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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 12.Ver.I (Dec. 2014), PP 37-44 www.iosrjournals.org “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” 1Sundus Tariq, Dr Qazi Ahmed 1 2 Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus (FURC) New Lalazar, Rawalpindi, Cantt. Pakistan. Assistant Professor Department of Business Management Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus (FURC) New Lalazar, Rawalpindi, Cantt. Pakistan. I. Introduction Training is defined as an organized activity intended at imparting information or directions to improve beneficiary performance or to help him or her to acquire required knowledge of skills they are fundamentally required to perform at job (snape et al, 1995). Training employees is an essential function for all organizations. Training provides employees with the essential key knowledge and skills that they require to execute their jobs in an effective manner (Guest and Conway, 2006: Ulrich, 2002) Turnover intention is an importunate problem in an organization (Abbas and Hollman , 2006: price 1989; staw 2000). It exists in every organization despite of size, market share and the significance of industry. Turnover intentions’ leading to actual turnover is one of the most significant cause of lower levels of productivity and employers self-esteem both in public and private sector in all the industries including manufacturing. IT and service industry. (Walter, 1999). Turnover intentions should be handled properly and appropriately before it causes extensive damage to organization also leading to reduction in revenues. With the escalating market antagonism training and development has gained significant importance and its rightful place in the organizational context (Willis, 2006). New trends imply that training effectiveness is continually evaluated and standards are developed to compute the return on investment on training interventions (Elbadri, 2007). According to the human capital model, it is being proven that effective training leads to abridged turnover intentions and augment organization performance (Williams , 2001). Whereas, studies involve job participation is significantly amplified by training. (Robbins, 1996). Though training and turnover intention is extensively studied and the results drained show a momentous negative relationship between training and turnover (Mobley, 1982). Turnover is a trouble that highly unease an organization in today, s competitive business world. (Davis and Cherns 1995). A higher turnover imitates declines in the organization and its trailing competitive edge in the market (Kanungo,1989). Training is a very expensive or pricey process and its true worth can be reflected in a low organizational turnover and increased organizational performance. According to Hom and Minichi (2001), testing theory of how loss in job extinction has dominated research over the past 25 years. The association between job involvement and turnover has been demonstrated in many meta-analytic findings (Trevor 2001). The relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover intention has been extensively studied in the literature but during the course of past many years, many studies forecast a substantial and inverse relationship between job involvement and job turnover intention. (Hom and kininchi, 2001) momentous level of job involvement, it has been seen has lead to dipping the turnover intentions in an organization (Pfeffer, 2000). Even in times of slump, some organizations are seen to exhibit high turnover intentions despite all economic fluctuations. (Delery and Doty 2001). The description of job involvement is not only the extent to which employees take interest and content ness in their job but include also to the measurement that how much employee rate or prioritize their work in their life and how much the work related matters affects their private life of employees including their role in their family as well as the society (Newstorm and Davis 1994). It is argued that employees who are job concerned are more likely to display high degree of work ethics (Key and Raynolds, 2002). Job contribution also helps to increase greater ownership of employee with their organization and identify themselves with their work (Ettingon 2004). Studies also prove that employees work and recognize themselves better and most extensively with their work when they are more absorbed in their work or we can say they are more job involved. Significance of study This study explores how job involvement has a mediating role among training and turnover intentions. The study aim at finding association that exists between training and job involvement principally focusing on the Pakistan, s service industry. Although training and job involvement has an optimistic relationship when discussed under the sunshade of HRM and TQM. (Boon and Arumugum, 2007). They have never been before www.iosrjournals.org 37 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” discussed autonomously. The existing body of information does not forecast that whether training leading to greater job involvement will result in lowering the turnover intentions. The current study adds another measurement to the present body of the knowledge as training and job involvement have proven positive relationship yet it is not studied whether it can affect or inferior turnover intentions. We desire to add another variable to the existing study to help widen the knowledge of how training not only motivates employers but also leads to job retention which ultimately goes in favor of both organization and employee. Greater stress is on retention of key employees that can serve them in long run and are available for prospect key positions in the organization. In milieu to managers high job involvement is important to reducing turnover intention. Managers are enabled to appreciate the employees in a far better way and definite duties accordingly. With the help of results of studies managers recognize the mental and physical capabilities of employees. This study is very important in the circumstance of Pakistan with special reference to the service industry which has been the biggest causative factor to the national GDP (Economic survey of Pakistan, 2011). Resource preservation means stronger, steady and growing erudition organization exhibiting high professional competency and work efficiency that leads to superior individual and organizational performance. Problem Statement Turnover intention and training demonstrate an inverse relationship according to the human capital model (Guest 2002). It is however unclear that how an effectual training function can enhance job involvement that leads to a lessening in turnover intentions among employees keeping in view of Pakistan’s services industry. Research Objectives The objectives include: To find the relationship between training job involvement and turnover intentions To examine whether job involvement effect the rate of turnover intentions To conclude how an effective training enhance or harness job involvement II. Literature Review A triumphant training program for employees would result in more favorable and stable employee attitudes; loyalty and help employees in their personal development and job involvement. Moreover, Zhang (2002) stressed the importance of training and development for continuous updating and improvement, identifying one source of human motivation (employee) at work as intrinsic motivation and participation; growing; learning and developing one’s self. Locke (1986) also stated that most learning situations are essentially reinforcing because of the job involvement connected with the acquiring of new knowledge or skills. Empirical studies have provided widespread evidence that training and development have positive impact on job involvement within the organization (Karia and Ahmad, 2000; Karia and Asaari, 2006). When people discuss about the training process they mean the day-to-day activities that make up the yearly training cycle brining effectiveness to the work process. In order to focus on the process is the best place to start if you want a quick and momentous improvement in training competence. There are, however, numerous dangers in considering the training process in isolation (David, 1998). The most concerning part is that the training provided will have little or no responsibility either to business requirements or to the development needs of the employees. Another hazard is that maintaining the process can become an end in itself. Then training becomes firm and is insensitive to change .It is very easy to say that effective training has to be align with a company’s business vision and values; that the training section has to provide courses which support the company’s goals; and that anyone who is pursuing its own interests, and spends more time should not be involved in supervising the training process(Locke, 1986). Job involvement is mainly a function of individual distinctiveness. According to Hall and Mansﬁeld (1991), job involvement is a comparatively non-manipulated personal characteristic. The major insight draws on the work of Weber (1978), which emphasizes individualism and the virtue of work as an end in itself (Brown, 1996). Namely, individuals who acquire a high work ethic level deem the virtue of work as an end in itself. Similarly, job-involved persons distinguish work as a very important aspect of their lives (Dubin, 2006; Rabinowitz and Hall, 1977). Therefore, the ultimate determinant of job involvement should be according to this logic, the value of one’s work in life (Kanungo, 2002); therefore, employees with a burly work ethic level should devote a signiﬁcant quantity of time and involvement to their job (Lodhal, 1964; Lodhal and Kejner, 1965). In a recent meta-analysis, Brown (1996) reported a strong corrected association between work ethic and job involvement. www.iosrjournals.org 38 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” Job involvement is an affective reaction to the job that is connected to but is both theoretically and empirically distinct from job satisfaction, as well as provides framework for commitments such as career commitment and organizational pledge (Blau, 2010; 2000; Brooks et al.) Job involvement has been defined as an operational in a variety of ways athwart studies (for instances, (Kanungo, 2007; Morrow, 2003). These include the view that connection refers to: an individual's ego- involvement with their work and is the state of expressively identifying with the job; the psychological importance of work. Psychologists such as McGregor (1964) and Ailport (1977), and sociologists such as Hugues (1988) and Dubin (2004) are concerned in the process of ego participation in work; psychologists have tended to focus on organizational circumstances that lead to job involvement such as meaningfulness of work, recognition with work etc. On the other hand, sociologists have been more concerned with aspects of the socialization processes that lead to the amalgamation in the person of work relevant norms and values. All the above definitions have an ordinary core of meaning in that they describe the job occupied person as one for who work is a very important part of life and something held very closely and sacredly. High performing, effective organizations have a culture that encourages worker involvement. Therefore, employees are more eager to get involved in decision-making, goal setting or problem solving activities, which afterward result in higher employee and organizational performance .Persuade a more modern style of participatory management, raise employee output and satisfaction, and even lower workers’ recompense rates. (Madison, Wisconsin, 2009). Organizational turnover has been an innermost research topic for almost 90 years (Cotton and Tuttle, 1986; Tse and Lam, 2008), and as most scholars have exposed, can result in severe negative penalty for the organization (Abbasi and Hollman, 2000; Watrous etal. 2006). Abbasi and Hollman (2000) estimated that the visible and hidden costs of turnover in organizations equaled approximately $11 billion yearly. However, ﬁnancial costs are not the only repercussions of proceeds. Organizations must also alleviate the effects turnover has on customer relations, disruption of efficiency, decreases in self-esteem (Abbasi and Hollman, 2000) and the result in effect on organizational performance (Watrous et al., 2006). Turnover can be ranked as voluntary or involuntary, as well as functional or dysfunctional (Watrous etal. 2006), and each type of turnover can have different impacts on the organization. Voluntary organizational turnover or a process in which an individual makes a decision to stay or leave the organization (McPherson, 1976), is normally dysfunctional and can be the most damaging to the organization (Mobley, 1992). Abbasi and Hollman (2006) warn that it is “the smartest and most talented employees [who] are the most mobile and the ones who are disproportionately more likely to leave” As these employees choose to leave organizations, their practice, information and talent leave with them resulting in output delays caused by their post (Abbasi and Hollman, 2006), which can lead to organizational dysfunction. Involuntary turnover, on the other hand, can be defined as a process in which the organization assumes control over an employee’s decision to stay or leave (McPherson, 1976). Here, the process typically focuses on removing under-performing employees (Price, 1989), so it is often labeled as un functional turnover (Watrous etal. 2006). Employee attitudes, specially job involvement and organizational commitment, influence the exercise of judgment by employees which is in turns linked to business performance. One of the keys to civilizing performance is to improve the levels of job involvement and organizational commitment. (Guest&Conway, 1997). III. Relationship among the Variables Training and Turnover Intentions (H1) According to the Human capital model training or specific training fallout in lowering turnover and turnover related intentions. Mobley (1982) suggested that turnover capacity disrupt performance when an employee who intends to leave becomes less competent, when a knowledgeable employee leaves, or when occasion is lost in an effort to secure a replacement. Empirical research has shown that turnover is related to lesser organizational performance (Shaw, Gupta, & Delery, 2002). Hence it also undermines the transfer of training and training efficiency resulting in deprived individual and organizational performance. The association between job satisfaction and turnover is one of the most methodically investigated topics in the turnover literature. Job satisfaction has long been recognized as an important variable in Turnover intention is defined as the positive emotional response to a job situation resulting from attaining what the employee wants and values from the job (Lock et al, 1983; Olsen, 1993). It implies that job satisfaction can be captured by either a one- dimensional concept of global job satisfaction or a multi-dimensional. Training and Job Involvement (H2) Training and development have been documented as essential to the implementation of HRM (Snape et al., 1995). It leads to increase employees’ job involvement, facilitates the development of skills, leads to an amplified sense of possession, well-being and benefit, increase organizational and strengthens the organization’s competitiveness. www.iosrjournals.org 39 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” A successful training and development agenda would create more constructive employee attitudes; loyalty and help employees in their personal development and job involvement. Cherrington (1995) hence most education situation is essentially reinforcing because of the job involvement connected with the acquiring of new knowledge or skills. Empirical studies have provided widespread evidence that training and development have optimistic effects on job involvement within the organization that help to augment job performance of employees that helps to increase organizational performance. Job involvement and turnover Intentions (H3) job involvement is considered to be a key factor influencing important individual and organizational outputs (Lawler, 1986),Job involvement is pain staked by many researchers to be a primary determinant of organizational efficiency (Pfeffer, 2000) and individual inspiration (Hackman and Lawler, 1971). It is seen that turnover creates prepared disruption in organizations (Kesner & Dalton, 1994; Staw, 1990). Where high levels of turnover intentions among employees can be very pricey for lack of job Involvement in organizations fallout in lack of belonging and well-being among employees resulting in lower levels of job involvement and commitments when employees intend to leave the organization, the ability and skills of the retaining employees to complete their duties may be impacted, especially in the case when employees are inter dependent and closely linked (Staw, 1980).Price (1989) proposed that turnover intentions decreases organizational productivity and output more so than it increases. Relationship among turnover, presentation, organizational structure is when without mechanisms is problematic. People leave, transferring personal decision lessons of knowledge among makers, History is lost, and knowledge institutions are reduced but never disappears, from memory (Grusky 1964; Carroll 1984; and the and May 1986), organization's effectiveness productivity decrease (Price when new skills are turnover benefit the 1977). Yet, gained, can organization (Price Dalton and Tudor Price and Mueller 1977; 1979; 1981). Although turnover and are the alone does not suffice to of experience related, experience explain impact turnover certain tasks et al. at certain for (Argote 1987).Impact of turnover seems of Since individuals at each level in the independent experience. Have to face different organization information demands and different of turnover at different processing garner type’s experience, levels affect may the organization differently. lowers productivity by disturbing communications and operating mechanisms (Bluedorn, 1992: price, 1999). Dependable with the extensive of the literature, today’s study hypothesizes that when turnover intentions are more they create operational disruption in organizations (Kesner & Dalton, 1994; Staw, 1990. Many researchers have tried to answer the question of what fosters employee turnover by investigating possible qualifications of it. This persistent interest comes mainly from recognition that turnover can be very pricey, and that understanding and managing it better can provide substantial beneﬁts. Previous research provides steady support for intent to leave as the strongest predictor of actual turnover (Tett and Meyer, 1993). Intention to leave the organization is considered a cognizant and deliberate desire to leave the organization within the near future, and is regarded as the last part of a in the extraction cognition process (Mobley et al., 1992). A meta-analysis by Steel and Ovalle (1984) demonstrated that “intent to leave is a better predictor of actual turnover behavior than affective variables, such as overall job involvement with the work itself”. That is why better understanding of the reasons of employee turnover intentions and how to stop them will likely remain a crucial concern into the future. Turnover Social exchange theory has gained prominence as a framework of understanding intentions the employee-organization bond and is arguably one of the most effective frameworks for understanding exchange behavior in organizations (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005). Although there are many contributors to the theoretical foundation of the social exchange literature, Blau (2010)and Gouldner (1960) have been particularly important in providing the key tenets that have been applied to studies in the employee-organization literature (Shore et al., 2009). The request of social exchange theory to the employee-organization relationship has focused on the relation an individual develops with his/her manager (Liden et al., 1997), the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1986) or both of them (Masterson et al., 2000; Wayne et al., 1997). Greater social exchange is associated with stronger employee contributions in the form of higher commitment, lower intentions to quit, and better performance (Shore et al., 2009). Cromie (1981) argues that employees who are job involved are more likely to consider in their work ethic and to exhibit growth needs, consequently enhancing how one views him/herself in the organization. Such implications hold that job involvement and work-based self-esteem are two interlinked concepts, since holding a purposeful job within an organization can have an optimistic impact on one’s self-esteem. Studies on work- based self-esteem indicate no major difference between how males and females supposed themselves within the organization (Tang etal. 2000). Nonetheless, a study by Dann (1995) indicates that career interruptions may decrease women’s self-esteem. This may be due to the fact that employers are often unwilling to re-train the workforce after an interrupted period, even if they have many years of experience. (Davidson and Cooper, 1992). www.iosrjournals.org 40 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” Task characteristics have been identified to impact turnover intentions through their relationships with job involvement and organizational commitment (Michaels and Spector, 1982; Steers, 1977). Moreover, the engineering and MIS literature focused extensively on the significance of a job which permits people to work on challenging and very interesting tasks (Badawy, 1978, 1988; Couger, 1988, 1990; Garden, 1989; Sherman, 1986). It was suggested that if job provides technical professionals, including plant managers, the opportunity to involve in challenging and excited jobs, they will be more involved and satisfied with their jobs and more committed to the organizations, and less likely to leave the organization. Task characteristics have also been found to be optimistically related to job involvement and organizational commitment and have direct and indirect effects on turnover intentions through satisfaction and commitment among technical professionals (Igbaria, 1991; Parasuraman, 1989). The job design literature suggests that motivators (e.g. job challenge, autonomy, responsibility, and achievement) lead to satisfaction and commitment and eventually reduce employee’s intention to leave the leave the organization. (Hackman and Oldham 1980). IV. Research Methodology Since the study is to be conducted to check the mediating role of job involvement between training and turnover intentions, the population selected will be from the service sector industry of Pakistan. The research is using quantitative method and structured questionnaires are to be used for collecting data. It is a descriptive study. The respondents are the employees of service industry organizations in Pakistan. H1: Training has a direct relation with job Involvement Ho: Training has no relationship with job involvement H2: Job Involvement has a relation with Turnover Intention Ho: Job Involvement has No relation with Turnover H3: Job involvement has an impact on the relationship of training and turnover intention as a mediator Ho: job Involvement has no Impact on the relationship of dependent and independent variables V. Methodology Scale The scales being used to carry out the research is questionnaire adapted from Rhodt (1997) 17 item scale for job involvement and from 20 item scales for training presented by Khawaja (2011) and 25 items scale for turnover intentions from Mobley (1996). Data Analysis SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) is to be used for data analysis. A data sample of 125 was taken and analyzed on SPSS. Below are the readings Reliability Turnover Intention Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 125 100.0 Excluded(a) 0 .0 Total 125 100.0 A List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .871 17 Our Cronbach's value for Turnover Intention is more than 0.7 so we do not reject it. www.iosrjournals.org 41 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” Training Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 125 100.0 Excluded(a) 0 .0 Total 125 100.0 A List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .964 20 Our Cronbach's value for Training is more than 0.7 so we do not reject it. Job Involvement Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 125 100.0 Excluded(a) 0 .0 Total 125 100.0 A List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .875 17 Our Cronbach's value for Turnover Intention is more than 0.7 so we do not reject it. Correlations TIMEAN TRMEAN JIMEAN TIMEAN Pearson Correlation 1 .089 .242(**) Sig. (2-tailed) .323 .007 N 125 125 125 TRMEAN Pearson Correlation .089 1 .735(**) Sig. (2-tailed) .323 .000 N 125 125 125 JIMEAN Pearson Correlation .242(**) .735(**) 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .007 .000 N 125 125 125 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). ANOVA Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. TIMEAN Between Groups 12.337 31 .398 41.496 .000 Within Groups .892 93 .010 Total 13.229 124 JIMEAN Between Groups 40.716 31 1.313 146.426 .000 Within Groups .834 93 .009 Total 41.550 124 Regression Variables Entered/Removed (b) Variables Variables Model Entered Removed Method 1 TRMEAN(a) . Enter a All requested variables entered. b Dependent Variable: TIMEAN Model Summary Adjusted R Std. Error of the Model R R Square Square Estimate Change Statistics R Square Sig. F R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Change Change F Change df1 df2 www.iosrjournals.org 42 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” 1 .089(a) .008 .000 .32665 .008 .984 1 123 .323 a Predictors: (Constant), TRMEAN R Square = 0.08 Significance F. Change = 0.008 Mediation: incorrect ANOVA (b) Sum of Model Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression .105 1 .105 .984 .323(a) Residual 13.124 123 .107 Total 13.229 124 a Predictors: (Constant), TRMEAN b Dependent Variable: TIMEAN Coefficients(a) Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients t Sig. Model B Std. Error Beta B Std. Error 1 (Constant) 2.868 .117 24.444 .000 TRMEAN .035 .035 .089 .992 .323 a Dependent Variable: TIMEAN Variables Entered/Removed(b) Variables Variables Model Entered Removed Method 1 TRMEAN(a) . Enter a All requested variables entered. b Dependent Variable: JIMEAN Model Summary Adjusted Std. Error of Model R R Square R Square the Estimate Change Statistics R Square Sig. F R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Change Change F Change df1 df2 1 .735(a) .540 .536 .39416 .540 144.440 1 123 .000 a Predictors: (Constant), TRMEAN R Square = 0.540 Significance F. Change = 0.540 Mediation: incorrect VI. Discussion Looking at the data above, first of all we calculate the reliability of our variables. The Cronbach's Alpha value for all (Turnover Intentions, Training and Job Involvement) is above 0.6 which is 0.871, 0.964 and 0.875 that hold the part true that our data is reliable. Moving to the correlation part, Job Involvement is highly correlated with both training and turnover intentions. This shows us that the higher the training is, the higher the job involvement and vise versa. Anova table helps us indicate the significance level between dependent and independent variable. In our case the value is 0.000 that holds true as well. Than we move to regression where we check the value of R square, and in our case we see that the value of R square is 0.08 and 0.540 which is on the higher side, thus we stop the analysis here. VII. Conclusion: Our analysis holds true for the part that the variables are all reliable and are highly correlated but when it comes to finding the regression among the variables, which does not hold true. So we conclude that the variables are highly correlated with each other. www.iosrjournals.org 43 | Page “Mediating role of Job Involvement between Training and Turnover Intentions” References . Walter.A 2009. Manufacturing competitive advantage: The effects of high performance work systems on plant performance and company outcomes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. . Abbas, A. ,P.Hollman 2006. “Effects of human resources systems on manufacturing performance and turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 37: 670–87. . Price, B.G. 1999. 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