Life 103 Week 11
Life 103 Week 11 LIFE 103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Animal Taxa - Vertebrates • deuterostomia —anus formed ﬁrst —smallest and least diverse group • chordates —characteristics A. dorsal hollow nerve chord B. notochord (becomes spine) C. pharyngeal slits (become gills or jaw) D. post-anal tail • majority of vertebrates are bony ﬁsh • ray-ﬁnned ﬁsh are most diverse vertebrates • evolutionary adaptations of vertebrates —notochord —vertebrae —jaws —lungs —lobed ﬁns —limbs with digits —amniotic egg —milk (only mammalia) • tetrapods (developed limbs with digits to walk on land) —amphibia —reptilia —mammalia • amphibia —frogs and toads —salamanders and newts —caecilians • reptilia —birds —lizards and snakes —turtles —tuataras • mammalia —3 main groups A. monotremes (lay eggs) B. marsupials (pouches) C. eutherians (placental mammals) —over half of all mammals are rodents • compared to amphibians, amniotes have reduced reliance on water in their reproductive cycle Mammals & Metabolic Trade Offs • characteristics of mammals —hair —milk produced by mammary glands (intense parental investment in offspring, very metabolically expensive) —sound conducted through 3 middle ear bones (malleus, incus, stapes) —lower jaw made of single dentary bone • homeothermy - stable internal body temp despite external inﬂuence, can be regulated behaviorally or metabolically (pelycosaurs ﬁrst animals to display this) • poikilothermy - variable internal body temp • trends (metabolically expensive) —larger brains —larger and more muscles —upright limb posture —nocturnal habits • how do mammals make up for metabolically expensive adaptations? —heterodonty (specialized teeth): efﬁciency in processing food —secondary palate: breathe while eating, uninterrupted oxygen supply —endothermy: blood vessels in fossilized bones, evidence of whiskers and fur • endothermy - generation and regulation of body temp metabolically, maintain activity in different conditions, takes a lot of energy • ectothermy - generation and regulation of body temp using environmental heat, takes little energy • body form and function —if a trait has adaptive function (inﬂuences successful survival and reproduction) then its form reﬂects its function —form and function is reﬂected at all scales (molecular, cellular, tissues, etc.) —3 embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) give rise to 4 kinds of tissues A. connective B. nervous C. muscle D. epithelial —solutions to similar physical constraints reﬂect evolutionary constraints —powered ﬂight has evolved 4 times: insects, pterosaurs, birds, bats —2 general principles that inﬂuence form and function in organ systems A. body size and surface area to volume ratio: smaller animals eat more per unit body mass, larger animals have longer life spans B. increase surface area by ﬂattening, folding, branching
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