New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Life 103 Week 11

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Life 103 Week 11 LIFE 103

Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover some basics about vertebrates and some specifics about tetrapods as well as discusses mammals and metabolic trade offs.
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


Reviews for Life 103 Week 11


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/08/16
Animal Taxa - Vertebrates • deuterostomia —anus formed first —smallest and least diverse group • chordates —characteristics A. dorsal hollow nerve chord B. notochord (becomes spine) C. pharyngeal slits (become gills or jaw) D. post-anal tail • majority of vertebrates are bony fish • ray-finned fish are most diverse vertebrates • evolutionary adaptations of vertebrates —notochord —vertebrae —jaws —lungs —lobed fins —limbs with digits —amniotic egg —milk (only mammalia) • tetrapods (developed limbs with digits to walk on land) —amphibia —reptilia —mammalia • amphibia —frogs and toads —salamanders and newts —caecilians • reptilia —birds —lizards and snakes —turtles —tuataras • mammalia —3 main groups A. monotremes (lay eggs) B. marsupials (pouches) C. eutherians (placental mammals) —over half of all mammals are rodents • compared to amphibians, amniotes have reduced reliance on water in their reproductive cycle Mammals & Metabolic Trade Offs • characteristics of mammals —hair —milk produced by mammary glands (intense parental investment in offspring, very metabolically expensive) —sound conducted through 3 middle ear bones (malleus, incus, stapes) —lower jaw made of single dentary bone • homeothermy - stable internal body temp despite external influence, can be regulated behaviorally or metabolically (pelycosaurs first animals to display this) • poikilothermy - variable internal body temp • trends (metabolically expensive) —larger brains —larger and more muscles —upright limb posture —nocturnal habits • how do mammals make up for metabolically expensive adaptations? —heterodonty (specialized teeth): efficiency in processing food —secondary palate: breathe while eating, uninterrupted oxygen supply —endothermy: blood vessels in fossilized bones, evidence of whiskers and fur • endothermy - generation and regulation of body temp metabolically, maintain activity in different conditions, takes a lot of energy • ectothermy - generation and regulation of body temp using environmental heat, takes little energy • body form and function —if a trait has adaptive function (influences successful survival and reproduction) then its form reflects its function —form and function is reflected at all scales (molecular, cellular, tissues, etc.) —3 embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) give rise to 4 kinds of tissues A. connective B. nervous C. muscle D. epithelial —solutions to similar physical constraints reflect evolutionary constraints —powered flight has evolved 4 times: insects, pterosaurs, birds, bats —2 general principles that influence form and function in organ systems A. body size and surface area to volume ratio: smaller animals eat more per unit body mass, larger animals have longer life spans B. increase surface area by flattening, folding, branching


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.