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IOSR Journal of Business and Management IOSRJBM eISSN 2278487X pISSN 23197668 Volume I 7 Issue I Ver II Jan 2015 PP 2530 www iosrjournals org The Eureka Moment Or Who Speaks in the Case Method Shiva Kumar Srinivasan Behavioral Sciences International Institute of Planning and Management Chennai Abstract What is the theoretical rationalefor the case method given its excessive dependence on speech as the main mode of instruction and learning This paper argues that the problem of speech has not been adequately understood in the business school classroom This is because the term speech subsumes both intentional speech and the sense of being spoken through the desire of the Other The former relates to a situation where the speaker knows what he is going to say and then goes on to say it The latter relates to a situation where the speaker nds that he is saying something more or something less than what he consciously intended to say It could also be the case that he winds up saying something Other than what he consciously intended to say In other words there is a dijference between articulation and reconstructing the intentionbehind the articulation in an act of speech This is the main reason why both instructors and students are afraid to letgo in the case method of instruction In order to understand this form of resistance and what must be done to come to terms with it and find ways to engage successfully with the case method despite it we must invoke the Lacanian formulationson the relationship between language and desire that constitute the psychoanalytic model of the unconscious These insights relate to the formulations which argue that the unconscious is not only structured like a language but is also an expression of the desire of the Other These formulations from the psychoanalytic doctrine of the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan then are what will make it possible to make sense of the resistance to the problem of speech in the classroom Though this paper focuses on the case method as understood in business schools modelled on the Harvard Business School it should be possible to apply these insights by implication in the context of legal education as well Keywords Articulation Case Method Desire Intention Speech Structure Transference Unconscious I Introduction Who speaks in the case method What is the ambit of speech in the classroom What is the relationship between any given case and the problem of the speaking subject What is the role of speech in constituting the Eureka moment These then are some of the fundamental questions that instructors ask themselves either consciously or unconsciously when the exhilaration generated by the case method forces them to think through its theoretical basis Case instructors will also discover that it ismuch easier to nd the energy levels to engage in the case method year after year if they have greater clarity going forward on what exactly constitutes its theoretical rationale in management education Ginott 1994 Srinivasan 2005 This paper on management education is an attempt to identify and formalize precisely such a rationale by applying psychoanalytic theory to the case method A case as de ned by the Harvard Business School is a business narrative which sets out the facts in a concrete situation creating an issue requiring discretionary action The function of the case in a business school is to make available a body of data relevant to the administrator directing a company to the scholar testing his concepts and to the student developing an orientation to administrative responsibility knowledge skill and maturity Towl 1969 There has been a remarkable stability over the years in the understanding of not only what constitutes theoutlines of a case as a pedagogical genre but also in the modalities that pertain to how students should go about learning in the classroom Bonoma 1989 In order to answer the titular question of who speaks in the case method it will not suf ce to only point out that it is mainly the student who speaks or who should be asked to speak as opposed to the case instructor who mainly facilitates the conditions of such speech and resists the desire to perform in his own turn This is because the moment of insight of discovery emerges precisely when the student realizes that he did not speak as such but rather found that the desire of the Other spoke through him in constituting the Eureka moment in class As the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan teaches us it is not a question of knowing whether I speak of myself in a way that conforms to what I am but rather of knowing whether I am the same as that of which I speak And it is not at all inappropriate to use the word thought here For Freud uses the term to designate the elements involved in the unconscious that is the signifying mechanisms that we now recognize as being there Lacan 1977a In other words what we need to address is how the unconscious is implicated in the problem of speech and how furthermore the advent of speech in the classroom will help us to work out what really is at stake in the case method The term unconscious will be de ned later on in this paper suf ce it to note at this juncture that in order to generate a psychoanalytic interpretation of the case method we must proceed on the assumption that the psychoanalytic experience does nothing other than establish that the unconscious leaves none of our DOI 109790487Xl7122530 wwwiosrjournalsorg 25 Page The Eureka Moment 0r Who Speaks in the Case Method actions outside its eld Lacan 1977b This then must be our point of departure The purpose of this paper is to relate the explicit notion of speech in psychoanalysis with the implicit notion of speech in the case method and see what happens to the relationship between the analytic function and the discursive articulation that serve as the two conceptual coordinates of the case method The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that an understanding of the unconscious and its formations will make for a better case instructor and by logical implication a better decision maker Evans 1979a It will also help the case instructor to understand why he is doing what he is doing rather than dismiss all queries about the case method as reducible to forms of pedagogical intuition 11 Speech And The Unconscious The concept of the unconscious especially one that is structured like a language which is the Lacanian wager will help us to understand why the student routinely nds himself as someone who articulates the desire of the Other in the locus of the speaking subject One of Lacan s de nitions of the unconscious that is of relevance here is that the unconscious is that part of concrete discourse insofar as it is transindividual that is not at the disposal of the subject in reestablishing the continuity of his conscious discourse Lacan 1977c The student in this conception may have spoken in response to a challenge a provocation or a question that emerges either from the instructor or the discursive logic of the situation in which the class nds itself at a given point in time But the essential problem is that he may have found dif culty in reconstructing what he found himself saying in the heat of the exchange with the instructor Or even if he can that follows at best after the actual articulation which precedes the reconstruction It is precisely because of the logical priority of articulation over interpretation that the student is a aid to let go in the rst place lest hesay something that will hurt the feelings of those present or result in a misunderstanding Since the analytic reconstruction is dependent on the discursive articulation which precedes it in time speech must not be understood as a readymade representation of the conceptual structure embedded in an articulation but as constitutive of that very articulation Speech is not just a mode of expression but the very discursive condition of possibility for the case method since the speaker nds himself spokenrather than speaking This priority accorded to speech is what is really at stake in the case method even if it has not been explicitly stated to be the case It can after all be argued that speech is what is missing in theories of mind Most of these theories are preoccupied with either the acquisition of language in childhood or with the grammatical apparatus that must be presupposed as an innate property of the mind to explain the process of child language acquisition but they don t explain how speech can function like a Freudian symptom Hence the analogy that I posit in this paper between the speaking subject in the classroom and the speaking subject on the couch Both forms of speech are articulated in the presence of an analyst or a case instructor in the locus of a subject presumed to know the secret of desire Srinivasan 2011The ability or extent of participation in such communicative situations is however mediated by the Freudian triad of inhibitions symptoms and anxiety that is said to characterize the structure of the neurotic subject Freud 1926 The term neurotic is used here in the clinical sense and not in an ideological sense since the concept of the normal has given way to the concept of the normative which by de nition is a social construct Furthermore as Lacan puts it in one of his betterknown formulations only a subject can understand a meaning conversely every phenomenon of meaning implies a subject Lacan 1977d This proposition then is the essential link between the subject and the concept of speech which is referred to as the problem of the speaking subject the term problem is used here insofar as the speaking subject is not adequately acquainted with his intention and that he has to interpret what he is saying ie his own intentionas though it were being said by somebody elseThe student engages in a case analysis then from the locus of the speaking subject Not all students are willing to let go and engage from the locus of the speaking subject precisely because they suspect this to be the case and prefer to steer the case analysis and the discursive exchanges in the classroom as a mere exercise in positioning This form of resistance is not speci c to students instructors can also be resistant to going beyond talking points prepared in advance This form of resistance however leads to a situation when the instructor winds up giving a lecture instead of facilitating a genuine case analysis 111 Speech And The Transference If the student and the case instructor let go they will be able to experience the magic of the case method In order to experience this magic as an experiential reality however the participants of the case method will have to be open to the desire of the Other Fink 1996 The Other needless to say is not reducible to a particular stakeholder it is more often than not the regulative ideal of language or the case method itselfwhich generates insights every now and then as a byproduct of the case analysis The Lacanian de nition of the Other to put it simply is a structural notion The Other can also be embodied transferentially by a gure like Socrates As Lacan put it Who is this Other to whom I am more attached than to myself since at the heartof my assent to my identity it is still he who agitates me Lacan 1977e In other words speech in the context of the case method is necessarily transferential since what the case instructor regulates through his very presence in the DOI 109790487X 17122530 wwwiosrj oumalsorg 26 Page The Eureka Moment 0r Who Speaks in the Case Method classroom is nothing other than the student s desire to speak It has been pointed out that to observe skilled case professors such as strategy guru Michael Porter at Harvard is like attending participatory theatrethe instructor plays the very demanding lead nimbly conducting the interaction along many subplots guiding everyone s contributions to achieve a certain denouement Forman and Rymer 1999 So what Porter does in a situation like this is to regulate the student s desire to speak and to contribute in the attempt to achieve a resolution to the said case In the absence of the transference however the students will not participateTransferential speech as pointed out above is that which is generated in response to the presence of the analyst gure whom Jacques Lacan refers to as sujet suppose savior Lacan l977fThe genealogy of the transference is best understood in the context of Greek philosophy For Lacan the invocation of the gure of Socrates is important because the Greeks understood the relationship between the love of knowledge and the knowledge of love This knowledge is embodied in the gure of Socrates Lacan argues that Socrates understood transferential phenomena much before Freud did in the clinical situation Furthermore Socrates is important for Lacan s theory of the four discourses insofar as Socrates represents the discourse of the hysteric Lacan 2007 Srinivasan 2000 One of the interesting things about Socrates is that he never made a knowledge claim in the dialogues but a great deal of knowledge is nonetheless attributed to him by his interlocutors because of his ability to manage them and because his very presence would induce a transference amongst those who either participated in the dialoguesor were onlookers to the dialogues The only knowledge claim that Socrates did make was in the realm of Eros or what psychoanalysts term the transference Laplanche and Pontalis 1973 Socrates could always tell by walking into a room or a symposium who was in love with whom It is not clear how exactly he could work this out with such precision but it may have something to do with how those presentin the room spoke to each other or about the Other The implications of this approach to human relations should be obvious in the context of the case method given that the refusal to make knowledge claims did not lead to a diminution of the transference to Socrates but rather to its intensi cation Penner 1992 Srinivasan 2011 Likewise case instructors should resist the temptation of performing ie making knowledge claims and let the students or discussants perform during a case analysis The task of the case instructor should be to facilitate and punctuate rather than dominate the proceedings in the conventional model of pedagogy the instructor should only intervene to the extent necessary to manage resistance to the case method effectively Srinivasan 2009The basic claim in the case method is that analyzing cases will make students better at decision making If this is indeed the case what is the role played by speech in making this possible It is important to answer this question because the relationship between the analytic and discursive elements in the case method is dif cult for even experienced instructors to understand The nature of the case method is such that in order to come to grips with the substantive issues it is necessary to workthrough the process of arriving at the truth in a given situation This is because the main purpose of the case method is to learn how to think in terms of new situations More often than not the case is the main text or the only text that is used in the classroom hence the model of truth that is built into the case method is the coherence theory of truth In psychoanalysis of course there is also the added complication of relating the truth within a theory of the transference Brooks and Woloch 2000The truth of the analytic clinic is to be situated topologically between reality and the real Neither reality nor the real is to be approached directly but through the mediation of speech in the analytic situation The truth cannot be approached directly because the patient will then act out or commit suicide The differences between the terms reality and the real are as true for the Freudian text as for the Lacanian text Evans 1997b And furthermore it is not the analyst s knowledge of the patient that is curative but the patient s knowledge or insights into his own situation Merely acquainting the patient with his or her condition by experienced clinicians and having the symptoms categorized classi ed deconstructed or workedthrough by others will not be therapeutic That is why the analytic notion of truth is different from the philosophical notion of truth In the analytic notion the patient must participate actively in nding the truth he cannot wait for somebody to tell him what the truth is The analytic notion of truth is also accompanied by an unruly piece of libido which takes the speaking subject in analysis by surprise Another important difference is that the analytic notion of truth is related to the tuch ie to encounters with the real which resist adequate symbolization IV Tuch And Automaton The philosophical notion of truth is related to either the mathematical or logical notion of the truth this is referred to as the automaton in the Lacanian schema Lacan 1977g It is therefore important to understand the relationship between tuch and automaton to make sense of the analytic trajectory and its implications for a theory of the case method An encounter with the real will not by itself generate an insight unless the discursive structure provides the space necessary to workthrough the encounter in the symbolic Tuch and automaton are terms that Lacan borrows from Aristotle s physics they must be understood as a conceptual dyad The difference between the use of these terms in Aristotle and psychoanalysis is that in the latter unlike the former the dyad plays out in the context of a libidinal trauma in the symbolic that serves as the DOI 109790487X 17122530 wwwiosrj oumalsorg 27 Page The Eureka Moment 0r Who Speaks in the Case Method function of a cause Freud never forgot the truth that the French psychiatrist JeanMartinCharcot had taught him in his younger years on the libidinal structure of causation when Charcot had remarked 11 y a toujours la chose genital Sadoff 1998 That is why unlike Aristotle who was content to merely classify and console like Victorian psychiatrists Freud went on to discover that the conceptual structure of psychoanalysis is necessarily mediated by the erotic transference This transference was like an erotic force eld that made it dif cult for the subject to understand the promptings of his own unconsciousThe term that links these conceptual extremes of truth and problemsolving then in psychoanalysis is subjectivity Hall 2004 The term subjectivity is used here in two different senses the what and the who The term subjectivity could also mean subjective as the opposite of the term objective and whether or not a particular problem has been decisively solved There is also the dimension of who if any is solving or going to solve the problem and the extent of the problemsolver s dependence on the relationship between the analytic function of the mind and the discursive structure of language This is the difference between merely reading a case and subjecting it to a thorough analysis in class If the analytic dimension is all that mattered then there is no need to discuss anything after reading a case its meaning should become obvious But as instructors know from experience that is not the case It is important to open up the case for analysis and discussion and get as many students as possible to participate It is also important to subsume the affective excess that is produced in such a discussion Psychoanalysis can be of immense help in workingthrough this affective excess V Psychanalysis And Management This claim is all the more interesting because psychoanalysis has an important contribution to make in the management curriculum as demonstrated in the success of programs in organizational psychology at INSEAD The analyst who pioneered the applications of psychoanalysis within the management curriculum is Manfred Kets de Vries and his associates They have not only applied psychoanalysis to organizational dynamics but have also thoughtthrough the role that it can play in theories of decisionmaking executive coaching leadership development and human relations Kets de Vries 1991 These developments are of consequence to the case method as well So for instance Kets de Vries is fond of pointing out that his encounter with the case method at the Harvard Business School was mediated by a course that he did on psychoanalysis and management with Abraham Zaleznik So unlike the typical student who was content doing the usual courses in the curriculum Kets de Vries was touched by the shadow of Freud and this proved to be an absolutely crucial source of intellectual and methodological in uence in his contributions to the clinical paradigm in organizational studies Van de L00 2000 Most importantly he adds it helped me to make sense of the irrational my own as well as other people s It also made me realize the arti ciality of the concept of economic man It was refreshing to nd out how real people functioned Kets de Vries 1995 It is important to remember that a great deal of behavior in organizations is irrational but this is easy to overlook because everybody thinks that they are rational The excessive preoccupation with rationality may itself be an ego defense since psychoanalysts know that the irrational is not the exception but the rule Freud 1946 One of the main questions that organizational theorists want to understand is why rationality is so dif cult to attain amongst decisionmakers organizations and workers organizations it appears are as prone to neuroses as individualsand in need of therapy Kets de Vries and Miller 1986 Kets de Vries 2004 The main goal of the clinical paradigm is to make organizations healthier so that employers and employees can be more authentic in their interactions with each other Kets de Vries 2001 So if this is the goal for organizations in the future then an application of psychoanalytic insights to the case method will ensure that it becomes possible for students to manage in a psychoanalytically informed manner when they become managersThe organization must also institute organizational mechanisms to ensure that intrapsychic con icts in decisionmakers does not lead to actingout repressed con icts in public especially in situations characterized by organizational or industrial strife O Connor 1999 Amaud 2002 In order to do so they have to learn how to workthrough forms of affective turbulence during any given instance of decisionmaking Carr 2002 Gabriel and Carr 2002 A decisionmaker is less likely to act out in the attempt to act decisively if he understands the relationship between speech decisionmaking and the unconscious While such an understanding may not guarantee the decisionmaker against making a mistake it will at least ensure that he will take corrective action whenever required This approach of taking corrective action in a timely fashion is more likely to happen if they have made time for the case method in programs in law or business Srinivasan 2010 VI Freud And The Case Method It is interesting to note that both psychoanalysis and management have a theoretical af nity for the case method of learning and use the case narrative as a basic unit of cognition and decisionmakingForrester 1996 Forrester 2007 Srinivasan 2010 Freud himself was a great case writer though he did not write as many cases as he might have wanted togiven that he had to develop both a metapsychology and its applications for psychoanalysis he also had to analyze patients in large numbers in order to successfully institutionalize DOI 109790487X17122530 wwwiosrjoumalsorg 28 Page The Eureka Moment 0r Who Speaks in the Case Method psychoanalysis in Vienna and elsewhere Greenwald1959 The persistence of the case method is a clue to the fact that a lot more is happening in classrooms using the case method than has been understood to be the case Some of the concerns that these discourses have in common include the following problemsolving representation truth the opposition between the analytic and discursive functions of the mind and in situating the role of speech as a form of cognitive mediation since psychoanalysis is the prototype of the talking cure Both the student and the patient must be willing to speak and the insights that they encounter about the problem being analyzed emerges from a thorough situation analysis that is carved out of a given case It is the analysts and the case instructor who must take responsibility when resistance is engendered in the clinic or the classroom In Lacan s formulation there is no other resistance to analysis than that of the analyst himself Lacan 1977h And even if pattern recognition made it possible for the case instructor or the analyst to look ahead and glimpse at solutions that have been proffered on past occasions there is simply no pedagogical or therapeutic value to premature interventions from the instructor and the patient In the Freudian doctrine there is an enormous difference between the analyst s knowledge and the patient s knowledge The therapeutic effects if any come from the patient s knowledge of his own condition albeit in the context of a transferential relationship to the analyst and the analytic process The analyst therefore cannot pronounce a diagnosis ahead of a patient s willingness to accept an insight Freud 1940a Devereux 1963 Analogously the case instructor knows that merely talking about the main ideas in a discipline will not have much pedagogical value It is only when the student rediscovers the re and the wheel of the basic concepts in the context of a case analysis that progress is possible It is then that a student takes responsibility for his learning and assumes the function of a knowing subject VII Conclusion The student and the patient then must not be denied their share of the Eureka moment through a premature encounter with theory since their knowledge is different om that of the instructor and the analyst This differentiation between different forms or qualitative representations of knowledge presupposes that the student is willing to be patient just as the patient is willing to be a student Or as Freud put it there has existed from the very rst an inseparable bond between cure and research Knowledge brought therapeutic success it was impossible to gain esh insight without perceiving its bene cent results Freud 1926 Both the patient and the student will have to learn to speak in a way that will enable the disclosures of the unconscious to manifest itself in the locus of the Other This is the only hope for progress in such situations given the levels of resistance that must be overcome by the student and the instructorand the patient and the analyst The object of resistance then is to the fact that their interaction is not completely within their control but necessarily mediated by the transferential vicissitudes of the given participants in the pedagogical and clinical contexts towards the desire of the Other Since the transference may manifest itself as a form of resistance and not necessarily as cooperation with the analytic method it is important to handle the manifestations of the transference carefully Avoiding extreme affects in the transference can make it possible in enlightening the patient on the true nature of the phenomena of transference If the emotional labor seems too much at rst sight then the analyst should remember that a patient never forgets again what he has experienced in the form of transference it carries a greater force of conviction than anything he can acquire in other ways Freud 1940b This was the transferential conviction that Freud himself carried in the aftermath of his encounter and early psychiatric training with JeanMartin Charcot in FranceThe relationship between the problem of speech and the desire of the Other then can only be understood in the context of the transference It is only by thinking through the modalities of the transference that it will become possible to understand the part played by resistance to letting go to the process of case analysis in both the clinic and the classroom References l H G Ginott Teaching and teachers Three views in LB Barnes et a1 Teaching and the case method Boston Harvard Business School Press 1994 266267 2 SK Srinivasan Co0rd What is the future of the case method in management education in India Vikalpa A Journal for Decision Makers 304 OctDec 2005 87131 3 A Towl To study administration by cases Boston Harvard Business School 1969 5 4 TV Bonoma Learning with cases Case Reprint Number 9589080 Boston Harvard Business School Publishing 1989 5 J Lacan The agency of the letter in the unconscious or reason since Freud in J A Miller Ed and A Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge l977a 165 6 J Lacan The agency of the letter in the unconscious or reason since Freud in J A Miller Ed and A Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge l977b 163 7 D Evans Formations An introductory dictionary of Lacanian psychoanalysis London and New York Routledge 1979a 66 8 J Lacan Function and eld of speech and language inJ A Miller Ed andA Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge 19770 49 9 SK Srinivasan Sujet suppos savior Transferential dynamics in the case method Indore Management Journal 32 July Sept 201 1 5967 10 S Freud Inhibitions symptoms and anxiety in A Richards Ed and J Strachey Trans On psychopathology Inhibitions symptoms and anxiety and other works London Pelican Books 1926 1979 227333 DOI 109790487X 17122530 wwwiosrj oumalsorg 29 Page The Eureka Moment 0r Who Speaks in the Case Method 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 J Lacan Aggressivity in psychoanalysis in A Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge 1977d 9 B Fink The subject and the Other s desire in R Feldstein et al Reading seminars I and II Lacan s return to Freud Albany State University of New York 1996 7697 J Lacan The agency of the letter in the unconscious or reason since Freud in J A Miller Ed and A Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge 1977e 172 J Forman and J Rymer The genre system of the Harvard case method Journal of Business and Technical Communication 134 Oct 1999 388 J Lacan Presence of the analyst in J A Miller Ed and A Sheridan Trans The four lndamental concepts of psychoanaly sis London Penguin Books 1977f 123135 J Lacan Production of the four discourses in R Grigg Trans The Other side of psychoanalysis The seminar of Jacques Lacan Book XVII New York and London W W Norton amp Co 2007 926 S K Srinivasan Socrates and the discourse of hysteria Analysis 9 2000 The Australian Center for Psychoanalysis 18 36 J Laplanche and J B Pontalis Transference The language of psychoanalysis London Karnac Books 1973 455 462 T Penner Socrates and the early dialogues in R Krait 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Human Relations School The Academy of Management Review 241 1999 117131 G Arnaud The organization and the symbolic Organizational dynamics viewed from a Lacanian perspective in L Burchill Ed Human Relations 556 June 2002 691 7 16 A Carr Managing in a psychoanalytically informed manner Journal of Managerial Psychology 175 2002 343 347 Y Gabriel and A Carr Organizations management and psychoanalysis An overview Journal of Managerial Psychology 175 2002 348365 S K Srinivasan Do we have the time for the case method IIMK Working Papers Series IIMKWPS77MC201016 J Forrester If p then what Thinking in cases History of the Human Sciences 91 1996 125 J Forrester On Kuhn s case Psychoanalysis and the paradigm Critical Inquiry Summer 2007 782819 S K Srinivasan What is psychoanalysis and management IIMKWPS78201017 IIMK Working Papers Series H Greenwald Great cases in psychoanalysis New York Ballantine Books 1959 J Lacan The direction of the treatment and the principles of its power inA Sheridan Trans Ecrits A selection London TavistockRoutledge 1977h 235 S Freud An outline of psychoanalysis in J Strachey Ed and A Dickson Trans Historical and expository works on psychoanalysis London Penguin Books 1940a 1993 369443 G Devereux in L Paul Ed Some criteria for the timing of confrontations and interpretations Psychoanalytic clinical interpretation New York The Free Press 1963 7992 S Freud The question of lay analysis in J Strachey Ed and A Dickson Trans Historical and expository works on psychoanalysis London Penguin Books 1926 1993 361 S Freud An outline of psychoanalysis in J Strachey Ed and A Dickson Trans Historical and expository works on psychoanalysis London Penguin Books 1940b 1993 410411 DOI 109790487X 17122530 wwwiosrjoumalsorg 30 Page
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