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A W v The Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education Reengineering A Process for Transforming Higher Education by lames I Penrod and Michael G Dolence Professional Paper Series 9 Copies of this paper are available to individuals at CAUSE member institutions organizations at 8 per copy to others at 16 per copy Send prepaid orders to CAUSE 4840 Pearl East Circle Suite 302E Boulder Colorado 80301 Phone 3034494430 Fax 3034400461 Email ordersCAUSEcoloradoedu Copyright 1992 by CAUSE All rights reserved No part ofthis publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission from CAUSE Printed in the United States of America Reengineering A Process for Transforming Higher Education W James I Penrod and Michael G Dolence CAUSE The Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education Professional Paper Series 9 Acknowledgement of sponsorship CA USE appreciates the generous support of Coopers amp Lybrand who funded the publication of this professional paper See pages 3435 for a description of CampL s services About the Authors James I Penrod as Vice President for Information Resources Management at California State UniversityL05 Angeles coordinates the University strategic planning process and functions as the University s policy officer for information technology His line management responsibilities include telecommunications television academic and administrative computing office automation publication services graphicsphotogra phy copier services mail services records and forms management and institutional research and planning analysis He was previously Associate Vice Chancellor for Information Resources at the University of Maryland at Baltimore and Vice President for Systems and Planning at Pepperdine University He holds a doctoral degree in education in institutional management from Pepperdine University and a master of science degree in biostatistics from Tulane University Michael G Dolence is Strategic Planning Administrator at California State University Los Angeles responsible for coordinating the implementation of the campus strategic planning process Formerly he was Director of Planning and Research forthe Commis sion on Independent Colleges and Universities in New York where he coordinated the Independent Sector Statewide Master Plan and Progress Reports and directed the New York State Public Opinion Poll and the Science Engineering and Research Campus Hookup Prior to that he was coowner of SampD Computer Technology which assembled and marketed S1OO Bus Microcomputer Systems He holds a bachelor s degree in biology from Russell Sage College and studied higher education administra tion in the graduate school of SUNYAlbany Reengineering A Process for Transforming Higher Education by James I Penrod and Michael G Dolence Table of Contents re ace IV 1 Reengineering and Related Concepts in the Literature 1 2 Reengineering in Higher Education 12 3 Implications of Reengineering for Information Technology Units 20 Conclusion 27 Bibliography 28 Corporate Sponsor Profile 34 Preface Throughout our society today the integration of computing and communications and the subsequent development ofan information technology infrastructure is driving a transition toward a new informationservice economy As in the tran sition from the agrarian to an industrial economy a new management structure must evolve to realize the full poten tial for innovation and productivity The process of reengineering or transformation is based upon new assump tions about service and quality and involves redesigning work processes to take advantage of emerging technological capabilities Reengineering is needed for business industry government and educational enterprises to successfully move into the informationservice economy Transformation involves changing many of our assump tions and principles of management and reexamining the nature of work and workers Jobs should be organized around outcomes not tasks Individuals should be empow ered to use discretion and judgment in performing their duties and obligations Control accountability and process ing must be built into the work process so that individual efforts contribute directly to organizational success Corpo rate databases must be widely accessibleto enable organiza tional decisionmaking to be better aligned leading to information being regarded as a real asset As higher education institutions adjust to pervasive financial constraints a competitive service orientation for all constituents and recognition of farreaching change in the coming century reengineering holds significant potential to revitalize and reshape their functions and adaptability This professional paper was written for professionals in higher education information technology IT management to give them a background understanding of the basic principles of reengineering and related management concepts and show them how and why to effect appropriate change in their organizations and on their campuses Engaging an institution in a reengineering process re quires a very serious commitment It takes years rather than months to move through the basic transition and in one real sense it never ends There will be strong initial resistance to such major change as employees at all levels defend their traditional turfs and work styles Dealing with such resis tance requires strong leadership by people who are capable of being designers teachers and stewards of a learning organization ratherthan stereotypical heroes Such leaders must introduce a new organizational culture stressing indi vidual responsibility responsiveness and service Individu als must be empowered through the formation of self directed teams or work groups which have primary respon sibility for planning controlling and improving work pro cesses New techniques such as Total Quality Management can increase the quality of performance by a magnitude The supporting organizational structure becomes flatter and more flexible and utilizes formal networks of diverse knowledge workers who communicate with each other clientscustom ers and suppliers through a variety of electronic means During transformation difficult issues require attention policyprocedure development in a rapidly changing envi ronment heavy and ongoing educational requirements and technophobia Finally a wellconceived strategic planning and management framework is needed to fully interweave the principles of transformation with related tenets At its foundation the process of reengineering depends upon the development of a viable information technology infrastructure That requires T units and IT leaders to be conversant with and strong proponents of transformation principles Yet they too are facing budget cuts increased demands by constituents and higher operating costs IT organizations then must not only transform themselves they must participate actively in reengineering the entire institution The IT unit must assume responsibility for the evolutionary design and development of the technology infrastructure it must also share responsibility for infrastruc tu re operation with other units IT leaders and managers must position themselves at the forefront of the reengineering movement james I Penrod Michael G Dolence March 1992 1 Concepts in the Literature 7 Reengineering and Related Concepts in the Literature Technological change defines the horizon of our material world as it shapes the limiting conditions of what is possible and what is barely imaginable It erodes takenforgranted assumptions about the nature of our reality the pattern in which we dwell and lays open new choices1 The basic assumptions about how to manage enterprises or institutions have changed little in the last fifty years In simplistic terms the following philosophy has been widely accepted and practiced clearly state the goals define what needs to be done to accomplish them translate the work requirements into expectations ofthe employees communi cate the expectations and evaluate the results This quotexpect and inspect philosophy worked well for many years Lead ers and managers promoted and rewarded those subordi nates who complied with policy and procedures and pun ished those who did not The axiom quotthat which is rewarded gets done was firmly established Smootth functioning operations were said to quotrun like a railroad 2 Du ringthe past two decades something happened fi rst in massproduction manufacturing then in service compa nies and nonprofit entities Customers or constituents expe rienced growing disaffection employee turnover increased sales flattened or fell operating expenditures for nonprofit institutions rose dramatically and productivity had slower than expected growth In this same time frame there was almost universal automation in all sectors of this country Significant propor tions of operating budgets were channeled to build informa tion technology infrastructures The general expectations and promise that such investments in information systems and communication technologies would enhance produc Shoshana Zuboff tivity and efficiencies of operation were not realized At best the results have been mixed and many CEOs are now profoundly disappointed What is wrong Why have invest ments in information technology not yielded dramatic in creases in productivity and improved services to clients What is reengineering A number of authors including Peter Drucker John Naisbett Tom Peters Alvin Toffler and Shoshana Zuboff have offered explanations as to the root causes of the problems we face and have set forth meaningful ideas to overcome our difficul ties Two well known management consultants have further synthesized the concepts discussed by others and put forth similar tenets concerning the need for organizational trans formation or reengineering Richard L Nolan and Michael Hammer both have challenged established notions about work3 The last basic transition which occurred in this country was the shift of the agrarian economy to an industrial economy It is not coincidental that many of the theories and practices of modern management began to be formulated at that same time We are now however in a period where the industrial economy is shifting to an informationservice economy Two key lessons were learned from the last transition 8 REENGINEERING The first was that some underlying technology drives the transition the steam engine was refined to the internal combustion engine which gave way to the turbo jet engine today the integration of computing and communications is driving the transition toward the new economy The second lesson was that productivity gains require both incorporating the new technology and changing the organization structure for doing work The industrial organization model led to the development and growth of the bureaucracy It is now time for a new management structure to evolve to serve the informationservice economy Failure to achieve anticipated productivity to date is due largely to the fact that even though existing business prac tices have been automated speeding up those old processes unfortunately cannot addresstheirfundamental performance deficiencies Thejob descriptions workflows control mecha nisms and decisionmaking structures were developed in a very different competitive environment and well before the advent of the computer Serial processing efficiency and control were primary elements in the design To meet the pressures of today parallel processing speed service qual ity and innovation must be incorporated into the new model We have come to the point then where we must quotreengineerquot our basic business processes whether we are in a business industry government or educational enterprise Reengineering can be defined as using the power of modern information technology to radically redesign administrative business processes in order to achieve dramatic improve ments in their performance It is the process for transforming organizations and the way work is done within them The reengineering process requires a critical reexamination ofall basic assumptions about the way things are done It involves redesigning work processes based upon new assumptions about service and quality molded to fit both existing and emerging technological capabilities The concept of reengineering ortransformation is known by a variety of other names including restructuring process design concept PDC work or business process redesign high productivity program HPP managing office produc tivity MOP and organizational redesign Within the con text of information technology literature reengineering is a relatively new phenomenon emerging in the late 198054 Understanding Reengineering To date most of the productivity increases realized through technology have come from brute force automation fol lowed by cutting and squeezing the work force At best little remains to be gained by further pursuit of these strategies and at worst the savings realized through these methods have been disappointing This is particularly true in higher education where many major automation projects are fi nanced primarily through redirected funds and where the last few years have brought significant cutting and squeezing in most states and in all types of colleges and universities These strategies are almost always associated with incre mental thinking small changes are possible and realistic but changes of magnitude in increased effectiveness are not feasible Brute force automation cutting and squeezing and incremental thinking are not methods of transformation According to Michael Hammer to reengineer adminis trative processes requires us to start from scratch in making fundamental assumptions to reject much of the conven tional wisdom abundant in all organizations and to quotthink out of the box by looking for ways to initiate changes of magnitude through innovation5 We need to start from scratch in making assumptions because very significant environmental and technological changes have occurred since most processes now in use were conceived To begin the redefinition process we might ask the fundamental questions quotWhen were the processes currently being used designed and quotCan we design a better process given the technology we now have andor will have shortly It is a reality that most organizations are much more complex than they were even a few years ago The introduc tion of sophisticated technological systems and the vast quantities ofdata commonly stored in management informa tion systems play significant roles in this complexity Many of the processes that govern work in such complexity are breaking down Unfortunately some of these processes simply evolved over time and were never really designed in the first place Where processes were initially well designed many have been changed or retrofitted several times over and need complete rethinking rather than continued modi fication The need to reject conventional wisdom is illustrated by the widely practiced adage quotIf it ain t broke don t fix it Just because it is not broken does not mean that the process is doing the job right or even doing the rightjob Rewriting the rules to provide advantage over competition taking into account technological potential and the resulting impact upon human actions must be paramount The myth of technology taming the paper tiger is another example The introduction of technology has not reduced the amount of paper produced but has made the problem worse It is estimated that by 1 992 an information worker will consume 24600 pages per year Since World War II paper consump tion has been growing at triple the rate of the GNP The average company stores 70 percent more paper than neces sary never refers to 85 percent of all stored documents and wastes 65 cents of every dollar spent producing storing and retrieving paper records6 Finally metaphors such as quotrun ning like a railroad were very illustrative in the industrial economy but are long past usefulness today We need to use technology to solve problems and that requires a fresh look at longheld ideas which provide the framework for many policies and procedures We also need to come up with metaphors which fit an informationservice economy to better communicate what and how things should be done We need to think out of the box if we are to meet the constant increase in competitive pressures and establish new standards of performance In some circumstances this may involve working harder in almost all situations it will require working smarter with serious consideration of cost quality speed and most importantly service7 Any evalua tion of this nature must reexamine an unspoken but too commonly felt assumption that all things being equal it is better to rely on technology and systems than on human beings Thethinking goes that in the long run technology and systems cost less and are infinitely less trouble to manage The fact is however the more technology becomes an integral part in delivering services the more important personal interactions are in satisfying clients and customers and in providing differentiation between competitors8 Inspi ration and innovation by people will more and more become critical components in meeting new challenges and expec tations The technological infrastructure is necessary and will be an enabling force to unleash human creativity our human creativity that in the end makes the essential differ ence Nolan notes that at the core of changing most of our assumptions and principles ofmanagementare key concepts about work and workers Physical and clerical routine work is disappearing as automation continues The distinction between bluecollar and whitecollar work becomes obso lete with a shift to more knowledge work ie dealing with concepts and information Defining and understanding knowl edge work is of national importance and must be a priority for campus leaders9 Hammer states that before atransforma tion can take place jobs must be reengineered individuals must be empowered and held accountable there must be an ascendancy of real work where an individual s efforts contribute directly to organizational success and informa tion must be regarded as a real asset 10 Reengineering jobs requires that work be organized around outcomes not tasks This will put a very different focus on most existing job descriptions which almost always are simply lists of tasks to be performed The reengineering principle implies that where possible one person should perform all the steps in a given process a purposeful movement away from the centuriesold notion ofspecialized labor and from the limitations inherent in a paper filing system It also implies that those who use the output of the process perform the process The availability of computer based data and expertise provides opportunities for depart ments units and individuals to do more for themselves which in turn leads to the assumption of greater individual responsibility and fewer mistakes in processing The empowerment of individuals means that we put the decision point where the work is performed and that the individuals themselves control the process This contradicts a basic assumption of bureaucracy that people actually doing the work have neither the time nor the inclination to monitor and control it and that they lackthe ability to make decisions about it If the doers become selfcontrolling and selfmanaging hierarchy and the slowness and inflexibility associated with it begin to disappear Empowerment is not Concepts in the Literature 9 allowing individuals to use their abilities freely but ratherto use them wisely It enables people to use discretion and judgment in performing their duties and obligations and significantly increases the possibility that the work is a rewarding experience To bring about an ascendency of real work means that control accountability and processing must be built into the work process not be part of quototherquot extensions to it The best way to begin bringing this about is by capturing data only once at the source Networks and integrated databases make it relatively easy to collect store and transmit informa tion today This eliminates any reason to live with delays entry errors and overhead associated with different indi viduals departments or units repeatedly collecting the same data The second part of the principle of ascendancy of real work is to have those who are responsible for producing information also be accountable for processing it This may well require moving work from one person or department to another person or department It certainly disputes the long held idea about specialized labor and the assertion that people at lower organizational levels are incapable of acting on information they generate These ideas go handinglove with the concept of empowerment For information to be regarded as a real asset a corporate database must play a critical role in organizational decision making and be accessible by a wide range of decision makers at all levels Linking parallel activities rather than integrating the results enables broader access in quicker timeframes One kind of parallel processing is depicted by separate units performing the same function Another is separate units performing different activities that eventually must come together This suggests forging links and coordi nating between parallel functions while in process rather than at completion Building a network of this nature makes it possible to treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized The arguments regarding the benefit and tradeoffs of centralization versus decentraliza tion are of long standing in almost all organizations Now databases networks and standardized systems allow for benefits of scale and coordination while maintaining the benefits of flexibility and service Indeed some ofthe best of both worlds can be realized Implementing the Concepts Although the basic concepts of transformation or reengi neering are straightforward and relatively simple imple menting them is a major undertaking by any existing organi zation It will generally involve 1 overcoming organiza tional resistance 2 adopting a different style of leadership 3 introducing a new organizational culture 4 empower ing individuals 5 developing flexible teams and selfori ented workgroups 6 significantly and continually raising standards many times through endeavors such as total quality management TQM programs 7 redefining the organizational structure 8 creating well designed internal 10 REENGINEERING and external networks that rely on social interaction and electronic communications 9 addressing a whole host of auxiliary issues such as new pol icyprocedure development ongoingtraining and educationdealing with technophobia and so forth and finally 10 seeing that all of this fits together through good strategic planning and management Overcoming Organizational Resistance If an organization is to be transformed it must engage in a prolonged change process Change of major magnitude almost always isthreatening When individuals feel as ifthey may be threatened or embarrassed they are likely to engage in defensive reasoning Argyris sets forth the following ideas about the causes of defensive reasoning when it is likely to occur and seven potential consequences11 It is important to keep these thoughts in mind in reengineering and to build countermeasures into the process to offset them The primary causes of defensive reasoning are that the individuals have developed human programs within them selves to deal with threatening or embarrassing circum stances and most people especially executives are very skillful in using these programs Many organizational de fense routines result from individual actions and fancy organizational footwork is routinely used to protect these defensive routines People engage in defensive reasoning when they hold premises which are questionable but believe them to be valid make inferences that do not necessarily follow from given premises but believe them to do so and reach conclusions that cannot be tested but believe them to be carefully proven When they exercise defensive reasoning management at all levels can create worlds that are contrary to what they say they prefer and certainly contrary to their managerial stewardship The barriers created by these old defensive mechanisms prevent them from changing what they believe needs to be changed When this occurs seven critical errors any one ofwhich could sabotage a reengineering effort may be made They are 1 Actions intended to increase understanding and trust often produce misunderstanding and mistrust Two examples are illustrative A manager leaves a meeting believing that full agreement has been reached and a set of actions will be forthcoming Later when commitments are not met the explanations are evasive and unsatisfactory Or an executive involves managers in a participative meeting to make some very difficult decision only to find that the participants are unwilling to ask each other tough questions The disap pointed executive eases out of the participative exercise leaving other participants confused Failure to bring such circumstances into the open and resolve them almost always assures misunderstanding and distrust 2 Individuals may protect themselves by blaming the system or others for prior decisions When major mistakes are discovered some may use politically motivated actions fail to come forth with the wholetruth andorfall back on the old excuse of just following rules and procedures Such individuals think that positioning is more important than really getting to the cause if it avoids unpleasantness embar rassment and threat Behavior such as this must be modified 3 The tried and proven ways of doing things dominate organizational life leading to organizational inertia This tactic takes a number of forms among them creating appar ent motion to assure others that actions are being taken in an effort to buy time to figure out what to do doing the same thing again faster and more carefully this time and throw ing out idea killers such as quotI don t have the authority quotIt s not policy quotThe CEO won t like it or quotWe just don t do it that way Breaking the domination of the past is of critical importance 4 Upward communications for dif cult issues are often lacking Fearingthat the messenger may bearthe blow forthe message midmanagers may fail to pass along information about negative attitudes expectations and production or service problems In so doing they fail to show proper respect for frontline employees andor adequate under standing of the process necessary to enhance timeliness quality and output Freeflowing communication channels should be an organizational priority 5 Budget games are necessary evils Skillful managerial manipulators are adept at concealing the real magnitude of a new program supporting a request with voluminous data of which the significance is not clear arguing that the real benefit is subjective basing a specific request upon a suppos edly approved program which in fact has not been approved etc Refusingto reward game players and insisting on straight forward understandable budget requests can help eliminate this organizational evil 6 People do not behave reasonably even when it is in their best interest When faced with upsetting facts people may behave unreasonably n difficult situations the most common defenses are procrastination indecision lack of implementation followup strategic ineffectiveness regres sion rejection and sabotage Such reactions can be sur mounted ifthere is a strong sense of trust and understanding in the organizational culture 7 The management team can be a myth Although almost all CEOs and other leaders make persistent references to quotour management team in many cases such references may in fact perpetuate a legend rather than reflect reality A true management team requires leadership shared values and joint access to information Argyris notes that although they are widespread these harmful defensive tactics need not be inevitable and where they are found they can be turned around However he also states that many of the programs aimed at creating more competitive organizations do not directly address them12 If fully implemented reengineering will Adopting a Different Style of Leadership Leadership is perhaps the key issue in reengineering According to Peter Senge the traditional view of leaders is one of stereotyped heroes special people who set the direction make the key decisions and energize the troops They are great men and women who rise to the fore in times of crisis Most may agree that this perspective is a myth but as long as such myths prevail they reinforce a focus on short term events and charismatic personalities rather than on systemic forces and collective learning13 Leaders in a reengineering environment are responsible for building organizations where people are continually expanding their capabilities to shape their future Senge states that such leaders are responsible for organizational learning and must be designers teachers and stewards These roles require different skills from those possessed by most charismatic heroes Building shared vision bringing to the surface and challenging prevailing mental models and fostering more systemic patterns of thinking are necessary actions of leaders14 Strong leadership is essential in transforming organiza tional culture In a decentralized structured organization such as a university standard operating procedures deter mine the focus of attention for organizational participants unless the leader intervenes Thus one element of leadership is the ability to direct the attention of other organizational members Cyert identifies three mechanisms to help perform this function communication between leader and partici pants role modeling and reward systems Belief in mission and an honest dedication to the people who must carry it out are crucial to good communication Role modeling is an other form of communication a leaders behavior sends a message to followers whetherthe leader intends itto or not15 The reward system in a transformed environment will be substantially different from what has been commonly ac cepted The prevailing philosophy quotwhat gets rewarded gets done must be revised to quotwhat is rewarding gets done The leader must build a set ofshared values an idea structure that can be followed and form covenants with participants which define meaningful worthwhile work and the accom panying obligations and duties Good leadership sets ex amples by following intellectual ideals Good followship then comes from both intrinsic and extrinsic valuebased reasons And the best leaders are those who follow best16 Introducing a New Organizational Culture The transformation of an institution will probably begin with a redefinition of prevailing organizational culture Schein defines organizational culture as quotthe patterns of basic assumptions which a given group has invented discov ered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration which have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore are to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive think and feel in relation to those problems 17 According to De Lisi the needed change is from a culture of professional management to one of entrepre neurialism Comparison invites a long list of contrasts where movement from one culture to the other will include moving Concepts in the Literature1 1 from external controlsto individual autonomy from rational logical decisionmaking to intuitive decisionmaking from centralized systems to distributed networks from vertical hierarchies to horizontal networks from adultchild to adult adult professional relationships and from organizationcen tered to personcentered focus18 Much ofan organization s culture has a direct impact on the quality of worklife and vice versa Focusing upon the improvement of quality of worklife then can be significant in a reengineering effort Consider the following from a recent Sourcebook article by Katy Koontz First people must feel challenged by their work They must be given the opportunity to grow and stretch their skills Second people need feedback In the absence of positive feedback people give themselves negative feedback Third rewards must be in line with expectations Competitive salaries and benefits are necessary to keep good employees satisfied but as noted above rewards of the future will be value centered People who feel high self esteem consistently outperform the mean Recognition appreciation and other nontangible rewards are an important part of building high self esteem Fourth people who feel involved do a betterjob Involvement means creating an environment where individuals feel that their contributions matter In order to feel involved they must be brought into the loop given information and empowered to act upon it Fifth employees who are given the opportunity to learn are more loyal and more capable of contributing to the value chain Current estimates are that between 10 and 20 percent of a knowledge worker s time should be devoted to learning Career stagnation is generally not tolerated by the best employees During the industrial age long stepby step career ladders were developed to give employees someplace to climb In the flat organization of the informa tionservice age new creative approaches need to be devel oped The sixth and final area of concern is the physical work environment Creating efficient effective and pleasing con ditions helps significantly in maintaining high morale19 All of these changes are building toward a new type of organization which has been described by Senge as a learning organization a community of people continuously expanding their individual and collective capacity to create desired results20 Empowering Individuals Peter Block sets forth one of the best discussions of the concept of empowerment by contrasting what he calls the quotbureaucratic and entrepreneurial cycles 21 Each cycle consists of four parts The first part of the bureaucratic cycle is a patriarchal contract between the organization and the employee This traditional contract places emphasis on a topdown high control orientation that stresses clarity of roles levels of authority and the need for discipline and selfcontrol In an entrepreneurial contract however this attitude is contrasted with the belief that the most trustworthy source of authority comes from within the person The task of management is to 12 REENGINEERING help people trust their own instincts and take responsibility for the successes of the organization Part two of the respective cycles contrasts myopic self interest with enlightened selfinterest n myopic selfinter est success is defined as moving up the ladder gaining authority and responsibility and beingfinancially rewarded People soon learn to shift their focus from doing meaningful work to moving up the hierarchy On the other hand in the entrepreneurial cycle success is counted in terms of contri bution and service to customers clients and other units Rewards come from meaningful work the opportunity to learn and create specialness and the chance to grow through one s own efforts Advancement and pay are important but of a secondary focus In part three manipulative tactics are contrasted with authentic tactics In a bureaucracy an autocratic culture and personal ambition support manipulative behavior that which is expedient cautious and indirect Traditional poli tics is the art of controlling people without letting them know you are doing it It is commonly believed that one must be manipulative to succeed Authentic tactics however en courage people to be direct and authentic in management style That means letting people know where they stand sharing information sharing control and taking reasonable risks These tactics minimize the belief that one must be calculating and controlling to move up but they do require courage Part four compares dependency with autonomy The patriarchal contract fosters the belief that our survival is in someone else s hands Through much ofourearly life we are conditioned for dependency and the traditional reward system helps to maintain that condition Autonomy on the other hand reduces our need to give attention and power and often fear to those above us and demandsthat we take responsibility for our actions It helps the organization to support courage and independence Developing Teams and Workgroups Empowering is the act of passing on authority and responsibility Empowerment then occurs when power goes to employees who experience a sense of ownership and control over their work In the flatter organizations of the informationservice economy one form of empowerment comes from the formation of selfdirected teams or work groups Their job design is based on multiple tasks dealing with an entire process coupled with the responsibility for producing the desired outcomes The role of management in this structure is coach and facilitator and leadership is shared with the team The information flow is open and shared with all team members various levels of managers and others with a need to know The work group has primary responsibility for planning controlling and improv ing the process Wellins Byham and Wilson identifyavariety ofcharac teristics related to accomplishing organizational goals and meeting the needs of the changing work force that point toward the development of more selfdirected teams They include22 J The ability to attract and retain the best people It is estimated that sixteen million new jobs will be created in the decade of the 19905 with only fourteen million people qualified to fill them Organizations that offer a culture that best matches the values of the new work force will acquire and retain the best people Teams offer challenge greater participation and the opportunity for real accomplishments J A better response to new worker values Autonomy responsibility and empowerment are valued by new em ployees of today and selfdirected teams provide them all Surveys show that the challenge participation in decision making and work that results in realizable accomplishment are more important to new employees than high pay J Fewer simpler job classi cations As technology contributes to the complexity of the workplace the need for flexibility grows Work groups are designed to facilitate job sharing crosstraining and multiskilled individuals J Faster response to technological change Today tech nologies call for higher work skills and individuals who can work together to solve problems Teams help provide the communication channels and the responsiveness needed to make computing and communication networks function J Reduced operating costs Budget crises have led to the elimination of layers of midmanagers and supervisors More and more decisions must be made at lower levels Teams provide a vehicle for frontline employees to success fully assume these responsibilities J Greater flexibility Today s expectations test an organization s ability to be responsive to customers clients and the marketplace Work groups can communicate better discover more opportunities find better solutions and imple ment actions more quickly than other traditional organiza tional entities J Improved quality productivity and service The act of continuous improvement called kaizen a cornerstone ofJapanese management leadsto better qual ity productiv ity and service These characteristics are essential to an organization that hopes to compete in the information service economy The team concept gives a sense of job ownership that leads to kaizen Setting New Standards for Quality Whetherthey are cal led total quality management TQM total quality control TQC market driven quality MDQ or are based on Deming s fourteen points23 new programs at organizations across the nation are aimed at substantially enhancing the quality of products and services Common to all of these approaches is the idea of introducing new standards or measures that are much higher than prior expectations Striving for the six sigma goal is common This refers to instituting processes that result in probable errors or mistakes beyond the cutoff points on a normal curve six standard deviations from the mean or committing less than 34 errors per one million chances The following illustrations demonstrate the challenge before us It is estimated that the probability of losing a checked bag on an airline flight with a change of planes is one sigma getting the correct bill in a restaurant is three sigma getting the right prescription from a physician is three sigma but arriving safely from an airline flight is the desired six sigma24 Clearly achievingthis level ofquality delivery is a major part of what reengineering is about There is not however only one right way to make this happen David Garvin describes attributes of quality which provide considerable insight into how managers must think ofquality as strategy if sixsigma results are to be realized25 J Performance refers to a product s primary operating characteristics or the way in which a service is rendered Both products and services have attributes that can be objectively measured and are frequently useful in establish ing standards Other standards however are based on subjective preferences and are more difficult to establish It is critical to know the customer or client to understand their preferences and to periodically seek feedback ifstandards in subjective areas are to be useful J Features supplement the basic functions of a product or service They are the bells and whistles which may add quality The usefulness of particular features to particular individuals may constitute a rationale for measurement Another rationale might focus on available options and the ability for a customer or client to customize by selecting features Here as above standards will be based on both objective and subjective measures and knowledge of the clientele is very important J Reliability reflects the probability of a product mal functioning or failing to satisfactorily render a service within a specified time period The mean time to first failureerror mean time between failureserrors and the failureerror rate per unit time are common measures Where products or services are consumed instantly more subjective measures again may be useful J Conformance is the degree to which a product s design and operating characteristics or the way a service is rendered meets established standards Products and services of all kinds involve specifications of some sort Product conformance can be measured as a variation from the center of a specified range Measures of service conformance focus on accuracy and timeliness and include counts of processing errors unanticipated delays and other mistakes J Durability can be defined as the amount of use one gets from a product before itdeteriorates orthe length oftime a service can be continually provided with satisfactory results When some products fail they can be repaired with others failure results in the end of usefulness In either case measures similar to those used for reliability standards are fairly straightforward The concept of durability of service is most useful in establishing reasonable work periods where providing the service requires intense concentration Concepts in the Literature13 J Serviceability relates to the speed courtesy compe tence and ease of repaircorrection of a product or service Attitudes demonstrated in correcting outstanding problems and in handling complaints dramatically affect customer or client satisfaction Some of these variables can be measured quite objectively others reflect differing personal standards Despite the difficulty of deriving them subjective standards for professional behavior are very important J Aesthetics refers to how a product looks feels sounds tastes or smells or to the setting in which a service is rendered In each case personal judgment and individual preference are paramount therefore subjective criteria must be used for measurement Assessing the perceptions of customers or clients is important but it must be noted that it is impossible to please everyone J Perceived quality is directly related to the reputation of a product or service Image inference association adver tising and public relations can play roles in public percep tion and for a time may be as important as the reality This is a most subjective dimension but a significant one Estab lishing a good reputation for a new product or service may be easier than overcoming a bad one Redefining the Organizational Structure Nolan defines organizations as the structures used to specify relationships between people to do the work In the agrarian economy the family farm was an effective structure for small work groups Bureaucracies emerged in the indus trial economy designed to efficiently carry out mass produc tion and mass distribution while mobilizing large groups of specialized workers toward shared objectives over sustained periods of time Nolan contends that over the past fifteen years functional hierarchies have begun to dismantle them selves by eliminating layers of midmanagers and reducing the proportion of operational and clerical positions whilethe proportion of knowledge workers has increased signifi cantly These new network organizations will formalize structures during this decade26 Many agree with him others are more cautious Goodman Sproull and Associates find today s hierar chies fairly rigid and slow to change Furthermore they do not believe that we completely understand the process of changing organizational structure They suggest that change will come through experiments that combine technology with people willing to develop flexible structures that are both centralized and distributed at the same time Flexible procedures can replace rigid ones once the entire organiza tion is interconnected with personal computers and net works Organizational databases and expert systems could act as surrogates to approve routine decisions Structural relations within organizations can then be substantially altered27 Evolution toward a network structure however seems consistent with their perspective Rockart and Short list eight dimensions of change in volved in a networked approach to organizational function 28 mg 14 REENGINEERING 1 There is increased role complexity brought on by continuous changes in products markets processes and organization Managers will need to adjust more rapidly to new situations Organizations must also respond to competi tive pressures by continually improving internal processes Again managers will have to react and frequently structural change will result 2 The manager s need to cope with unclear lines of authority and decisionmaking is heightened Uncertainty increases as the complexity of shared work decisionmak ing expertise and accountability increases Since good managers respond to uncertainty by sorting things out for themselves individuals will see things differently in many circumstances The resulting conflict and uncertainty will be very uncomfortable for many 3 There are increased skill requirements in moving to a networked organization Higher order analysis conceptu alizations intuitive capacity experience and interpersonal skills are necessary to work effectively with others 4 There will be many teams that are problemfocused and outcome oriented New managerial skills and role definitions will be required as there is growth in peertopeer as opposed to hierarchical activities 5 Measurement systems need to be changed to assess individual team or suborganizational success New mea surement approaches are needed in an environment where cooperative work is increasingly the norm The evolution of such measurement systems will almost certainly lag behind other organizational changes 6 Changing accountability and authority will require cultural adjustments The entire current generation of man agers has been trained to equate accountability with full control over resources The future will require managers to share resources and to operate in an environment with more diffuse accountability and responsibility 7 Network organizations will require changing the planningprocess Information technology enables new plan ning approaches better access to information and better information management which allows institutions to target activities more selectively The available technology pro vides the ability to move relevant data to decisionmakers at all levels simultaneously Planning cycles can be shortened and changes in direction communicated rapidly 8 Changing the technology infrastructure is a senior management priority Developing the data management systems and an organizationspanning network requires shortterm expenses for longterm gain Such decisions are difficult to make in today s world but are crucial for the future As technology and business processes become even more intertwined changes in either will influence and respond to the other The synergy which can result in major innovation and change requires a favorable cultural setting Building Networks Networks encompass alliances and joint ventures with other organizations informal ties among internal managers teams that work across functions and new ways of sharing information using telecommunication infrastructures man agement information systems and other such technologies Such networks in the 19905 are designed to build competi tive advantage ie superior execution in a volatile environ ment They should empower managers to communicate openly candidly and without fear to test motives and build trust to enrich the quality of decisions and to evaluate problems from the perspective ofthe cl ientcustomer andthe organization rather than from a departmental interest Net works matter to the enterprise when they affect patterns of relationships and change the frequency intensity and hon esty of dialogue among members on specific priorities Charan defines a formal network as a recognized group of individuals managers and knowledge workers assembled by the senior executive team29 Such a network differs from a team task force or other ad hoc group in three important ways 0 Networks are not temporary Ad hoc groups cannot sustain change in the behavior of the organization networks are designed to do just that A functional network over a period of time reshapes personal rela tionships builds a shared understanding of business processes and affects performance 0 Networks do more than just solve problems de ned for them They are dynamic and they take initiative They provide a new mechanism for individuals to make their presence felt 0 Networks make demands on senior managementth at ad hoc groups cannot With the employment of networks executives no longer make all substantive operating decisions Their job is to shape personal relationships and processes that allow network members to make decisions The executives must be adept at diagnosing organizational behavior relationship building construct ing a measurement and reward system and providing the needed organizational linkage30 Charan describes social architecture as the foundation of a network This refers to the mechanisms through which key members make tradeoffs and to the flow of information power and trust that shapes how the tradeoffs get made For a network to be effective as designed senior management must drive the process of building the appropriate social architecture There are three important steps in doing this First the network must be designed A basic objective is to find the right mix of individuals whose organizational under standing personal motivations and functional expertise allow them to produce the expected outputs within specified time frames Second senior management must deal with mismatches when the performance of members whose be havior hurts the network becomes visible Networks will tend to bring to the forefront informal leaders with excep tional competence and to reveal individuals who cannot make the change to do business in this new way The social architecture will break down if problem people are not removed from the network Finally an intense and sustained focus on the fundamentals of organizational mission and goals rather than on more abstract concepts is necessary This is not to say that appeals to culture teamwork or values are not important to the organization but that the purposes of networks are to develop professional trust and to enhance understanding of the specifics of the business31 Addressing Auxiliary Issues As the process of transformation gets fully under way many other issues that require attention may be recognized such as policyprocedure development ongoing education and training requirements and technophobia The degree of change required for reengineering is significant and ongoing Notonly will much policy and most procedure need to be rewritten the basic style of how such documents are presented will need to be substantially modi fied As the timeframe for decisionmaking decreases due to enhanced communications capabilities and increased cus tomerclient expectations policies and procedures must support the frontine worker s efforts Significant limits have been placed on what such people were allowed to do this must change Additionally as the number of knowledge workers grows the level of detail usually found in current procedures will no longer be relevant and could be detri mental Finally processes and systems will change much more frequently in a transformed organization than in the past thus policies and procedures will also change often and will have to be readily accessible online Reengineering leads to organizations that are capable of learning this process is discussed more fully in Chapter 2 The need to understand how organizations learn and to accelerate that learning is more important than ever before Most of what has been discussed thus far ipoints to the necessity to integrate thinking and acting at all levels of the organization For this to occur ongoing training and educa tion of the entire workforce must take place Research has shown that increased training significantly decreases the turnover rate by as much as 50 percent With leaner work forces in place organizational stability will impact produc tivity Other studies indicate that an investment of 50 percent of an employee s salary in activities to eliminate turnover such as education could reap a payback within one year32 To date few organizations have invested in education and training as they must for transformation to occur Research by Rosen Weil and others shows that technophobia or computerphobia is a real problem with university students in the United States today Computer phobia is defined as a resistance to talking or thinking about computers anxiety about computers or hostile or aggressive thought about them Findings indicate that 1 tests have been developed to identify those with computerphobia 2 up to one third of the population may be affected in some way 3 there is no clear personality profile delineated for computerphobics 4 computer experience does not cure Concepts in the Literature 5 computerphobia and 5 computerphobia can be overcome through intervention techniques33 If these findings apply to the general public there are major ramifications for reengineering Since there appears to be no easy way to identify computerphobics except by testing it may be important to initiate testing of individuals who are not as productive in using technology as might be expected The widely held belief that computerphobia will cure itself as more and more people gain experience with computers may well be unsound In addition to providing technological training and education it may also be neces sary to provide intervention exercises to help some individu als overcome computerphobia before they can function productively in a reengineered organization This would need to be done in the context ofa learning organization with empowered individuals who might be less inclined toward defensive reasoning than is common today Strategic Planning and Management Finally strategic planning and management structure the framework which allows reengineering principles and related tenets to be interwoven more fully developed and implemented The aim of strategic planning is to exploit the new and different opportunities of tomorrow while minimizing the negative aspects of the unexpected challenges that will surely occur The aim of strategic management is to create an organization capable of doing that Coupling strategic plan ning and strategic management is required for reengineering to be successful The elements involved in this are to under stand the environment in which the organization functions define organizational mission and goals identify options make and implement decisions and evaluate actual perfor mance or organizational outcomes It is essential that plan ning for information technology be completely integrated into the organizational strategic planning and management process Strategic planning calls for an analysis of the entire organization and an assessment of environmental factors and their impacton the institution Such planning is based on inputs from a variety of constituents and functional areas and provides direction for and constraints on the whole enterprise regarding both strategic and tactical directions It sets forth a vision of the future and defines goals and operational objectives for accomplishing the vision Clearly defining a vision can help generate support from both internal and external groups develop coherent future oriented decisionmaking assist in the resource allocation which is so important in reengineering improve the organi zational and institutional image and encourage organiza tional teamwork while creating smoother relations between units A strategic planning process must fit the environment of the organization and institution where it is implemented This requires political astuteness and a solid understanding of the culture of the place and time Successful information 16 REENGINEERING technology planning requires strong support from the top of the institution afocus on organizationwide priorities broadly based participation structure and organization staff sup port and institutional guidelines It must culminate in evolu tionary policy procedures and decisionmaking which are designed to support the transformation process The adaptation of a planning model is perhaps the best way to introduce strategic planning and management into the institution Before implementing a selected model ad ministrators should agree on a plan and should set it forth in a formal charge The model should incorporate an internal and external assessment of environment in addition to a values analysis which will lead to the development of an extended mission statement goals and objectives broadly based operational strategies institutionwide tactical plans and unitbased action plans and individual behaviors The evaluation of a strategic planning system should begin by answering the following questions Are decisions really affected or different because of the process Does the process work The senior administration the operational administrators the planning committee the planning sup port staff and campus or perhaps systemwide personnel or a consultant should be involved in the evaluation process A variety of formal and informal methods that solicit feedback from the entire institution may be utilized34 Strategic planning and management is important and literature on the subject is growing The works of Robert C Shirley John M Bryson and George Keller are of particular relevance to higher education planners35 Concluding Observations As mentioned earlier kaizen is an evolutionary Japanese philosophy wherein constant incremental improvements build from generation to generation AnotherJapanese term ishinsuru means to revolutionize Taken together these two concepts constant improvement and a predisposition peri odically to revolutionize form the basis for transformation or reengineering36 The broad outline for carrying out the process is delineated in literature that is specific to reengineering Some necessary details must be filled in from more traditional bodies of literature related to organizational structure culture leadership planning and so forth Unfor tunately not all of the traditional literature in these areas fits philosophically with transformation concepts and assump tions Leadership for example must change from what traditionally has been and continues to be depicted in some of the literature This chapter has attempted to pull together references that present perspectives that do have common assumptions and are forward looking Once begun reengineering progresses in cycles of ishinsuru kaizen kaizen kaizen ishinsuru forever more If any segment of higher educa tion is to move toward a serious attempt to reengineer more literature on this subject is needed Hopefully this synopsis will make a small contribution toward meeting that need Footnotes Section 1 l Shoshana Zuboff In theAge ofthe SmartMachineNew York Basic Books Inc 1988 p 387 2 Thomas J Sergiovanni Leadership and Preparing Educa tional Leaders Mary Ann Alia Distinguished Lecture California State University Los Angeles School of Education September 24 1991 3 Michael Hammer l Reengineering Work Don t Automate Obliterate Harvard Business Review July August1990 pp 104 112 and Richard L Nolan Too Many Executives Today Just Don t Get Itl CAUSEEFFECT Winter 1990 pp 5 1 1 4 Shigeyasu Sakamoto Process Design Concept A New Ap proach to IE Industrial Engineering March 1989 pp 31 32 5Michael Hammer l Reengineering Your Business ATampT Computer Systems Symposium 2 April 1990 6 F J Purcell Taming of the Paperwork Monster Information Center June 1990 pp 25 27 7 Leonard L Berry Valarie A Zeithaml and A Parasuraman I Five Imperatives for Improving Service Quality Sloan Manage ment Review Summer 1990 pp 29 38 8 Leonard A Schlesinger and James L Heskett The Service Driven Company Harvard Business Review September October 1991 p 74 9 Nolan pp 10 1 1 10 Hammer ATampT Computer Systems Symposium 11 Chris Argyris Overcoming Organizational Defenses Bos ton Allyn and Bacon 1990 pp 7 1 1 12 Ibid pp 1 11 13 Peter M Senge The Leader s New Work Building Learning Organizations Sloan Management Review Fall 1990 pp 8 9 14 Ibid pp 8 9 15 Richard M Cyert l Defining Leadership and Explaining the Process NonprofitManagementamp Leadership Fall 1990 pp 32 36 16 Sergiovanni Mary Ann Alia Distinguished Lecture 17 Edgar Schein Coming to a New Awareness of Organiza tional Culture Sloan Management Review Winter 1984 p 3 18 Peter S Delisi l Lessonsfrom the Steel Axe Culture Technol ogy and Organizational Change Sloan Management Review Fall 1990 p 86 19 Katy Koontz I Six Ways to Motivate Your Staff Sourcebook Summer 1990 pp 22 29 20 Senge p 9 21 Peter Block The EmpoweredManagerSan Francisco Jossey Bass 1987 pp 20 24 22 Richard S Wellins William C Byham and Jeanne M Wilson Empowering Teams San Francisco Jossey Bass 1991 pp 10 13 Concepts in the Literature1 7 23 Howard S Gitlow and ShellyJ Gitlow The Deming Guide to Quality and Competitive Position Englewood Cliffs New Jersey Prentice Hall Inc 1987 24 LarryJ Ford quotUsing Information Strategically IBM Roadmap for the 19905 IBM Customer Briefing Beverly Hills Calif No vember 9 1990 25 David A Garvin quotCompeting on the Eight Dimensions of Quality Harvard Business Review November December 1987 pp 104 108 26 Nolan pp 8 9 27 Paul S Goodman Lee S Sproull and Associates Technology and Organizations San Francisco Jossey Bass 1990 pp 248 249 28 John F Rockart and James E Short quotThe Networked Organi zation and the Management of Interdependence in The Corpora tion of the 19905 Information and Organizational Transformation New York Oxford University Press 1991 pp 212 215 29 Ram Charan quotHow Networks Reshape Organizations For Results Harvard Business Review September October 1991 pp 1 04 1 05 30 Ibid p 106 31 Ibid pp 107 108 32 Schlesinger and Heskett p 76 33 Larry D Rosen and Michelle M Weil quotComputers Class room Instruction and the Computerphobic University Student Collegiate Microcomputer November 1990 p 281 and Larry D Rosen Deborah C Sears and Michelle M Weil Computerphobia Behavior Research Methods Instruments and Computers 1 9 no 2 1987 167 179 34 James Penrod and Thomas W West quotStrategic Planning for Computing and Communications Organizing and Managing In formation Resources on Campus McKinney Texas Academic Computing Publishers Inc 1989 pp 118 136 35 Robert C Shirley quotStrategic Planning An Overview Suc cessful Strategic Planning Case Studies New Directions for Higher Education No 64 San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 pp 5 14 John M Bryson Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Orga nizations San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 and George Keller Academic Strategy The Management Revolution in American Higher Education Baltimore Maryland Johns Hopkins University Press 1983 36James Penrod and Michael G Dolence quotConcepts for Reengineering Higher Education CAUSEEFFECT Summer 1991 p 10 18 REENGINEERING 2 Reengineering in Higher Education External forces are dramatically changing the public s aspirations and expecta tions visavis higher education institutions And the system s perceived inability to respond effectively is seriously eroding public confidence37 For almost three decades following World War II higher education expanded to meet a national commitment to open access Resources increased steadily and the number of campuses grew from around 1700 to over 3000 However beginning in the 19805 things changed A national public debate began over rapidly escalating college costs a move ment started to link student outcomes assessment to state appropriations colleges were found lax in their oversight of federal financial aid and loan programs states began to strain to keep their commitment to open access and federal expenditures came under close scrutiny Over the past year two thirds ofthe states have reduced appropriations to higher education38 Clearly events such as these are reshaping higher education Together they set a strategic context for academe as the let century approaches The realization and acknowledgement ofthis emerging strategic context has prompted many higher education and political leaders to conclude that the postsecondary institutions that enter the next century will be dramatically changed from those we know today In fact few question that these institutions can flourish without decided change The reengineering paradigm holds significant potential to revitalize and reshape colleges and universities for the future offering an effective response to three significant sociological factors First there is a growing uneasiness among policy mak ers parents and students regarding the increasing cost of higher education Costs which for years have risen faster than the Consumer Price Index CPI orthe Higher Education Price Index H EPI have led to a deep concern overthe value Peter Smith returned on each higher education dollar invested The root of this costversusquality conundrum involves the relation ship between academic productivity and costs At one end resource providers fear that costs have risen faster than the value of higher education s output At the other end educa tors fear that trimming costs by such measures as increasing the facultytostudent ratio erodes quality and fails to recog nize the value of higher education in developing human capital These quotquality scare assertions that any failure to provide adequate resources will result in immediate and irreparable diminution in the quality of education are gen erally no longer convincing to resource providers Further more pressure to bring about increased productivity is steadily increasing39 The price of higher education has begun to affect access Many family budgets are strained beyond their ability to pay while at the same time state and federal expenditures exceed revenues causing static if not decreasing funding for higher education programs40 This has led to such proposals as differential pricing of education where tuition and fees are set in accordance with student and family income Regard less of the success of such proposals the postsecondary community will continue to experience significant pressure to contain cost and increase quality by doing more with less This strategic context for higher education establishes one inviolate rule institutions must live within their means Second there is a strong need to respond to student consumerism As retail and business environments have had to increase the quality of customer service to stay competi tive they have established new levels of expectations for college and university business and service functions As institutions of higher education struggle for competitive advantage they must examine new ways to compete and improve service and responsiveness Increasingly institu tions are recognizing that administrative and bureaucratic functions rules and regulations can be eliminated with no corresponding diminution in quality of service or program Competitive advantage grows from improvement innova tion and change It involves the entire value system of the organization It can often only be begun ifwe breakthe mold with which we currently work It can only be sustained through relentless advancement41 Third rapid farreaching change is emerging as the dominant paradigm for entering the Zist century Change challenges virtually all ofthe paradigms ofthe industrial age and colleges and universities must help lead the emerging global society through the evolutionary process to a new world order where pressing problems will be addressed In doing so colleges and universities must evolve into organi zations that can learn to function effectively in a constantly changing environment Certainly the idea of creating a learning organization should not require a quothard sell in a college or university However it is important to reempha size that despite the advantages higher education might have in undertaking such an effort truly transforming a college or university will require significant commitment consistency of action and completely dedicated executive leadership with real vision The Organizational Culture in Academe Massy describes the complex spiral of the administrative lattice and the academic ratchet In his scenario he indicates that overthe past fifteen years administrative functions the lattice have grown far faster than academic functions Between 1975 and 1985 administrativetype functions grew by 60 percent while the number of faculty grew by only 6 percent42 A number of factors have contributed to this rapid growth including increased regulations OSHA EEOC EPA FISAP IPEDS A21 OFCC an expansion of entrepreneur ship by administrators and the overhead associated with consensus management At the same time the academic ratchet has moved faculty quotaway from institutional defined goals toward the more specialized concerns of faculty re search publication professional service and personal pur suits Together the lattice and ratchet have exacerbated the cost of providing a higher education43 Breakingthe mold ofthe lattice and ratchet is not an easy task March and Simon have characterized colleges and universities bythe organizational model ofdecisionmaking This model consists of a network of semiautonomous small units existing within a large organization Each unit is prima rily responsible for a limited number of specific tasks and functions within a fixed set of procedures44 Few largescale decisions can be made rather decisions work through each network and unit by prescribed procedures The result is Reengineering in Higher Education 19 small incremental changes which are less disruptive to the status quo This quotdisjointed incrementalism fosters deci sionmaking that nurtures parochial priorities and percep tions and limits change45 Forthis reason increasing productivity within academe is not an easy undertaking Many institutions grappling with the complexity of this issue have set forth a philosophy of growth by substitution Substitution means reallocating re sources from one program or project to another The growth by substitution strategy however flies in the face of the prevalent historic academic philosophy quotAny service we offer must be offered in perpetuity The perpetuity hypoth esis reasons that services and their supporting rules regula tions and policies once established are immortal When coupled with a segmented organizational structure and decision processes typical in higher education programs services and bureaucratic procedures can indeed approach untouchable status and change can be severely limited New Paradigms in Higher Education Administration However static higher education may appear a number of new paradigms have emerged over the past decade in response to the new strategic context confronting post secondary institutions These new paradigms are important because they show both a willingness and the strategic intent to address the challenges presented by changes in the environment Amongthe most important ones are the advent of strategic planning systems the development of integrated information resources management programs the evolution of strategic enrollment management principles and the application of the principles of total quality management None of these has become a pervasive movement in higher education but they are excellent examples of ways in which some institutions have addressed the need for change Strategic planningsystems first appeared in the business industry arenato help companies become more competitive They have been slowly adopted by the notforprofit sector and higher education John Bryson defines strategic planning within the notforprofit context as a quotdisciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions shaping the nature and direction of an organization s activities within legal bounds 46 The planning legacy in higher education has been fraught with disappointment frustration false starts and abandoned processes The literature suggests that these travails result from a mismatch between the processes developed in the business environment and theirapplication in academic environments Fortunately new strategic plan ning systems and methodologies have evolved in higher education with some success Rather than the detailed quantitative efforts of the past they are agreedupon visions of the future with strategies for success As such they are important to the success of reengineering because the pro cess helps sharpen the service focus of the organization clarifies the strategic intent and direction of the institution 20 REENGINEERING and its major units and establishes the nature of expecta tions Information Resources Management IRM emerged in the 19805 as an institutionwide information management strategy Key to the IRM approach is a recognition that information is an organizationwide resource that is critical to the institution s achieving its mission An IRM organiza tion is expected to provide leadership on technological issues coordinate and integrate technology initiatives and formulate information technology policy IRM entails the management planning organization operations and con trol of the resources human financial and physical con cerned with supporting developing enhancing and main taining and servicing processing transforming distribut ing storing and retrieving information data text images and voice47 IRM organizations are historically composed of diverse units such as data communications administrative comput ing academic computing voice communications planning television service institutional research printing mail ser vice copyingreprographic services media services and the library A primary focus of the IRM approach is the develop ment and operation of an integrated information technology infrastructure that enables new levels of communication cooperation functionality and service It is exactly this enabling infrastructure that facilitates and helps drive the process of redesigning processes and procedures of the institution Strategic enrollment management has emerged as a cohesive campuswide focus on ensuring that the institution will continue to enroll the number of students necessary to survive through the next decade It is defined as a compre hensive program designed to achieve and maintain the optimum recruitment retention and graduation of students where quotoptimumquot is defined within the academic context of the institution48 For some institutions the word quotattain ment achievement of a degree or nondegree objective may be substituted for the term quotgraduationquot receipt of a degree49 Within this context recruitment is defined as the active process an institution undertakes to favorably influ ence a student s decision to attend and retention is defined as the maintenance of a student s satisfactory progress to ward hisher pedagogical objective until it is attained Re cruitment then focuses on the preenrollment decision processes and retention focuses on postenrollment deci sion processes This comprehensive approach is designed to aggregate formerly disaggregated processes policies and procedures It is intended to achieve synergies between recruitment and retention strategies Generally a seamless and significantly improved service environment is sought to provide maxi mum support of institutional academic and enrollment goals At the heart of strategic enrollment management is informa tion not just data Enrollment management professionals must be able to describe and track students interested in the institution applicants matriculants and even graduates They must be able to identify students in trouble and inter vene in a meaningful way before they drop out They must be able to provide service levels that make their institution competitive Strategic enrollment management relies upon even demands that service processes functions and sup port systems be reevaluated redesigned and reimplemented under drastically different performance and operational pa rameters In other words they need to be reengineered Total Quality Management as it is applied in higher education involves five basic points accordingto Ellen Earle Chaffee50 The first is customer focus There are internal customers such as students staff or other academic or administrative units and there are external customers in cluding taxpayers parents alumni donors and outside agencies Customerfocus means meetingthe customers real needs The best way to do that is by asking how their needs might be better met and then doing it The second point is the systematic improvement of operations which involves applying the scientific method to work That is spending an adequate effort to understand the cause of a problem collecting data on it using the data to derive potential solutions trying a selected solution in a limited way and checking to see if it worked or if it needs modification Finally when it is clearthatthe solution works it must be applied wherever it is relevant Third is developing human resources College and uni versity administrators need to recognize that most perfor mance problems are caused by the system not the em ployee and that the person doingthe job is the only one who can improve job performance Often people lack three initial components for effective performance 1 they may have had little training in how the organization expects them to perform or in how their job fits into the organization 2 they may have had no training in how to make changes to improve job performance and 3 it may be that the organi zation discourages them from attempting change Manage ment must ensure adequate training and retraining to create an environment in which people can do effective work Longterm thinking isthe fourth point Too often colleges and universities focus on immediate deadlines details and shortterm results ratherthan taking a longterm perspective It is important for all to understand the quotbig picture and for small solid continuous improvements to be rewarded Fifth is a firm commitment to quality Every institution speaks of quality However in almost every institution there are people and processes well known for tolerating inad equate results Demonstrating a commitment to quality requires that inadequacies be addressed This may mean immediately fixing an obviously poor process or investing time and effort to improve something that works but that can be made more effective TQM is synergistic with the fundamental principles of transformation and isaveryvaluabletool in the reengineering process By focusing upon building a quality culture based on individual responsibilities institutions can prepare them selves for the true benefit of reengineering breakthrough thinking and achieving magnitudes ofchange in productivity and performance These concepts are examples of some of the new para digms that have emerged which may help dismantle the lattice and the ratchet and facilitate institutional health and growth within this new strategic context These paradigms have several things in common they are institutional in scope they accommodate or address major changes in the environment and they rely upon strategic information for success The process of transformation would not only accommodate these management innovations but would strengthen them As an institutional strategy reengineering seeks not only incremental increases in performance but also magnitudes of change Dynamics of Organizational Growth A valuable tool in approaching reengineering is familiarity with the dynamics of organizational growth and change Henry Mintzberg offers a useful model describing the forces and forms of effective organizations in terms of the interplay between five forces proficiency direction efficiency in novation and concentration linked with organizational types and two other forces cooperation and competi tion that come into play in all organizations see Figure 1 In reality no single organization is any one of these five organizational types in pure form nor is any one of these dynamic forces present to the exclusion ofthe others By and large all are present to some degree and exist in dynamic equilibrium This does not mean however that they all exert equal force in mostorganizations one or more ofthese types and forces characterize the nature ofthe enterprise Mintzberg calls this the organization s con guration It is unlikely that a university will have one dominant configuration The finance office for instance might be classified as a machine researchoriented academic units might be adhocracies many other academic units could be professional and the president s office would be entrepre neunaL n organizations that have a dominant configuration there is a sense of order internal consistency integration and perhaps even synergy among processes This also makes it easy for outsiders to understand the organization Simi larly organizations with a strong ideology have a force for cooperation in the institution and can develop good collegi ality and consensus People pull together for the common good There are notable examples of colleges and universi ties with such distinctive characters More commonly however colleges and universities are combination organizations without a strong ideology and with significant internal competition and lots of politics The catalytic forces of ideology and politics are contradictory forces that must be reconciled if an institution is to be effective in the long run The process of transformation or reengineering with its emphasis on examining assumptions rejecting conventional wisdom looking for ways to initiate change and creating learning organizations offers a prom ising methodology to achieve this reconciliation Reengineering in Higher Education 21 Mintzberg notes that very few organizations spend their entire lives in one configuration or combination As the environmentchanges and the needs oforganizations change they must undergo conversion from one form to another Institutions highly dependent on expertise like universities usually move down the right side of the pentagon repre sented in Figure 1 For conversion to take place the balance between ideology and politics must change bringing about new strategy structure or form Reengineering for a Learning Organization Critical Success Factors Colleges and universities are institutions of learning and those in the United States are generally regarded as the best in the world However the time has come when we must ask whether US colleges and universities are truly learning organizations communities of people continuously ex panding their capacity to create desired results see footnote 21 Section 1 The transformed organization of the 21st century will be a learning organization of which one of the principal purposes will be the expansion of knowledge This will not be knowledge for its own sake as in academic pursuit but rather knowledge that resides at the core of productivity in a global economy and world society Learn ing can no longer be a separate activity that occurs before one enters the work place or in classroom settings It cannot be an activity preserved for managerial or elite technical groups The behaviors that define learning and those that define being productive have come to be one and the same Learning is the heart of productive activity the new form of labor that is now building the llempires of the mind The following factors are key to the successful reengineering of campuses into learning organizations51 0 Recognize the need for broadbased institutionwide change to achieve new levels of strategy commitment and service We believe that this is not a generally held perspective and that even where it is some llinitiating spark will probably be needed to overcome organizational entropy for any serious consideration to be given to reengineering That spark might come from a crisis a new leader or an external person or event The time must be right however for the spark to ignite52 0 Set forth a wellarticulated information strategy that is synergistic with institutional decisionmaking This is not a glorified information systems plan but a strategic direction set forth by executive leadership that recognizes information as a critical resource The ability to use informa tion immediately in decisionmaking and access by all levels of the organization should be recognized as fundamental components of acceptable service 22 REENGINEERING This figure and related material are drawn from Henry Mintzberg s The Effective Organization Forces and Forms Sloan Management Review Winter 1991 pp 55 63 Reprinted with permission of the publisher Figure 1 A SYSTEM OF FORCES AND FORMS IN ORGANIZATIONS DIRECTION ntrepreneu rial COOPERATION EFFICIENCY Ideology lt gt IPROFICIENCY COMPETITION 39 INNOVATION CONCENTRATION Pro ciency is the force that drives the high skillknowledge task orientation Highly profi cient organizations have a professional organizational style experts operate with the autonomy of skilled practitioners along predetermined paths Direction is the strategic vision or awareness of where the organization is going Organizations with strong directive force are entrepreneurial in nature The force of efficiency driven by costbenefit analysis leads to an organization which Mintzberg likens to a machine Such organizations are highly structured and tightly controlled through rules and regulations Innovation is the force that leads organizations and their members to discover or invent new things Here the rule is creativity and the dominant organizational style is one of an adhocracy Concentration is the need to focus on key products or services In organizations where concentration dominates the first priority is to diversify into specialty units then create divisions focusing on the product or service The organizational style is diversified Two other forces come into play in organizational dynamics The force of cooperation driven by ideology creates the desire to work with other organizational members and units because it is good for the organization Ideology underpins this force by creating a set of com mon beliefs values and goals that are broadly understood and individually internalized ie an organizational culture Competition is the force that creates friction over priorities or resource allocations within the organization Competition is often driven by politics These political activities are not formally sanctioned and are often conflict oriented The campuswide information technology strategy should address the following kinds of issues I the rationale for a campuswide network for voice data video and image transmission which links to regional national and interna tional networks 2 the nature and architecture of the corpo rate database 3 the institutional stance on standards 4 the manner in which scholarly access to information will be addressed 5 the definition of IT support mechanisms 6 the institutional school department and individual roles and responsibility areas for IT 7 policy for such things as privacy security intellectual property rights and so forth and 8 the methods of access for executives knowledge workers and frontline operations personnel is there an executive information system a decision support system Obviously such a strategy will require the IT plan to be integral to the institutional strategic plan 0 Develop a critical mass of innovative leaders and infor mation technology infrastructure Making rapid major changes in the comfortable elements of the work environment is not easy for anyone yet that is exactly what reengineering requires Thus innovative indi viduals capable of handlingthe change and helping others to do so must be in place during the transformation An existing information technology infrastructure capable of supporting and sustaining the transformation is also necessary An executive level chief information officer CIO or an IT champion among the executive officers perhaps the chief operating officer or the provost is needed to provide neces sary policy level coordination and direction Midlevel man agers across the campus who are willing to become leaders and change agents must be identified The infrastructure must minimally include an allpur pose campuswide network with an upgrade path a corpo rate database with wide access capability supportfor knowl edge workers of all types access to scholarly information and competent technicians and application specialists in a variety of areas across the institution Additionally information technology systems design must reflectthe reengineered environment This will occur in many ways the following examples are illustrative rather than exhaustive An open systems model is important as are widely communicated and agreedupon standards The de sign must support broadbased access to all organizational levels and varied constituencies with either the need or the right to know Integrated relational database management systems that are truly distributed when possible coupled with stateoftheart development and inquiry tools will be a necessity Thefundamental design criteria mustchange from a basic focus on functionality for the primary application specialist to support for the corporate executive the primary application specialist and ultimate clients faculty and students This has ramifications for all levels of software hardware and networks Reengineering in Higher Education 23 0 Be sure that the information technology staff understand and support the vision It is all too possible to have an IT infrastructure capable of supporting reengineering but not have IT managers and technicians with the same capability quotPride of ownership quotThis way has always worked or quotIf it ain t broke don t fix it attitudes simply will not mix with a transformation orien tation Information systems professionals must be in the forefront of any reengineering endeavor and they must begin within their own units The next section of this paper looks specifically at actions that might be needed in those units 0 Gain acceptance of a holistic approach to resource allocation A primary reason to engage in reengineering is to achieve productivity breakthroughs Positioning an organization to enable transformation however will involve considerable time energy education and expense By and large the expenditures will have to come from existing resources which means eliminating unnecessary commitments The institutional focus must be upon mission and the longterm good of the organization rather than nonaligned unit goals and shortterm perspectives It is imperative to educate as many key players as possible as quickly as possible regarding the following issues the environmental forces which indicate the need to reengineer the longterm benefits to the institution aca demic and administrative units groups and individuals the potential negative results of failing to transform the prin ciples of the reengineering process and expected contribu tions by units to enable transformation 0 Create an organizational structure that will enable the institution to become a learning organization Metaphors such as a symphony an adhocracy a permeable membrane a collapsed pyramid and a spider s web have been used to describe structures that will replace bu reaucra cies Whatever descriptor prevails the new organization will have fewer levels better communication channels quicker decisionmaking mechanisms an outcome orientation and more flexibility It will combine the benefits of both central ization and decentralization A major premise of networked institutions isthat an information infrastructure permits more effective management of organizational interdependence which enhances concurrent effort along multiple dimen sions of the organization Knowledge workers in such an organization will need to be teamoriented interdisciplinary able to handle greater role complexity and looser lines of authority Zuboff notes that managerial activity will need to concentrate on four principal domains intellective skill development technol ogy development strategy formulation and social system development53 24 REENGINEERING 0 Design an entrepreneurial organizational culture Basically this is a recognition that institutions of the future will produce learn communicate innovate and behave only as well as the sum ofthe organizational participants An orientation on values and a focus on the importance of the person must be evident Objectives of the organization the group and the individual must be carefully aligned and coordinated Creating empowered teams is a primary way to gain the desired alignment coordination and innovation Effective teams are composed of committed individuals who trust each other have a sense of purpose about their work are effective communicators within and outside of the team and include other team members in decisions affecting the group and carefully follow a process that helps in planning making decisions and ensuring the quality of their work54 0 Make a commitment to examine reorient and redesign all policies procedures and position descriptions to emphasize outcomes The magnitude ofchange discussed in the literature points to a complete overhaul of standard operating processes and reallocation ofemphases Leadership intervention may cause a change of focus for a while but permanent change to embrace the principles of a learning organization requires very different standard operating procedures The scope of reengineering should focus on extended processes not just on activities with boundaries established in the past Fundamental assumptions on which processes have been based should be identified and if necessary recast Where change is restricted by stated pol icy the pol icy should itself become the subject of attention Technology should be a shaping influence in this endeavor not just an implementation tool It should be recognized that certain elements of the organization are inherently stifling and that administrative units of today must be capable of embracing encouraging and managing change This may result in recommendations regarding organizational makeup and flexibility coordination and cooperation between units and redefinition of certain jobs Four guidelines are key to this review of work flow and job descriptions 1 the organization of work should be built around and focus upon outcomes not tasks or department or unit responsibilities 2 individuals should be empowered and held accountable with decisionmaking defined as part of the job 3 accountability and process control must be built into the work flow and not be an extension to it and 4 the details required to support maintenance of the basic infrastructure must be meticulously addressed 0 Develop new metrics for measuring quality accounting and performance Quality has long been measured in higher education by comparisons with peer institutions or against a set of stan dards defined by professional organizations such as the National Association of College and University Business Officers American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers and others Traditional accounting standards have evolved from the industrial economy model but are now woefully inadequate in measuring productivity in a knowledge worker environment Performance measure ment is typical ly a topdown process focusing on the tasks of a position description As quality begins to be judged according to sixsigma goals very different measurement criteria will be needed for processes in which errors can be detected and counted As electronic access to information over networks increases new standards will need to be developed to measure such things as the quality of an academic library Accrediting agencies have begun to assess the quality ofthe T infrastruc ture as part of their criteria but far more needs to be done Many current standards relate to ratios per fulltimeequiva lent student Clearly the very nature of a transformation to an informationservice economy will make most of these obso lete An informationservice economy needs an accounting framework that can identify which activities add the most value enabling organizationsto distinguish between routine and creative tasks Only then will the costs of technology acquisition and knowledge worker hiring be evaluated accu rately in the context of an institution s strategic objectives and competitive realities Activitybased managerial ac counting may be a step in the right direction but much more work in this area remains to be done55 Reengineering affects performance measurement in sev eral ways Assessing the performance of tasks must be reoriented toward accomplishment of outcomes As net works and empowered teams are formed additional perfor mance criteria must relate to contributing to the success of a team Some consideration should be given to taking the appraisal process out of a oneonone context and putting at least some segment of it in a group context where team members rate each other on contributionsto the wholeteam Careful thought must be given to the interpersonal dynamics of the group when this is done 0 Emphasize different leadership characteristics Vividlyarticulatingashared vision is crucial to reengineering It is an ongoing process that requires leaders to continually share their own vision with their organizations and ask quotIs this worthy of your commitment Although fear is a power ful shortterm motivator aspiration must endure as the continuing source of learning and growth The shared vision therefore needs to be powerfully positive Balancing inquiry and advocacy are important skills for leaders of learning organizations they need to do both well Transformation leaders must be ableto discern between espoused theory and the theory that individuals really put into practice and they must be able to defuse defensive routines Leaders of the future must be able to see interrelationships and not focus on detail They must avoid symptomatic solutions and be able to move beyond blame Additionally such skills must go beyond a few individuals at the top ofthe organization They need to be distributed widely throughout the institution56 Summary Higher education must find an acceptable response to the pressures of increasing costs flat or decreasing funding heightened constituent expectations and reaction to rapid environmental changes Colleges and universities must break the mold of the administrative lattice and academic ratchet New paradigms such as strategic planning systems IRM programs strategic enrollment management and total qual ity management programs are encouraging beginnings but are unlikely to bring the overall response that is needed The reengineering process offers a context for athorough reexamination of the assumptions about the way things are done in higher education It can easily encompass and enhance the new paradigms which are already under way A commitment to true transformation will require institu tional analysis far more critical than that required by an accreditation visit resource redistribution more extended Reengineering in Higher Education 25 than any caused by fiscal crisis and broadbased restructur ing beyond any resulting from a systems merger However even results which are moderate by reengineering standards can be far reaching and almost assuredly will have as much impact on academic endeavors as on administrative func tions In considering a transformation commitment we must understand the consequences of maintaining the status quo while the world around us changes Unless colleges and universities significantly shift their modes of administration the confidence of our constituents and the general public will in all probability continue to erode financial pressures will continue to build resulting in a real loss ofquality and the future leaders of our society will not be educated as well as they might be to cope with the challenges of the 21st century Reengineering requires quotthinking big extraordinary commitment and absolute dedication to the accomplish ment of organizational mission It is not a consideration for the timid but it could well be a path for maintaining the most successful system of higher education in the world Footnotes Section 2 37 Peter Smith quotBeyond Budgets Changing for the Better Educational Record Spring 1991 p 26 38 Mary Crystal Cage quot30 States Cut Higher Education Budgets by an Average of 39 in Fiscal 1990 91 The Chronicle oingher Education 26 June 1991 p 1 39 William F Massy quotA Strategy for Productivity Improvement In College and University Academic Departments presented at the Forum for Postsecondary Governance held in Santa Fe NM October 31 1989 40 Mary Crystal Cage p 1 41 Michael E Porter The Competitive Advantage of Nations Glencoe Illinois Free Press 1990 42 The data were originally reported by Karen Grassmuck in an article which appeared in the March 28 1990 issue of The Chronicle oingher Education This source is quoted by William F Massy in quotThe Lattice and the Ratchet The Pew Higher Education Research Program Pew Policy Perspectives 2 June 1990 2 43 William F Massy quotThe Lattice and the Ratchet The Pew Higher Education Research Program Pew Policy Perspectives 2 June 1990 1 8 44J G March and H A Simon Organizations New York Wiley 1958 J G March ed Handbook of Organizations Chi cago Rand McNally 1965 and H A Simon Administrative Behavior New York Macmillan 1957 45 D Braybrooke and C E Lindblom A Strategy of Decision Glencoe Illinois Free Press 1963 46 John M Bryson Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations San Francisco Jossey Bass Publishers 1988 p 5 47 199192 Strategic Plan for Information Resources Manage ment California State UniversityLos Angeles p 1 48 Michael G Dolence Derek H Miyahara John Grajeda and Christopher Rapp quotStrategic Enrollment Management and Plan ning Planning for Higher Education 16 no 3 1987 88 55 49 Michael G Dolence quotEvaluation Criteria for an Enrollment Management Program Planning for Higher Education 18 no1 1989 90 1 50 Ellen Earle Chaffee Total Quality Management A Guide to the North Dakota University System 19911992 Publications Services Office North Dakota State University 1991 pp 16 19 51 Penrod and Dolence quotConcepts for Reengineering Higher Education CAUSEEFFECT Summer 1991 pp 16 17 52 For a discussion of ten organizational conditions that are necessary before an institution can embark on a major change effort see Ralph H Kilmann Teresa Joyce Covin and Associates Corporate Transformation Revitalizing Organizations for a Competetive World San Francisco Jossey Bass Publishers 1988 pp 92 94 53 Zuboff Shoshana In the Age of the Smart Machine New York Basic Books Inc 1988 p 398 54 Wellins Byham and Wilson suggest that it takes progression through four stages before trust purpose communication involve ment and process orientation are effectively solidified 55 Stephen S Roach quotServices Under Siege The Restructuring Imperative Harvard Business Review September October 1991 p 91 56 See Senge pp 13 15 for a discussion of skills needed in the three critical areas of building shared vision recognizing and challenging mental models and systems thinking 26 REENGINEERING 3 Implications of Reengineering for Information Technology Units Either address change and take advantage of the unique opportunity it offers for you to successfully serve your enterprise or face consequences that can range from the loss of your organization s important role in the enterprise to the loss of your jobOf course other challenges face you and your enterprise but in light of the current acceleration of change and its potential impact on IS careers this particular challenge must take priority57 As new types of IT organizations evolve broadbased quotbuy in becomes a reality campuswide needs and expectations grow and in the midst of major infrastructure projects new solutions to resource issues and institutional necessities must be found The following scenario is based on reallife events at The California State U niversityLos Angeles a state supported urban comprehensive university What is hap pening at CSULA is not atypical of what is happening at many institutions especially public colleges and universi ties In 1985 CSULA committed to build an information technol ogy infrastructure to support its instructional research ad ministrative and public outreach missions In 1986 substan tial resources were allocated for instructional support pur poses In the following five years oncampus labs and electronic classrooms increased from four to thirtyseven and personal computers forfaculty grew from fewerthan fifty to over 350 about one half of all fulltime professors In 1987 the University installed a new mainframe computer and began installation of the first of four adminis trative systems eventually to be integrated in a relational database Since then three of the four systems have become operational The mainframe has gone through planned up grades and is now stateoftheart technology with enough Mario M Morino power and capacity to support the integrated relational database The first system to come up in 1988 has migrated to the relational environment and the others are scheduled to follow within the next 18 to 24 months 1988 also saw the installation of a campuswide fiber optic network a digital PBX mediumspeed and highspeed data switches a voice mail system and a network manage ment system Many local area networks have been con nected to the backbone including almost all instructional labs about 500 individual personal computers now have access and over 700 voice mail boxes have been added This infusion of information technology began as state support was becoming more difficult to obtain Throughout the decade of the 19805 the proportion of state budget allocated to higher education shrank The first two fiscal years ofthe19905 have seen netdecreases in the institutional budget In 199091 the campus IT budget was reduced by 900000 and in 1991 92 by an additional 11 million from the original base of 11 million Despite these facts the need for additional education and training continues to grow network management be comes ever more critical and complex additional support is needed in both the integrated administrative arena and the highly specialized distributed academic areas yet the bud get situation has forced half a dozen layoffs another eight vacant position are quotfrozenquot and expenditure levels in all categories are reduced The necessity for change is no longer theoretical Can We Survive These circumstances tend to reinforce the arguments pre sented for transformation or reengineering in the early sec tions of this paper however given the magnitude of change coming from all directions we must address the question llCan we survive Morino offers five recommendations on which this chapter is based to help IT leaders answer the question of survival and to outline a possible path to success ful reengineering They are 1 to promote the development of a positivethinking opportunityoriented culture in the IT unit and beyond 2 to establish total linkage between the IT strategy and institutional mission 3 to arm oneself with information and become a knowledge seeker and technol ogy transfer agent 4 to communicate within the IT unit and to the entire institution and 5 to provide solutions now without waiting for new technology58 Develop a PositiveThinking OpportunityOriented Culture It is up to the IT leadership to instill an entrepreneurial attitude that views change as opportunity and a cando spirit into staff members then to see that these ideas become cultural values Such leaders will need to play multiple roles of designer teacher and steward to bring this about Sergiovanni suggests that this can be done through certain stages of leadership which unite leaders and followers in pursuit of common higherlevel goals The stages can be used simultaneously for different purposes or with different people to deal with a recalcitrant individual never able to move beyond the first stage for example59 0 Stage One Leadership by Bartering Leaders strike a bargain with followers where something is provided to the followers that they want in exchange for something the leaders want This might be as basic as defining service levels that stress quality timeliness cour tesy and professional conduct then evaluating performance and providing appropriate rewards for meeting the stan dards It might involve providing education and training to staff members willing to learn and try new ways of approach ing a given circumstance ie becoming members of a matrix management group to solve ongoing problems or joining a quality management team to improve the output of some errorprone process 0 Stage Two Leadership by Building Leaders provide the climate and interpersonal support that enhances followers opportunities for fulfilling their needs for achievement responsibility competence and esteem This stage focuses on empowering individuals and develop ing selfdirected work groups and involves helping individu als recognize their own autonomy and assume responsibility Reengineering for IT Units 27 for their actions It also offers challenge greater participa tion and the opportunity for accomplishmentthrough inclu sion in work groups Areas that might readily benefit from such an approach are 1 network groups which bringtogether voice data and video personnel to focus on architecture and network man agement issues 2 programmer teams that bring together individuals responsible forthe corporate database with those who develop frontend applications for the desktop 3 database administration and data administration representa tives charged with examining system architecture from the perspective of security efficiency and internal operations and reliability accessibility performance and conform ance or 4 groups made up of academic computing library and media staff to deliver better instructional support 0 Stage Three Leadership by Bonding Leaders and followers develop a set of shared values and commitments that bond them together in a common cause Finding shared values in a higher education community is not difficult The large majority of people who work in the environment do so because they bel ieve that the future ofour nation lies in an educated populace that their work contrib utes to the greater good and is therefore meaningful that the nature of their work enables them to continue to learn and to grow and that it is easier to build trust in this work environ ment than it might be elsewhere Additionally most T knowledge workers find the technology challenging and interesting and believe that an IT infrastructure will enable the institution to progress and that their specific area of expertise is requisite to the IT infrastructure To solidify the desired bonding leaders need to empha size their moral commitment to these same values and their appreciation of followers contributions to unit and institu tional goals 0 Stage Four Leadership by Banking Leaders institutionalize improvement gains into the every day life of the organization to ensure that they become part of the culture This requires turning the improvements into routines that become second nature and are passed on to others ie the values are l banked This means new policies and procedures which reflect empowered people and a focus on clientcustomer service newjob descriptions emphasizing outcomes rather than tasks and ongoing edu cationtraining both in technical areas and in methods to improve teamwork decisionmaking participation tech niques etc And itdemandsthatthe values be instilled in new members of the organization The introduction should in clude an orientation and frequent early followup to ensure that the new member understands the values whythey exist and the resultant individual and organizational expecta tions Building networks designed for superior execution in the volatile environment ofthe 19905 provides another means of institutionalizing and fostering support for an opportunistic 28 REENGINEERING organizational culture Certain types of networks might prove particularly useful in an IT organization coping with transformation First a network of IT managers could be charged with allocating pooled resources across the various departments that make up an IT unit Such pooled resources might include professional development funds money for internal departmental equipment or the responsibility for assigning new positions or cutting existing ones in difficult times Delegating decisions of this nature to a network of managers encourages the rapid development of a functional social architecture maturation of professional trust and a broadened understanding of organizationwide specifics of how the unit functions Second a network ofmanagers and technical specialists might be brought together to develop recovery processes for system failures All members of the network along with appropriate senior management would be notified immedi ately through urgent voice mail andor electronic mail when a system failure occurred The network would be responsible for issuing a system impact report to the affected constitu ency specifying the problem estimated time for resolution and individuals primarily responsible for implementing the solution The report should be issued within minutes of the initial failure after network members have identified the problem outlined actions to be taken and agreed upon parties charged with carrying out the actions The network would monitor progress and provide updates if needed until the system was again fully functional Finally a network of IT managers IT knowledge work ers application area managers and application area special ists could be given the responsibility for operating an inte grated networked system eg a student information system or an advanced technology laboratory Again voice mail andor electronic mail would be heavily used to simulta neously advise all network members of coordination needs tradeoffs and decisions required to allow such systems to function smoothly The network would identify shortcom ings specify and prioritize needed modifications and alter procedures when necessary Almost everyone wants to be successful and most will work hard to be so even in difficult times Humans are designed for learning An organizational culture that stresses hard work and encourages learning and the application of new skills can be a powerful force for transformation IT leaders must strive to develop an organizational culture with such characteristics Establish Linkage Between IT and the Institution A firm link between institutional and IT initiatives is an absolute prerequisite to any reengineering effort and is badly needed in any enterprise The need for such a link is one aspect of the rationales for chief information officer posi tions which now exist at approximately 300 colleges and universities Typically they are at the level of vice president vice chancellor or assistantassociate vice president or vice chancellor The best linkage is made possible where the CIO is a member of the president schancellor s council In institutions that do not have a CIO or where the CIO is not part ofthe policy group a quotchampionquot must be found someone who is a policy level officer and who understands the need for an ITinstitutional linkage Chief operating officers such as provosts or executive vice presidents are the best candidates for the champion role Simply having a CIO or a champion for IT at the policy level of an organization does not guarantee linkage mean ingful participation in IT decisionmaking at all institutional levels is necessary Nonetheless participation must begin with the executive officers A primary function of a CIO or champion is to see that the use of technology to meet campuswide strategic needs is discussed and understood by the policy group and that such discussions become routine Midlevel managers throughout the institution should not only be involved in decisionmaking concerning institu tional initiatives formulated by the IT unit but more and more must be given the authority and accept the responsi bility of managing their own technology For example such midlevel managers may include registrars directors of admissions and financial aid and directors of accounting accounts receivable and accounts payable These managers must be aware of and support the need to link IT and institutional initiatives Part of their responsibility then is to ensure that the technology in their department serves the institution as well as the unit Assuring the required coordi nation and cooperation of midmanagers across the organi zation is another primary function of a CIO or champion Supervisors and frontline knowledge workers must also be included in IT decisionmaking These individuals need to understand how what they do fits into the larger system and how their part contributes to institutional mission They can then be far more useful in suggesting ways to improve front line service and perhaps how to better meet other institu tional needs An example of this might be determining how to design a form to collect a data element needed by another department but best collected with other data by a unit that will not use it Allowing a frontline worker even a small role in deciding how the element is captured and providing understanding of its importance to others contributes to the likelihood that the element will be better collected and maintained Perhaps the most visible function of a champion or CIO is to align IT goals with institutional mission through strategic planning and management It is imperative that comprehen sive IT strategies support both the academic and administra tive functions within the institution The teaching research and academic administrative functions must be integral to the reengineering effort Deans associate deans department chairs and individual faculty must be integral to the planning equation and their needs addressed in institutional IT strate gies This may best be done where there is an organizational strategic plan and directly linked campuswidetactical plans one of which is an IT tactical plan In this model the IT tactical plan will define campuswide parameters for carrying out institutional strategies It is important to emphasize that the IT tactical plan should apply to all units not just the IT unit If a campuswide process does not exist the champion or CIO must initiate the development of an IT planning process It should be guided by the IT unit but the resultant plan must encompass the entire institution Finally the champion or CIO should nurture networks consisting of individuals from all organizational levels de signed to continually strengthen the ITinstitutional linkage These could take several forms One seemingly simple but potentially effective network would include the executive officers or the CEO s policy council The social architecture of this group forms naturally but it is important to persuade them to use electronic means to augment their communica tion For urgent circumstances an intercom connection between all members of the policy group should be set up Since most digital PBXs allow multiple intercom groups and executive officers have an affinity for using the telephone this link should not be difficult to establish Where all members need to receive the same short messages simulta neously a voicemail list could be used Again this should be fairly easy to put into practice If the communication is longer or if a written transcript is useful fax and electronic mail connections should be utilized Despite the obvious usefulness this may be more difficult to quotsellquot but its imple mentation would be a valuable signal to the institution Formal networks that tie midmanagers together specifi cally to strengthen ITinstitutional initiatives are important The nature and makeup of these groups tend to be unique to the campus but when they function well they are perhaps unequalled as an institutional feedback loop As in the case above this network should use multiple electronic means of communication Similarly networks that link supervisors andor frontline workers should be encouraged and sup ported These networks must also be used to functionally bind together academic and administrative systems people and functions Some other methods the IT unit might use to solidify IT institutional linkage follow I Assign specified members of the IT staff to client departments for one totwoweek stays annually This broad ens understanding of the IT staff and enable departments to utilize a level of expertise perhaps not otherwise available for their own projects 2 Hold periodic oneday retreats for client groups where they set the agenda for discussion andor education Such meetings permit issues to be openly addressed that might otherwise remain below the surface and have negative impacts 3 Encourage the creation of positions requiring strong IT backgrounds in client departments and then cultivate these individuals as allies as well as knowledgeable critics 4 Work with interested academic leadership to de velop pilot or demonstration projects illustrating effective utilization of IT in teaching research and academic admin istration Reengineering for IT Units 29 Be a Knowledge Seeker and Technology Transfer Agent If an institution is to have information available as needed it must build a corporate database and provide broadbased access to it The systems architecture will vary from place to place but some pertinent common database characteristics exist They include 0 easily accessible uptodate summary information that relates to seniorlevel decisionmaking 0 easily usable programs which allow exploration of suc cessively greater levels of detail from the summary level down to data elements 0 longitudinal comparison data 0 integrated subsystems which accommodate crossfunc tional analysis 0 routine operational reports available online 0 operational reports and access mechanisms designed to support clientcustomer service by frontline workers 0 reasonably straightforward ad hoc retrieval and report generation capabilities and 0 the capability to do ad hoc statistical analysis on subsets of the database The development of a corporate database will require some institutions to modify current practices by opening access to all who have a need to know moving to the concept of data custodians rather than data owners and probably emphasizing the need for privacy security and overall data management practices to far more people across the organization This may well cause initial nervousness but it opens the door for processes and procedures to be examined in a new light and for longheld assumptions to be totally reformulated True transformation is not possible without movements such as these One way to seek knowledge is through experimentation Even in the tightest of budgetary situations it is important for IT units to explore the usefulness of new products and new approaches to existing processes Through such experimen tation and sharing of results both positive and negative IT units can play an important role forthe institution In many cases it is much easier for IT units to gain access to new technology fortest purposes than it is for other campus units This can be done by setting up demonstration labs containing both hardware and software securing shortterm loans of equipment being an alpha or beta test site or by entering into partnership agreements with technology vendors Another way to seek knowledge is through communica tion with other knowledge seekers Any college or university campus is full of such opportunities The IT unit needs to be aware of as many researchers innovative instructors and creative administrative personnel as possible to encourage and support them in their efforts and to help publicize their findings Where feasible forming internal partnerships with such people will almost assuredly result in associations that are mutually attractive and sometimes useful to the entire campus community 30 REENGINEERING Part of the role of technology transfer agent has already been addressed widely publicizing results from IT unit experimentation and helping to publicize others findings Some other actions include 0 sponsoring oncampus vendor demonstrations or work shops 0 sharing materials and presenting concepts from seminars short courses or workshops that IT staff have attended 0 setting up an IT library which may well contain publica tions not available in campus libraries 0 including in the annual IT tactical plan a list of the most significant IT trends and 0 providing an ongoing education and training program that addresses needs related to the campus IT infrastruc ture Playing the part of technology transfer agent with inter ested involved and excited people is fun Another signifi cant aspect of the role however is in providing encourage ment to those who lag behind They may be technophobic have opposing philosophical ideas lack resources work for someone who does not like technology or a host of other reasons Whatever the cause may be the IT unit or depending on the individual the CIO or IT champion must find a leverto help move those who lag along the scale Such people may never become enthusiasts but they must de velop competency ifthey areto be functional in a reengineered workplace Methods to accomplish this must be tailored to the specific situation and person and may well tax the leadership skills of the technology transfer agent One final technology transfer mechanism is to form networks designed for that purpose A network of those involved in technological experimentation might be useful A network whose members are asked to scan and share pertinent information from one or more publications could reduce the time required by IT professionals to quotkeep up A help network designed for those who lag behind might be one way to bring them along by offering an electronic less personal means of asking questions and getting answers without embarrassment Communicate within the IT Unit and with the Institution The importance of linkingthe IT plan with the institution s strategic plan has already been stressed When that is done properly the IT plan then becomes a significant communi cation vehicle and should be publicized and widely distrib uted All academic and administrative units should get a copy and copies should be available for any other interested individual A wide distribution requires that it be readable not full of technological jargon that it be relatively short not more than ten to twelve pages and that it contain mid term threetofiveyear campus IT goals and current year objectives This provides people with a picture of where the campus is going through the use of technology and what to expect immediately The tenor of the plan should be ambi tious but realistic in light of identified resources It should never have a pieinthesky tone or it will not be taken seriously The bottom line is to tell people up front what is going to be done and then do it It takes only a few cycles of quotsaying and doing for the IT plan to become an important campuswide communication document Once a planning process is in place it is important for as many people as possible to understand how the plans will be implemented and how planning and management are re lated If an institutional strategic planning and management model is used the connections are easy to make Goals in unit plans roll up and contribute to tactical plan goals which in turn roll up into strategic plan goals Goals at each level spawn objectives and then from unit level objectives individual work plans are derived which provide coordi nated guidance for the year s activities It is essential to understand that the process does not set plans in concrete They can and usually do change when opportunities occur or crises arise but the changes are coordinated so that progress toward stated aims is maintained The communication process is significantly enhanced by a formal advisoryshared governance structure Often this is accomplished through a steering committee for IT policy and separate advisory committees for academic technology development administrative systems development and IT organization operations Through such a structure a con stant open line of communication can be maintained priori ties established hypotheses tested and plans developed Where an institutional strategic planning and manage ment model is not in place it is the responsibility of the CIO or champion to devise a system that will support the the IT plan Such systems will vary from school to school and from one major administrative unit to another based upon differ ing agreements between policy officers Although more difficult the task is not impossible The CIO or champion then needs to see that appropriate people in the academic and administrative divisions have a good understanding of the planning and management linkage in their respective units Having set forth a plan containing specific measurable objectives it is essential to account for the outcomes both tallying the completed objectives and broadly publicizing the results Additional steps are also useful Setting up a process that gauges client satisfaction can be a good public relations move and provide invaluable feedback at the same time The assessment of performance perception must be objectively conducted Most institutional research offices have the expertise and credibility to do this well Monthly assessments based on a statistically valid sample ofthe client population provide the best data but the process must be carefully managed to ensure adequate return rates over the long haul Whether satisfaction ratings are taken monthly quarterly or annually the results should be distributed to client groups with comparisons to past ratings Obviously if perceptions of performance are not satisfactory or have declined from past levels remedies must be applied Setting high standards and then measuring actual perfor mance against them is another way to establish criteria for excellence One methodology suggests that eight variables be chosen which taken together provide an overview of how well the unit is performing The actual performance of each variable can be plotted against the goal on a monthly chart This set of octographs can be given to the CIO execu tive officers oversight or advisory committees IT depart ment managers and other interested groups or individuals60 Variables which lend themselves to thistype ofmeasurement include uptime for online systems successfully completed jobs in batch processing response time for online systems the number of errors per unit of measurement for a variety of processes estimated hours of programming for service re quests statistics for network operation the proportion of IT tactical plan objectives that are on target etc The same variables which can readily be depicted with octographs are also good candidates for the application of total quality management techniques To attain the magni tude increases in quality called for in reengineering TQM or similar methodologies must be employed There is no better place to begin TQM than in a highly visible important area This commitment emphasizes the seriousness of the en deavor and as results become evident it provides a persua sive success story and generally guarantees recognition of the merits of TQM Much has been written in this section about publicizing results In fact many T units are not very good at doing that Information resources managementorganizations especially those with print units andor creative media units have distinct advantages over other IT organizations in this area Publications either printed or electronic need to have a professional look with reassuringly proficient format graph ics typography and color highlights T unit newsletters should be just that news letters They should contain articles of interest for their constituency and be carefully edited to avoid jargon where possible and to explain it in the few places it cannot be avoided The IT annual report can be one of the most effective communication pieces that is produced It should contain a lead article from the champion or CIO that stresses a theme and links the past year to the future highlights from each IT department a summary of IT accomplishments from across the campus and an articlethat tells how well T objectives were accomplished Octographs provide good graphics for an annual report The annual report should minimally be sent to the same mailing list as that of the IT tactical plan and perhaps to the newsletter mailing list Although meetings are the plague of most leaders and managers they can be effective means of communication Meetings that aid communications include 0 an annual retreat with primary clients 0 an annual report to the entire IT staff which includes a question and answer period 0 an annual meeting between the CIO or IT leader and each executive officer andor dean 0 an annual presentation to the academic senate Reengineering for IT Units 31 0 periodic meetings with policy or advisory committees where at least part of the agenda is open and 0 periodic meetings with individuals of influence Finally many of the networks previously discussed can sometimes be used effectively for communication purposes This use however must be judicious and be directly related to the purpose of the network Provide Solutions Now Accurate or not it is not uncommon for college and university executive officers to believe that many mid managers play budget games An example of this is where a manager proposes to complete a fairly elaborate project which is needed by the institution if and only if heshe receives a substantial budget augmentation An immediate executive officer reaction particularly in stringent fiscal times might be to wonder how much could be done without an augmentation by delaying other quotless important projects If 80 percent of the project could be completed how significant isthe remainingtwenty percent And why was the proposal not presented with some options Another perception that might be directed toward IT management is that solutions which could be developed through existingtechnology or with wellproven less expen sive technology are too often tied to the latest stateoftheart most expensive alternatives Such feelings by senior admin istrators must be completely put to rest ifan environment that supports transformation is to be built The only real way for IT leaders to gain and maintain credibility on issues of this nature is to provide solutions to institutional problems within the confines of the existing information technology infrastructure with allocated re sources This is notto saythatthetotal solution never requires additional money people equipment and software orthat one should nevertry to persuade senior administrators to get the very best Rather it is our bel iefthat producing with what you have in the long run is the single best way to gain new resources and to build an understanding ofthe strategic value of information systems Few institutions anywhere have taken full advantage of their own existing technology Most IT managers are aware of several circumstances where they could applytechnology to make a difference One of the first steps in reengineering is to take the initiative form an internal partnership with an application area and add functionality improve a process or implement a small system Forming a small unit perhaps by borrowing a few hours per week from IT knowledge workers with expertise in LANs desktop applications and major administrative systems that focuses on providing solutions to problems that have previously been ignored could have enormous benefit Many institutions have an accumulation of small problems which are never addressed that take a significant toll on overall productivity IT managers have long practiced the proven axiom of looking for high payoff opportunities that affect a significant part of the institution Moving to a common relational 32 REENGINEERING database across the campus instituting CASE methodolo gies andor object oriented programming for development integrating voice data and video into a campus backbone network providing graphical user interface frontend appli cations and installing major administrative application sys tems are common examples This must continue if reengi neering is to occur All of these examples are probably necessary to establish an IT infrastructure capable of sup porting transformation Nolan notes that executives must apply the lesson that technology drives transformation61 IT leaders must be in the forefront of those who make this point and too often have not been This may relate to computing managers having gained a reputation for promising more than automation could ever deliver which in turn led to acceptance of the idea that computing is just another tool to help students faculty and administrators do what they do faster and more efficiently It is now clear that information technology is far more than just another tool it is an enabling force62 In continuing to implement high payoff information technology projects IT leaders must lead the way to encour age simultaneous change in processes and procedures that can foster significant improvement in the quality of service One effective method for overcoming organizational resis tance and defensive reasoning which will surely occur is to persuadethe presidentchancellorto appointareengineering task force with membership from each executive officer area to study and make recommendations regarding the changes needed for true transformation The IT champion or CIO might play a role in the education of task force members regarding reengineering principles before they begin their work and an IT leader must be one of the task force members Part ofthe charge to a reengineering taskforce should be to generate as much support for these recommendations as possible A significant aspect of their work then is to carry the message of transformation to midmanagers and front line knowledge workers By stressing principles such as empowerment as well as sixsigma productivity increases reengineering can be a bottomup as well as a topdown process The greater bottomuptopdown balance that can be attained the quicker the transformation can occur If the reengineering task force members work well together and achieve reasonable success consideration should be given to the idea of converting the task force to a formal network and having their work continue indefinitely Most T units are now doing the kinds ofthings discussed in this section but very few are doing all of what has been suggested There may not be many IT organizations given the circumstances that most face who can committo quotdoing it all without incurring substantial risk But stepping up to take the risk really is part of what transformation is all about We must provide solutions now better solutions than we have historically provided and at the same time we must build for the future of our institution It is not easy It requires a very big commitment The commitment encompasses the IT unit but goes far beyond it If the decision to transform is made T units must willingly accept the inherent risks recognizing that there will also be risk and support by the entire institution Footnotes Section 3 57 Mario M Morino quotManaging and Coping with Change An IS Challenge journal of Information Systems Management Winter 1988pp7476 58 Ibid pp 76 77 59 Thomas J Sergiovanni quotAdding Value to Leadership Gets Extraordinary Results Educational Leadership May 1990 pp 23 24 60 Thomas Stuelpnagle quotOctograph Your Boss 50 You Want To Be President unpublished manuscript pp 89 100 61 Richard L Nolan quotToo Many Executives TodayJust Don t Get Itl CAUSEEFFECT Winter 1990 p 6 62James Penrod quotWhat Will It Take To Get It In Higher Education CAUSEEFFECT Winter 1990 p 14 Conclusion Reengineering requires different management from what we are accustomed to experiencing The new management must be primarily proactive as opposed to the more familiar reactionary style The process of transformation is the initia tion of a whole new order It will change all organizational units includingthe IT unit In a reengineered environ mentthe IT infrastructure is organic it is inseparable from application functions it becomes the nervous system for the total orga nization The IT unit will be responsible for the evolutionary design and development of the infrastructure It will also have ongoing responsibility shared with all other units for operation of the infrastructure In many ways colleges and universities may well have significant advantages over business and industry in reengineering Elements of an entrepreneurial organiza tional culture are already in place in many institutions especially in instructional and research segments of cam puses The organizational and decisionmaking structure particularly in large andor research universities may re semble the new order much more than in correspondingly complex business enterprises Certainly the idea of creating a learning organization with empowered people striving for creativity and innovation is congruent in a higher education setting On the other hand putting institutional mission before divisional or disciplinary priorities eliminating unnecessary programs and redistributing scarce resources reexamining and redefining long held assumptions finding new ways to measure what we do changing the parameters for the way leaders are selected and redefining the internal reward structure of the institution may prove to be very difficult to accomplish in any college or university The environmental factors are such that major change must come in higher education Hard decisions must be made and some of them will be painful Reengineering requires hard decisions and decisive actions but offers the hope of a new order At least one premier West Coast research university has considered the implications of embarking upon the road to transformation UCLA recently completed an eighteenmonth study to determine how to improve efficiency and the del ivery of services culminating in a report entitled Transform ing Administration at UCLA A Vision and Strategies for Sustaining Excellence in the 215t Century The report sets forth an aggressive reengineering agenda to move UCLA Reengineering for IT Units 33 from a bureaucratic environment to a network organization beginning in the spring ofI 992 UCLA Chancellor Charles E Young in a letter to the senior administrative staff which accompanied the report stated the following We must reassert that our fundamental missions are teaching research and public service And we must systematically reassess the activities of our support units which are so critical to the institution s success to improve our effectiveness in fulfilling our responsibili ties UCLA must become more agile and better able to respond quicklyto new challenges and changing priori ties We must encourage and reward creative thinking innovation initiative and responsible risktaking We must decentralize and empower employees at lower levels to act and reduce the practice ofdeferring routine decisionmaking to executive levels We must delegate more responsibility to department heads and hold them accountable We must reduce paperwork regulations and procedures We must encourage teamwork and collaboration within and across units We must reward contributions to institutional goals and reduce our ten dency toward parochialism In essence we must move away from a civil service culture and toward a more businesslike culture that stresses quality service and cost containment In pursu ing these goals we must rededicate ourselves to open ness and honesty and the free exchange of ideas that is the hallmark of a great public university And we must invest in our people We must devote more attention to employee growth and development within our organi zation and enable our people to make full use of their skills and abilities This is a promising perhaps barrierbreaking action by one of the great and most progressive public institutions in the world Hopefully others will soon follow and colleges and universities in the United States will be on their way to transforming higher education and leading our society into the informationservice economy of the next century IT leaders and managers must be among those at the forefront of the reengineering movement We believe that those who are notwill eventually be replaced Being an early leader requires the IT manager to reconceptualize his or her role in the organization We must answer the question of quotCan we survive with a resounding quotWe must survive ifthe institution is to thrive 34 REENGINEERING Bibliography Adler Paul S and Aaron Shenbar quotAdapting Your Technological Base The Organizational Challenge Sloan Management Review Fall 1990 pp 25 37 Ahituv Niv Dalia Even Tsur and Batami Sadan quotProcedures and Practices for Conducting Postevaluation of Information Sys tems journal of Information Systems Management Spring 1986 pp 61 65 Alfred Richard L and Marian Horowitz quotHigher Education and Public Perception Dynamics of Institutional Stature journal for Higher Education Management SummerFall 1990 pp 7 28 Alter Allan E quotThe Corporate Make Over CIO Magazine De cember 1990 pp 32 42 AIterowitz Ralph quotViewpoint AII Beginnings Are Hard journal for Higher Education Management SummerFall 1990 pp 77 82 Argyris Chris Overcoming Organizational Defenses Boston AI Iyn and Bacon 1990 Atkinson Robert A quotPositioning a Strategic Planning Initiative for Success journal of Information Systems Management Win ter 1991 pp 67 70 Bardo John W Robert H Ross and Esther L HeadIey quotMeasu ring AIumn i s Image of a Un iversity journal for Higher Education Management SummerFall pp 29 44 Bartlett Christopher A and Sumantra Ghoshal quotMatrix Manage ment Not a Structure a Frame of Mind Harvard Business Review JulyAugust 1990 pp 138 145 Beckhard Richard quotThe Executive Management of Transforma tional Change In Corporate Transformation Revitalizing Organizations fora Competitive World San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 Bennett John B quotCollegiality as Getting AIong AAHE Bulletin October 1991 pp 7 10 Berry Leonard L Valarie A Zeithaml and A Parasuraman quotFive Imperatives for Improving Service Quality Sloan Manage ment Review Summer 1990 pp 29 38 Bitran Gabriel R and Johannes Hoech quotThe Humanization of Service Respect at the Moment of Truth Sloan Management Review Winter 1990 pp 89 96 Block Peter The Empowered Manager San Francisco Jossey Bass 1987 Bole Giles G Jr et aI Enhancing Quality in an Era of Resource Constraints Ann Arbor Mich University ofMichigan March 1990 BonafieId Christine quotNetworking the Networks Communica tions Week 8 October 1990 pp 20 28 Braybrooke D and C E Lindblom A Strategy of Decision GIencoe III Free Press 1963 Breinn Richard D D M Clarke J Cronin T Ehrlich D N Langenberg H McAninch D C Swain quotTransforming Higher Education in the Information Age Presidents Respond CAUSE EFFECT Fall 1991 pp 6 12 BrindIey Lynne J quotInformation Technology and Its Potential to Transform KPMG Peat Marwick Management Issues Febru ary1991 p 3 Brown John Seer quotResearch That Reinvents the Corporation Harvard Business Review January February 1991 pp 102 111 Bryson John M Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Orga nizations San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 Cage Mary Crystal quot30 States Cut Higher Education Budgets by an Average of 39 in Fiscal 1990 91 The Chronicle oingher Education 26 June 1991 pp 1 17 California State UniversityLos Angeles199192 Strategic Plan for Information Resources Management 1992 Carter Margaret V quotSurvey Studies Executive Compensation Perks at Colleges and Universities Management Issues June 1990 pp 7 8 Cetron Marvin J and Margaret Evans Gayle quotEducational Renais sance 43 Trends for US Schools The Futurist September October 1990 pp 33 40 Cetron Marvin J Wanda Rocha and Rebecca Luckins quotInto the 21 st Century Long Term Trends Affecting the United States The Futurist July August 1988 pp 29 40 Chaffee EIIen Earle Total Quality Management A Guide to the North Dakota University System 19911992 Publications Services Office North Dakota State University 1991 Champy James quotOrganizational Revisionism CIO Magazine December 1990 p 20 Charan Ram quotHow Networks Reshape Organizations For Re sults Harvard Business Review September October 1991 pp 104 105 Charp Sylvia quotThe Basic Principles of Networking THEjournal April 1988 pp 94 98 Chikofsky EIIiotJ andJames H Cross II quotReverse Engineering and Design Recovery A Taxonomy IEEE Software January 1990 pp 13 17 Coate L Edwin quotTQM on Campus Nacubo Business Officer November 1990 pp 26 35 Coopers amp Lybrand quotInnovative Financial Strategies for Colleges and Universities American Council of Education and the Council of Independent Colleges March 1986 pp 7 12 Cyert Richard M quotDefining Leadership and Explaining the Pro cess NonprofitManagementamp Leadership Fall 1990 pp 32 36 Davenport Thomas H and James E Short quotThe New Industrial Engineering Information Technology and Business Process Redesign Sloan ManagementReview Summer 1990 pp 1 1 27 Dearden John quotThe Withering Away ofthe IS Organization Sloan Management Review Summer 1987 pp 87 91 Delisi Peter S quotLessons from the Steel Axe Culture Technology and Organizational Change Sloan Management Review Fall 1990 pp 82 84 Dolence Michael G quotEvaluation Criteria for an Enrollment Man agement Program Planning for Higher Education 18 no 1 1989 90 1 Dolence Michael G Derek H Miyahara John Grajeda and Christopher Rapp quotStrategic Enrollment Management and Planning Planning for Higher Education 16 no 3 1987 88 55 Donovan John J quotBeyond Chief Information Officer to Network Man ager Harvard Business Review SeptemberOctober 1 988 pp 134 140 Drummond Marshall E Douglas Vinzant and Wayne Praeder Payingfor your Vision Integratingthe Planning and Budget ing Process CAUSEEFFECT Fall 1991 pp 21 27 Eccles Robert G quotThe Performance Measurement Manifesto Harvard Business Review JanuaryFebruary 1991 pp 131 137 Erkkila John and Brendan Murphy quotStrategic information An economic analysis and case study Information Management REVIEW Winter 1989 pp 25 36 Ernst amp Young quotThe Landmark MIT Study Management in the 19905 Chicago 1989 Ewing Tom quot10 MIS Megatrends A Road Map for Strategic Planning InformationWeek 19 January 1987 pp 26 43 quotFinancial Management Justifying Strategic MIS Projects Com puter Economics May 1990 pp 5 6 Forcht Karen A quotDefining Ethical Standards for the Information Age ISPNews MarchApril 1991 pp 31 33 Ford Larry J quotUsing Information Strategically IBM Roadmap for the 19905 IBM Customer Briefing Beverly Hills Calif 9 November 1990 Bibliography35 Frank Howard quotManaging networks versus networking manage ment NetworkingManagement December 1989 pp 62 63 Friend David quotBenefits of an executive information system Information Management REVIEW Winter 1989 pp 7 15 Gabor Andrea Deming s Quality Manifesto Best of Business Quarterly Winter 1990 91 pp 6 10 Gardner Catherine Timothy R Warner and Rick Biedenweg quotStanford and the Railroad Change NovemberDecember 1990 pp 23 27 Gardner John W quotLeadership and the Future The Futurist May June1990 pp 9 12 Garvin David A quotCompeting on the Eight Dimensions of Quality Harvard Business Review November December 1987 pp 104 108 Gauthier Michael R and John G Sifonis quotManaging Information Technology Investments in the 19905 Bulletin ofthe Ameri can Society for Information Science JuneJuly 1990 pp 16 19 George Joey F and John L King quotExamining the Computing and Centralization Debate Communications of the ACM July 1991 pp 62 72 Gilder George quotInto the Telecosm Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1991 pp 150 161 Gitlow Howard S and Shelly J Gitlow The Deming Guide to Quality and Competitive Position Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall Inc 1987 Glick Milton D quotIntegrating Computing into Higher Education EDUCOM Review Summer 1990 pp 35 38 Gmelch Walter H and Rita G Seedorf quotAcademic Leadership Under Siege The Ambiguity and Imbalance of Department Chairs journal for Higher Education Management Summer Fall 1989 pp 37 44 Gold Bela quotCharting a Course to Superior Technology Evalua tion Sloan Management Review Fall 1988 pp 19 27 Goodman Paul S Lee S Sproull and Associates Technology and Organizations San Francisco Jossey Bass 1990 Goold Michael and Andrew Campbell quotBrief Case Pitfalls of Planning Long Range Planning 23 no 3 1990 106 107 Gralla Preston quotA Rock and a Hard Place CIO Magazine October 1988 pp 47 52 Grassmuck Karen From The Chronicle of Higher Education 28 March 1990 Quoted in William F Massy quotThe Lattice and the Ratchet The Pew Higher Education Research Program Pew Policy Perspectives 2 no 4 June 1990 2 Gunner Holly quotCompetitive information strategy Managingtoday s market and strategic information New wine in old bottles Information Management REVIEW Spring 1988 pp 67 70 36 REENGINEERING Hammer Michael quotReengineering Work Don t Automate Oblit erate Harvard Business Review July August 1990 pp 104 1 12 quotReengineering Your Business ATampT Computer Sys tems Symposium 2 April 1990 Hahn Dietger quotStrategic Management Tasks and Challenges in the 19905 Long Range Planning 24 no 1 1991 26 39 Hart Christopher WL James L Heskett and W Earl Sasser Jr quotSoothing the Savage Customer Best of Business Quarterly Winter 1990 91 pp 14 20 quotThe Profitable Art of Service Recovery Harvard Business Review July August 1990 pp 148 156 Hayward Mark quotWhat 1988 s Managers Must Know about Tech nology Business Software Review January 1988 pp 41 42 Helms R M quotIntroduction to image technology IBM Systems journal 29 no 3 1990 313 333 Henderson John C quotPlugging into Strategic Partnerships The Critical IS Connection Sloan Management Review Spring 1990 pp 7 18 Howard Robert quotValues Make the Company An Interview with Robert Haas Harvard Business Review SeptemberOctober 1990 pp 133 144 sachsen Olaf Management The Opportunity Coronado Calif The Institute for Management Development 1990 Jessup Leonard and Sal Kukalis quotBetter Planning Using Group Support Systems Long Range Planning23 no 3 1990 100 105 Johnston William B Global Work Force 2000 The New World Labor Market Harvard Business Review March April 1991 pp 115 127 Kador John quotThe Paths to Executive Support Information Center December 1989 pp 22 27 Kanter Jerry quotInformation Literacy for the CEO journal of Infor mation Systems Management Winter 1988 pp 52 57 quotNew Tools New Rules Information Strategy The Executive s journal Winter 1990 pp 51 54 Kanter Rosabeth Moss The Change Masters Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the American Corporation New York Simon amp Schuster Inc 1983 quotSummaries from The Planning Forum s International Conference in Washington DC April 29 May 2 The Plan ning Forum Network July 1990 pp 1 2 quotTranscending Business Boundaries 12000 World Managers View Ch an ge Harvard Business Review May June 1991 pp 151 164 Karten Naomi quotThe diplomacy of training Communications Week 9 July 1990 Keck Colleen A quotInformation as Property A Case Comment Patent World September 1987 p 28 32 Keller George Academic Strategy The ManagementRevqution in American Higher Education Baltimore and London Johns Hopkins University Press 1983 Keller George and Ann McCreery quotMaking Difficult Educational Decisions Findings from Research and Experience Paper presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Society for College and University Planning 31 July 1990 Kennedy Paul M quotPreparing for the 21st Century The Planning Forum Network June 1991 pp 2 6 Kiely Thomas Diebold New World CIO June 1991 pp 85 90 Kilmann Ralph H Teresa Joyce Covin and Associates Corporate Transformation Revitalizing Organizations for a Competitive World San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 King William R and T S Raghunathan quotHow Strategic Is Infor mation Systems Planning Datamation 15 November 1987 pp 133 137 Konstadt Paul quotFrom Big Bangto Big T CIOMagazine February 1991 pp 62 68 Koontz Katy quotSix Ways to Motivate Your Staff Sourcebook Summer 1990 pp 22 29 Kotter John P quotWhat Leaders Really Do Harvard Business Review MayJune 1990 pp 103 111 Krass Peter quotAre You Getting What You re Worth Infor mationWeek 15 April 1991 pp 44 52 quotBuilding a Better Mousetrap InformationWeek 25 March 1991 pp 24 30 MIS Execs Reengineering Is Top Priority InformationWeek 3 December 1990 p 13 Langfitt Thomas W quotThe Cost of Higher Education Change NovemberDecember 1990 pp 8 15 Layne Richard quotThe World According to Mike Hammer InformationWeek 3 July 1989 pp 36 38 Lee John Y JIT works for services too CMA Magazine July August 1990 pp 20 23 Leibs Scott quotThe Ultimate Interface InformationWeek 25 June 1990 pp 46 48 Lewis Brenda quotMarketing success in the 19905 Characteristics of an intel l igent corporation Information ManagementRE VIE W Spring 1990 pp 15 22 Lockwood Russ quotThe Electronic Office Personal Computing 25 May 1990 pp 74 82 Madron Thomas W quotEnterprise Computing in Higher Education THE journal June 1991 pp 60 65 Mainelli Michael R and David R Miller quotStrategic Planning for Information Systems at British Rail Long Range Planning21 no 4 1988 65 75 Makens James C quotYield Management Pricing Strategy of the 905 Marriott s PORTFOLIO NovemberDecember 1989 pp 14 18 March James G editor Handbook of Organizations Chicago Rand McNaIIy 1965 March James G and Herbert A Simon Organizations New York John Wiley 1958 Marchand Donald A MR interview Mike Hammer Information Management REVIEW2 no 4 1987 83 90 quotInfotrends A 19905 outlook on strategic information management Information Management REVIEW 5 no 4 1990 23 32 Massy William F quotA Strategy for Productivity Improvement In College and University Academic Departments Presented at the Forum for Postsecondary Governance Santa Fe NM October 1989 quotThe Lattice and the Ratchet The Pew Higher Educa tion Research Program Pew Policy Perspectives 2 no4 June 1990 1 8 McFarlan F Warren quotKeynote speech for the 1991 Information Resources Management Association International Conference in Memphis Tenn May 1991 Information Resources Man agementournal Fall 1991 pp 39 41 27 McNaught Jay quotThirty Seven More Ways to Improve Training Information Center August 1990 pp 19 23 Melchiori Gerlinda S quotManaging Institutional Image journal for Higher Education Management SummerFall 1990 pp 45 58 Meyer Gary quotThe Best Laid Plans Information Strategy The Executive s journal Winter 1990 pp 32 37 Mintzberg Henry quotThe Effective Organization Forces and Forms Sloan Management Review Winter 1991 pp 54 67 Moad Jeff quotMiles To Go Datamation 15 March 1991 pp 62 65 Morino Mario M quotManaging and Coping with Change An IS Challenge journal of Information Systems Management Winter 1988 pp 74 76 Morison Robert E quotBeyond Centralized and Decentralized IS Virtual Centralization Information Strategy The Executive s journal Spring 1991 pp 5 1 1 Morril Richard quotHow to Manage Value Conflict Management Issues September 1990 pp 1 4 Morton Michael S Scott The Corporation of the 19905 Informa tion Technology and Organizational Transformation New York Oxford University Press 1991 Bibliography 37 Murphy David E and Louis C Stamatakos quotUniversity wide Planning as an Integrative Decision making Endeavor jour nalfor Higher Education Management SummerFall 1989 pp 27 35 Neumann Anna and Estela M Bensimon quotConstructing the Presidency journal of Higher Education NovemberDecem ber 1990 pp 678 701 Nolan Richard L quotToo Many Executives Today Just Don t Get It CAUSEEFFECT Winter 1990 pp 5 1 1 Nonaka Ikujiro quotToward Middle Up Down Management Accel erating Information Creation Sloan Management Review Spring 1988 pp 9 18 O Shea Timothy J quotA Piecemeal EIS Is Better Than No EIS Information Strategy The Executive s journal Fall 1989 pp 30 34 Oman Ray C and Tyrone Ayers quotProductivity and benefit cost analysis for information technology decisions Information Management REVIEW Winter 1988 pp 31 41 Paller Alan quotExecutive Information Systems Carve New Paths Through the Information Forest Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science AprilMay 1990 pp 28 29 Parasuraman A Leonard L Berry and Valarie A Zeithaml quotUnderstanding Customer Expectations of Service Sloan Management Review Spring 1991 pp 39 47 Pearson Andrall E quotIdeas From Tough Minded Ways to Get nnovative Harvard Business Review MayJune 1988 pp 99 106 Penrod James I quotSpecial Report to the Ad Hoc Task Force on Reengineering Work Flow at CSLA June 1990 quotWhat Will It Take To Get It In Higher Education CAUSEEFFECT Winter 1990 p 14 Penrod James and Michael G Dolence quotConcepts for Reengineering Higher Education CAUSEEFFECT Summer 1991p 10 Penrod James and Thomas W West quotStrategic Planning for Computing and Communications In Organizing andManag ing Information Resources on Campus McKinney Texas Academic Computing Publishers Inc 1989 Performance Research Associates quotThe Top 10 Barriers to Service The Sourcebook Fall 1990 pp 28 Porter Michael E Competitive Strategy New York The Free Press 1980 The Competitive Advantage of Nations Glencoe ll Free Press 1990 Postman Neil quotSix Things Worth Knowing about Technology CAUSEEFFECT Fall 1991 pp 46 48 38 REENGINEERING Purcell F J quotTaming of the Paperwork Monster Information Center June 1990 pp 25 27 Quinn James Brian and Penny C Paquette quotTechnology in Services Creating Organizational Revolutions Sloan Man agement Review Winter 1990 pp 67 77 Quinn James Brian Thomas L Doorley and Penny C Paquette quotTechnology in Services Rethinking Strategic Focus Sloan Management Review Winter 1990 pp 79 87 Raimond Paul and Colin Eden quotMaking Strategy Work Long Range Planning October 1990 pp 97 105 quotRe engineering for business success ATampT Dataine Spring 1990 p 4 Reimann Bernard C quotChallenging Conventional Wisdom Corpo rate Strategies That Work Planning Review September October 1991 pp 38 45 Rathswohl Eugene J quotInformation Resource Management and the End User Some Implications for Education Information Resources Management journal Summer 1990 pp 2 7 Roach Stephen S quotServices Under Siege The Restructuring Im perative Harvard Business Review September October 1 991 p 91 Rockart John F quotChief executives define their own data needs Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1979 pp 81 93 quotThe Line Takes the Leadership IS Management in a Wired Society Sloan Management Review Summer 1988 pp 57 64 Rockart John F and James E Short quotThe Networked Organization and the Management of Interdependence In The Corporation of the 19905 Information and Organizational Transformation New York Oxford University Press 1991 pp 212 215 Rodgers T J quotNo Excuses Management Harvard Business Re view JulyAugust 1990 pp 84 98 Romei Lura K quotManaging the Changing Workforce Modern Office Technology October 1990 pp 75 78 Rosen Larry D and Michelle M Weil quotComputers Classroom Instruction and the Computerphobic University Student Collegiate Microcomputer November 1990 p 281 Rosen Larry D Deborah C Sears and Michelle M Weil Computerphobia Behavior Research Methods Instruments and Computers 19 no 2 1987 167 179 Rosen Larry D and Phyllisann Maguire quotMyths and Realities of Computerphobia A Meta Analysis AnXietyResearch3 1990 1 75 1 91 Rosenthal Stephen R and Harold Salzman quotHard Choices about Software The Pitfalls of Procurement Sloan Management Review Summer 1990 pp 81 91 Rosser James M and James I Pen rod quotComputing and Libraries A Partnership Past Due CAUSEEFFECT Summer 1 990 pp 21 24 Rubin Michael Rogers quotStrategic planning in an information economy Information Management REVIEW Fall 1985 pp 47 54 Runyan Linda quot40 Years on the Frontier Datamation 15 March 1991 pp 34 57 Russell Leland A Handbook for the Future Irvine Calif Innova Group 1990 Sakamoto Shigeyasu quotProcess Design Concept A New Approach to IE Industrial Engineering March 1989 pp 31 32 Sanoff Alvin P and Sharon F Golden quotRemapping American culture US News amp World Report 4 December 1989 pp 60 64 Schaffer Robert H quotDemand Better Results And Get Them Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1991 pp 142 149 Schaffer Susan M quotThe Case for Management NACUBO Busi ness Officer 24 no 10 pp 36 37 Schein Edgar H quotA General Philosophy of Helping Process Con sultation Sloan Management Review Spring 1990 pp 57 64 quotComing to a New Awareness of Organizational Cul ture Sloan Management Review Winter 1984 Schlesinger Leonard A and James L Heskett quotThe Service Driven Company Harvard Business Review September October 1991 p 74 Senge Peter M quotThe Leader s New Work Building Learning Organizations Sloan Management Review Fall 1990 pp 7 23 The Fifth Discipline The Art amp Practice of the Learning Organization DoubledayCurrency New York 1990 Sergiovanni Thomas J quotAdding Value to Leadership Gets Extraor dinary Results Educational Leadership May 1990 pp 23 24 quotLeadership and Preparing Educational Leaders Mary Ann Alia Distinguished Lecture California State University Los Angeles School of Education 24 September 1991 Shirley Robert C quotStrategic Planning An Overview Successful Strategic Planning Case Studies New Directions for Higher Education No 64 San Francisco Jossey Bass 1988 Simon H A Administrative Behavior New York Macmillan 1957 Sirkin Harold and George Stalk Jr quotFix the Process Not the Problem Harvard Business Review JulyAugust 1990 pp 26 33 Slear Tom quotTechnology of the 905 What s Next USAir Maga zine March 1991 pp 81 91 Slevin Dennis P and Jeffrey C Covin quotJuggling Entrepreneurial Style and Organizational Structure How to Get Your Act Together Sloan Management Review Winter 1990 pp 43 53 Smith Peter Beyond Budgets Changing for the Better Educa tional Record Spring 1991 p 26 Spector Bert A quotFrom Bogged Down to Fired Up Inspiring Organizational Change Sloan Management Review Sum mer 1989 pp 29 34 Sproull Lee and Sara Kiesler Connections New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization Cambridge Mass MIT Press 1 991 Stanton Robert O quotThe evolving role of the information profes sional in industry Information Management REVIEW Fall 1989 pp 13 18 Stegwee Robert A and Ria MC Van Waes quotThe Development of Information Systems Planning Towards a Mature Management Tool Information Resources Management journal Summer 1990 pp 8 21 Stewart Doug quotInterview with Shoshana Zuboff OMNI April 1991 pp 66 70 88 94 Strauss Paul S quotNew Themes Already Emerging for 1 9905 Office Systems 90 December 1990 pp 44 50 Stuelpnagle Thomas Octograph Your Boss So You Want To Be President unpublished manuscript pp 89 100 Sullivan Cornelius H Jr quotThe Changing Approach to Systems Planning journal of Information Systems Management Sum mer 1988 pp 8 13 Taylor Robert S quotInformation values in decision contexts Infor mation Management REVIEW Summer 1985 pp 47 56 Toffler Alvin PowerShift Knowledge Wealth and Violence atthe Edge ofthe2 1st Century New York Bantam Books November 1 990 Umbaugh Robert E quotA Board of Directors for Information Ser vices Information Strategy The Executive s journal Spring 1987 pp 25 31 United Way Strategic Institute quotNine Forces Reshaping America The Futurist July August 1990 pp 9 16 University of CaliforniaLos Angeles Transforming Administration at UCLA A Vision and Strategies for Sustaining Excellence in the 21st Century 1991 Venkatraman N quotIT Induced Business Reconfiguration In The Corporation of the 19905 Information Technology and Orga nizational Transformation New York Oxford University Press 1 991 Bibliography 39 Von Simson Ernest M quotThe Centrally Decentralized IS Organiza tion Harvard Business Review JulyAugust 1990 pp 158 162 Vrakking WJ quotThe Innovative Organization Long Range Plan ning April 1990 pp 94 101 Wallace Patricia quotColleges Should Develop New Ways to Meet the Training Needs of Business The Chronicle of Higher Education 19 December 1990 p A36 Walsh Thomas quotDo a data center makeover Computerworld 9 July 1990 pp 91 92 Whitaker Gilbert R et al Enhancing Quality in an Era of Resource Constraints Report of the Task Force on Costs in Higher Education Ann Arbor Mich University of Michigan 1990 Webster James L William E Reif and Jeffrey S Bracker quotThe Manager s Guideto Strategic Planning Tools and Techniques Planning Review NovemberDecember 1989 pp 4 13 Weil Michelle M Larry D Rosen and Deborah C Sears quotThe Computerphobia Reduction Program Year 1 Program devel opment and preliminary results Behavior Research Methods Instruments amp Computers 19 no 2 1987 180 184 Wellins Richard 5 William C Byham and Jeanne M Wilson Empowering Teams San Francisco Jossey Bass 1991 Weinman Eliot D quotThe Promise of Software Reengineering Information Week 22 April 1991 pp 32 40 Weissman Julie quotInstitutional Image Assessment and Modification in Colleges and Universities journal for Higher Education Management SummerFall 1990 pp 65 75 Weitzel John R quotStrategic information management Targeting information for organizational performance Information Management REVIEW Summer 1987 pp 9 19 Weitzen H Skip Infopreneurs Turn data into dollars Informa tion Management REVIEW Summer 1989 pp 9 21 West Thomas W quotBeing Lean and Meaningful in the 19905 CAUSEEFFECT Fall 1991 pp 3 5 Winkler Connie quotAn Illuminating CEO CIOAlliance Datamation 15 August 1990 pp 80 82 Woodsworth Anne quotComputing Centers and Libraries as Cohorts Exploiting Mutual Strengths Computing Electronic Publish ing and Information Technology 1988 pp 21 34 Zemsky Robert and William F Massy quotCost Containment Com mitting to a New Economic Reality Change November December 1990 pp 16 22 Zuboff Shoshana quotCan Research Reinvent the Corporation Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1991 pp 164 175 In the Age of the Smart Machine New York Basic Books Inc 1988 40 REENGINEERING Company Profile Involvement in Higher Education Range of Services Coopers 8 Lybrand Coopers amp Lybrand is among the largest firms of professional consultants and accountants in the world As part of an international partnership the firm is repre sented in 100 nations and has a combined worldwide strength of over 64000 partners and staff In its 94year history Coopers amp Lybrand has maintained its leadership position through its ability to anticipate and respond to the needs of its clients The firm s industryfocused approach to the delivery of services is a key factor in its success By any objective measure Coopers amp Lybrand is the nationally recognized advisor to higher education The firm serves as the auditor and business advisor to many of the most prominent institutions of higher learning in America Coopers amp Lybrand audits hundreds of institutions including seven of the eight Ivy League schools and nine of the top ten private research universities Coopers amp Lybrand is also the acknowledged leader in higher education consulting offering services clustered around six critical areas Information Technology Human Resources Financial Management Account ing and Tax Operations and Productivity Facilities Management and Governance Organization and Planning Information technology is one of the key engines that directly support the learning research and administrative functions of the institution Rising costs changing tech nology and the increasing use and sophistication of software make the effective selection and use of computers a key management decision Coopers amp Lybrand has helped colleges and universities improve data and systems security as well as design and successfully implement a wide variety of management information systems and has worked with clients at every point in the systems life cycle Information technology services include Information Technology Audit and Security Services Technology Planning Decision Support Systems Application Readiness Assessments Computer Security Systems Planning and Implementation Database Development Networks and Communications Intellectual Property Chargeback Cost Accounting Systems Integration Coopers amp Lybrand has assembled a team of experienced information technology consultants who work with colleges and universities on a fulltime basis The firm also has consultants who are specialists in enabling technologies such as Database Management Systems DBMS FourthGeneration Languages 4GLs Expert Systems Voice Data and Image Networks Image Processing Electronic Data Interchange EDI These consultants bring a thorough understanding of the full systems development life cycle including planning requirements definition design development testing con version and implementation The firm has reviewed and improved business processes and technology for registrars bursars financial aid directors admissions officers academic advisors and alumni associations Listed below are some examples of how Coopers amp Lybrand has helped its higher education clients improve their use of technology 0 Conducted numerous operations reviews of college information sys tems departments to help identify opportunities for improving infor mation management 0 Provided extensive functional and technical assistance for the imple mentation of administrative packages 0 Integrated Total Quality Management TQM and Business Process Redesign BPR with application software implementation projects 0 Implemented financial decision support systems to improve budget management and planning 0 Developed comprehensive administrative systems requirements and information and business models to help colleges and universities select and implement application software 0 Assessed the information technology organization and skills mix 0 Provided information security risk assessment and control review Coopers amp Lybrand s consulting teams have broad experience in planning for and implementing complex administrative systems The company s proven methodology for systems development and implementation SUMMITTM can be specifically tailored to meet its college and university clients needs Coopers amp Lybrand offers its clients the right combination of higher education technical and project management skills needed to get the job done Corporate Sponsor Pro le 41 Recent Activity Coopers amp Lybrand a CAUSE member since 7983 has participated annually at the CAUSE national conference through vendor presentations and refreshment break sponsorships and funded the publication of CAUSE Profes sional Paper 5 Information Security in Higher Education Contacts Clark L Bernard Joel W Meyerson John H Duffy Sean C Rush John Cassella at Coopers amp Lybrand One Post Office Square Boston Massachusetts 02109 617 5745000 f W v Professional Paper Series 1 A Single System Image An Information Systems Strategy by Robert C Heterick jr Strategic planning for information systems with a description of compo nents needed to purvey an institution s information resources as though they were delivered from a single integrated system Funded by Digital Equipment Corporation 22 pages 1 988 8 members 16 nonmembers 2 Information Technology Can It All Fit Proceedings of the Current Issues Forum at the 1988 CAUSE National Conference Three presentations from the Current Issues Forum at CAUSE88 where Paige Mulhollan Wright State University President advocated highly centralized management of information resources Robert Scott Vice President for Finance at Harvard University discussed factors that led to a decentralized approach at Harvard and Thomas W West Assistant Vice Chancellorfor Computing and Communications Resources at The Califor nia State University System explored alternative models Funded by IBM Corporation 17 pages 1989 8 members 16 nonmembers 3 An Information Technology Manager s Guide to Campus Phone Operations by Gene T Sherron A primer approach outlining major issues in telecommunications facing campuses today The paper includes a description of the basic components of campus phone operations switch options financing considerations management systems telephones wiring and ISDN and a brief consideration of some of the management issues ofa telecom munications organization Funded by Northern Telecom 26 pages 1990 8 members 16 nonmembers 4 The Chief Information Officer in Higher Education by james I Penrod Michael G Dolence and judith V Douglas An overview of the chief information officer concept in higher education including the results of a survey conducted by the authors in 1989 The authors provide an extensive literature review including a discussion of industry surveys and a bibliography of over 140 books and articles Their survey results are included in the appendix Funded by Deloitte amp Touche 42 pages 1990 8 members 16 nonmembers 5 Information Security in Higher Education by Raymond Elliott Michael Young Vincent Collins David Frawley and M Lewis Temares Some of the key issues relating to information security on campus based on indepth interviews conducted by the authors at selected higher education institutions Includes findings and observations about informa tion security awareness policies administration control issues and concerns as well as risk assessment and the role of auditors and consult ants in information security design review and testing Funded by Coopers amp Lybrand 26 pages 1991 8 members 16 nonmembers 6 Open Access A User Information System by Bernard W Gleason Design concepts and principles for a user information system providing open and easy access to information resources for administrators faculty and students based on the author s experiences at Boston College Addresses many of the organizational managerial social and political forces and issues that are consequences of an open access strategy on campus Funded by Apple Computer Inc 24 pages 1991 8 members 16 nonmembers 7 People and Process Managing the Human Side of Information Technology Application by an A Baltzer An examination of the management structures and approaches that can make the application of new technology successful Focuses on research and writings of management and communication professionals on orga nizational culture managing change enduser focus attention to detail and the importance of fun The author shares experiences of the Maricopa Community Colleges in these processes Funded by Digital Equipment Corporation 30 pages 1991 8 members 16 nonmembers 8 Sustaining Excellence in the 21st Century A Vision and Strategies for College and University Administration by Richard N Katz and Richard P West A discussion of a quotnetwork organization vision which the authors see as a necessary response of colleges and universities to challenges of the 19905 Strategies set forth in this paper support an informationintensive modern higher education institution requiring increasingly sophisticated leadership and an administrative infrastructure which is optimized for service speed quality and productivity Funded by the IBM Corporation 22 pages 1992 8 members 16 nonmembers 9 Reengineering A Process for Transforming Higher Education by james I Penrod and Michael G Dolence An overview of the principles and processes of reengineering transforma tion to move higher education enterprises into the new information service economy Includes a review of philosophies already widely used in business applications in higher education and implications of reengineering for information technology units Funded by Coopers amp Lybrand 32 pages 1992 8 members 16 nonmembers Order these publications via mail fax telephone or email CAUSE 0 4840 Pearl East Circle Suite 302E 0 Boulder CO 80301 Fax 3034400461 0 Phone3034494430 0 EmailordersCAUSEcoloradoedu CAUSE is a nonprofit professional association whose mission is to promote effective planning management development and evaluation of computing and information technologies in colleges and universities and to help individual member representatives develop as professionals in the field of information technology management in higher education Incorporated in 1971 the association serves its membership of nearly 1000 campuses and 2700 individuals from the CAUSE national headquarters at Suite 302E 4840 Pearl East Circle Boulder Colorado 80301 For further information phone 303 4494430 or send electronic mail to infoCAUSEcoloradoedu CAUSE is an Equal Opportunity Employer and is dedicated to a policy that fosters mutual respect and equality for all persons The association will take affirmative action to ensure that it does not discriminate on the basis of age color religion creed disability marital status veteran status national origin race or sex and actively encourages members and other participants in CAUSErelated activities to respect this policy
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