconcilable, appeasable, yielding, lenient, relenting, forbearing, indulgent, tolerant, flexible. 167. implicit adjective 1 Victory was implicit in the early election returns: implied, hinted, suggested, tacitly expressed; inferred, deducible, understood. 2 The crew had implicit faith in the captain's judgment: innate, inherent, unquestioning, absolute ,complete , profound , certain, resolute, unshakable, unreserved ,total, unshakable, steadfast ,staunch . 168. implode im•plode (im plod"), v., -plod•ed, -plod•ing. v.i. 1. to burst inward (opposed to explode). v.t. 2. to pronounce (a consonant) with implosion. [1880–85; IM- + (EX)PLODE] 169. inadvertent adjective The newspaper apologized for the inadvertent omission: unintentional, unintended, not on purpose, accidental, fortuitous, unmeant, unthinking , involuntary, unpremeditated. —Antonyms deliberate, premeditated, intentional, studied, considered, conscious, aware 170. inchoate adjective The architect began with a vague, inchoate design and then worked out the details: beginning, budding, incipient, commencing, embryonic, nascent; shapeless, formless, unformed, unshaped, amorphous; unorganized, uncohesive, disjointed, disconnected. —Antonyms formed, shaped; finished, completed. 171.incongruous adjective 1 Bathing suits look incongruous on a ski slope: inappropriate, odd, outlandish, out of keeping, out of place, unsuitable, not harmonious, Slang far-out. 2 The witness's incongruous testimony damaged his credibility: conflicting, contrary, at variance, incompatible, contradictory, inconsistent, irreconcilable, discrepant, disagreeing. —Antonyms 1 congruous, fitting, suitable, appropriate, consonant, consistent, accordant, agreeing, harmonious, becoming. 172. inconsequential adjective The matter is too inconsequential to worry about: trivial, trifling, of no moment, valueless, slight, unimportant, of no consequence, insignificant, negligible, nugatory, meaningless, piddling, petty, picayune. —Antonyms consequential, important, momentous, significant, meaningful, crucial. 173. incorporate verb The committee incorporated the investigator's findings in its report: include, embody, work in, consolidate, fuse, amalgamate, introduce into, assimilate. 174. indeterminate adjective The acting superintendent will serve for an indeterminate time: unspecified, undetermined, unstipulated, uncertain, unfixed in extent or amount, unclear, obscure, not clear, unresolved, vague, undefined; ambiguous, problematic, perplexing, indefinite. —Antonyms specified, precise, definite, clear, certain, determined, fixed, defined. 175. indigent adjective Many indigent people receive government aid: needy, destitute, in want, lacking the necessities of life, poor, in need, pinched, poverty-stricken, impoverished, penniless, without resources, badly off, moneyless, without food and clothing; Informal unable to keep the wolf from the door, hard-up. —Antonyms wealthy, moneyed, rich, affluent, comfortable, solvent, flush. 176. indolent adjective The indolent boy was fired: lazy, slothful, habitually idle, inactive, easygoing, shiftless, slack, sluggish, inert, lethargic, do- nothing, listless, lumpish, lackadaisical, dawdling, dilatory. —Antonyms industrious; busy, diligent, conscientious, assiduous, sedulous; energetic, strenuous, vigorous, active. 177. inert adjective The man was so inert he seemed dead: motionless, static, immobile, stationary, inactive, quiescent, still, passive, inanimate, impassive; listless, phlegmatic, sluggish, dull, numb, leaden, supine, slack, torpid, languid. —Antonyms dynamic; animated; active, alert, kinetic, brisk, lively, energetic, vigorous. 178. ingenuous adjective She was so charming and ingenuous most people adored her at once: natural, artless, guileless, unaffected, genuine, simplehearted, openhearted, honest , open, unsophisticated, frank, direct, trusting, straightforward; Slang up front, straight- shooting. —Antonyms worldly-wise, jaded, disingenuous; wily, devious, tricky. 179. inherent adjective Freedom of religion is an inherent part of the Bill of Rights: essential, innate, inseparable, hereditary, native, intrinsic, inborn, deep-rooted, inveterate, natural, inbred, ingrained, constitutional, inalienable. —Antonyms foreign, alien, extrinsic, adventitious; subsidiary, superficial, supplemental. 180. innocuous adjective 1 The women exchanged innocuous gossip over lunch: harmless, not damaging, painless, not injurious, innocent, mild, inoffensive. 2 The play was innocuous and quickly forgotten: meaningless, vapid, insipid, dull, pointless, empty, barren; trite, banal, commonplace. —Antonyms 1 hurtful, deleterious, harmful, insidious, obnoxious, damaging, injurious, offensive, malicious. 2 powerful, trenchant, compelling, impressive. 181. insensibility noun 1 The patient lapsed into insensibility: unconsciousness. 2 His insensibility to criticism was legendary: indifference, apathy, insusceptibility. —Antonyms consciousness; concern, sensibility. 182. insinuate verb 1 The article insinuated that the fighter was bribed: imply, suggest, hint slyly, allude remotely to, intimate, asperse, whisper, let fall. 2 The social climber insinuated herself into the group: ingratiate, push artfully, worm one's way, gently incorporate, introduce subtly, wheedle, inject, insert. —Antonyms 1 deny. 2 withdraw, remove, retreat; alienate. 183. insipid adjective 1 An insipid play like that won't last two weeks: uninteresting, pointless, stupid, dull, characterless, banal, wearisome, bland, boring, trite, vapid, inane, barren, drab, prosaic, jejune, lifeless, zestless, arid, monotonous, lean, empty, commonplace; Slang blah , wishy-washy, namby-pamby. 2 The unsalted vegetables were insipid: flat, tasteless, savorless, stale, vapid, unappetizing. —Antonyms 1 interesting, zestful, pungent, spirited, spunky, provocative, engaging, lively, stimulating, exciting, piquant, colorful. 2 pungent, piquant, spicy; fiery, peppery, gingery; savory, flavorful, tasty, palatable, appetizing; gusty. 184.insularity (state of being insulated) insulate verb Thick walls insulated the house: shield, protect, cocoon, cushion, line, wrap; isolate, keep apart, seclude, sequester, separate. 185. intractable adjective The intractable child refused to obey: stubborn, perverse, headstrong, ornery, hard to cope with, obstinate, willful, unmanageable, obdurate, incorrigible, mulish, unruly, fractious, froward, refractory, ungovernable, uncontrollable, contumacious, unmallea
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