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IMPERATIVES and WISHES in TURKISH YÜKSEL GÖKNEL 2013 Imperatives and Wishes in Turkish IMPERATIVES AND WISHES Direct orders are given to a second person by using a verb root, a verb stem or a verb frame without using any suffixes, such as "Bura-/y/a gel." (Come here.); "Kuş-lar-a bak." (Look at the birds.); "Süt-ün-ü iç.” (Drink your milk.); "Pencere-den bak." (Look out of the window.); "Bir fincan kahve buyur!" (Have a cup of coffee!); "Eğlen-me-en-e bak!" (eğ*len*me*ne / bak) (Have a nice time!) (Enjoy yourself!). One cannot usually give orders to himself or herself, so there is not a first person order form. Orders are given to the second person as a rule. How- ever, an order may also be given to the third person indirectly. A speaker gives orders to the second person to be transferred to a third person. The last syllable of an imperative sentence is primarily stressed and dropped sharply, which is symbolized with a falling arrow (↷): Git-sin. (git*sin ↷) Tell him to go; let him go. Araba-am-ı yıka-sın. (a*ra*ba*mı / yı*ka*sın ↷) Tell him to wash my car. Gürültü-/y/ü kes-sin-ler! (gü*rül*tü*yü / kes*sin*ler ↷) Tell them to stop making a noise! The orders that are given with the verb "ol" and “et” (be) are widely used in both English and Turkish. In such sentences the primarily stressed syllables are the last syllables of the adjectives and adverbials: Sabır-lı ol! (sa*bır*lı / ol ↷) Be patient! Dikkat et! (Dikkat-li ol!) (liaison) (dik*ka*tet ↷) (dik*kat*li / ol ↷) Be careful! Hemen hazır ol! (he*men / ha*zır / ol ↷) Be ready soon! 2 Imperatives and Wishes in Turkish Hemen hazır ol-sun-lar! (he*men / ha*zır / ol*sun*lar ↷) Tell them to be ready soon! Negative orders are given by attaching [me, ma] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames: Pencere-den sark-ma! (pen*ce*re*den / sark*ma ↷) Don't lean out of the window! Cadde-/y/i koş-a.rak geç-me! (cad*de*yi / ko*şa*rak / geç*me ↷) Don't run across the street! Geç kal-ma! (geç / kal*ma ↷) Don't be late! Işık-lar-ı kapat-ma-/y/ı unut-ma! (ı*şık*la*rı / ka*pat*ma*yı / u*nut*ma ↷) Don't forget to turn off the lights! Sabır-sız ol-ma! (liaison) (sa*bır*sı*zol*ma ↷) Don't be impatient! Çanta-an-ı çal-dır-ma! (çan*ta*nı / çal*dır*ma ↷) Be careful not to have your handbag stolen! The [me, ma] negation allomorphs are added to verb roots, stems and frames followed by the third person personal allomorphs [sin, sın] to change the verb composition into the negative form: Bura-/y/a gel-me-sin. (bu*ra*ya / gel*me*sin ↷) Tell him not to come here. "Don't let him come here." For the third person plural [ler, lar] allomorphs are added to the negative verbs such as: "Gel-me-sin-ler" (gel*me*sin*ler↷), "Başla-ma-sın-lar" (baş*la*ma*sın*lar↷). 3 Imperatives and Wishes in Turkish WISH (İstek) To turn a verb root, stem or frame into the wish mood, ♫ [e, a] and the personal allomorphs are added: Al-a-/y/ım. (a*la*yım ↷) Let me take. Bak-a-/y/ım! (ba*ka*yım ↷) Let me see! (Let me have a look!) Git-e-/y/im. (gi*de*yim ↷) Let me go. All the verb roots used above end with consonants, but when they end with vowels, the /y/ glides are inserted between their last vowels and the ♫ [e, a] allomorphs: Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*ye*yim ↷) or (bek*li*ye*yim ↷) Let me wait. However, in speech, the “/y/e” syllable attached to “bekle” drops, and the word becomes (bek*le*yim ↷). Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*yim ↷) Let me wait. Ertele-/y/e-/y/im. (er*te*le*yim ↷) Let me postpone. Anla-/y/a-/y/ım. (an*la*yım ↷) Let me understand For the first person plural, [li-im], or [lı-ım] personal allomorphs are used after the [e, a] allomorphs: Al-a-lı-ım. (a*la*lım ↷) Let us take (buy). Seç-e-li-im. (se*çe*lim ↷) Let us choose. Başla-/y/a-lı-ım. (baş*la*ya*lım ↷) Let us begin. Oku-/y/a-lı-ım. (o*ku*ya*lım ↷) Let us read. Bekle-/y/e-li-im. (bek*le*ye*lim ↷) Let us wait. The verb roots, stems or frames above ending with vowels, such as "başla", "oku", and "bekle" are attached to the [e, a] wish allomorphs with the /y/ glides. Sometimes "gidem", "olam", "gidesin","olasın","gide","ola" words are heard in prayers and curses, such as "Cehennem-e gide-sin!" (Go to Hell!), "Tut- tuğun altın ola!" (I wish what you hold be gold!) To make the verbs negative, the [me, ma] allomorphs are added as usual: "Bekle-me-/y/e-lim" (bek*le*me*ye*lim↷) (Let us not wait.); "Git-me-/y/e- lim" (git*me*ye*lim↷) Let us not go. 4 Imperatives and Wishes in Turkish When the question forms of the wish mood are used, the wish form changes into an offer: Televizyon-u aç-a-/y/ım mı? (te*le*viz*yo*nu / a*ça*yım↝ / mı ↷) Shall I turn the TV on? If the sentence above ends with a rising intonation (↝), (te*le*viz*yo*nu / a*ça*yım / mı↝), the sentence means, “I didn’t understand you well; please repeat what you said.” Bu sözcük-ler-i tahta-/y/a yaz-a-/y/ım mı? (bu / söz*cük*le*ri / tah*ta*ya / ya*za*yım↝ / mı ↷) Shall I write these words on the blackboard? Bir restoran-da akşam yemek-i ye-/y/e-li-im mi? (bir / res*to*ran*da / ak*şam / ye*me*ği / yi*ye*lim↝ / mi ↷) Shall we have dinner at a restaurant? Sana bir fincan kahve yap-a-/y/ım mı? (sa*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*pa*yım↝ / mı ↷) Shall I make you a cup of coffee? Çiçek-ler-i sula-/y/ım mı? (çi*çek*le*ri / su*la*yım↝ / mı ↷) Shall I water the flowers? Note: This document is a section in my book titled "TURKISH GRAM- MAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YUKSEL GOKNEL May 2013". If you wish to download and read this book free, you could find it in your browser. Yüksel Göknel 5
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