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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 2.Ver. III (Feb. 2015), PP 77-92 www.iosrjournals.org Role of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization of Human Wildlife Conflictsat Lake Nakuru National Park in Rift Valley Province, Kenya * 1 2 Vivian Cherono , James Mugo Kinga , Lydia Chepkoech , Paul Mbiti Shavulimo 3* Department of Business, Kenya Methodist University, P.O. Box 3654, 20115 Nakuru, Kenya Kenya Commercial Bank, P.O. Box 2941-01000, Thika, Kenya Department of Business Studies, Kabarak University, private Bag 2017, Nakuru, Kenya Department of Business, Kenya Methodist University, P.O. Box 2265, Nyeri, Kenya Abstract: The concept of a company or corporation, and even business itself cannot be separated from society. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility is where the firm is involved in Corporate Social Responsibility activities that are aligned to organizational goals. This guarantees the firm of its sustainability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility in minimizing human-wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru National Park. In order to accomplish this study, the study objectives were: To identify the Corporate Social Responsibility strategy objectives; to determine the Corporate Social Responsibility activities practiced; to determine the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility and to find out the measures used by Lake Nakuru National Park in ensuring the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility strategy in minimizing human-wildlife strategy in minimizing human-wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru National Park. This study was supported by a comprehensive literature review section in chapter two. The study adopted a Correlational research design and the sample design was selected by purposive sampling technique and cluster sampling technique. The study used a sample size of 70 respondents; 60 from the Lake Nakuru National Park staff and 10 employees from the Municipal Council Environment Department office in Nakuru. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package Social Sciences and Microsoft excel. Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies, correlations and non parametric tests [chi –test]) were computed. The findings were presented in form of charts and tables. The study successfully addressed the set research objectives. The findings revealed that the activities practiced included electric fencing; community sensitization; enhancement of employee welfare; and improved quality of life to the community. These were presented as influential in the minimization of Human Wildlife Conflicts at Lake Nakuru National Park. However the study found out that the challenges of adequacy of financial resources; and human resource capacity and flexibility hindered successful minimization of human wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru National Park to a large extent. The suggested measures included allocation of more funds to support the activities and enhancement of human and technological capacities. This study’s findings may provide essential information to the Lake Nakuru National Park and Kenya Wildlife Services which could be useful in the alignment of the practiced Corporate Social Responsibility activities to the Corporate Social Responsibility objectives. The Government and concerned stakeholders could use this information for the enhancement of the services offered by Lake Nakuru National Park through Kenya Wildlife Services, as well as support sustainable eco-tourism. I. Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), also known as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business, sustainable responsible business (SRB), or corporate social performance, is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR is the performance or non-performance of certain activities by a private enterprise or corporate organization without the expectation of direct economic gain or loss, for the purpose of improving the social well being of the community or one of its constituent groups. It is the duty of business community to promote the welfare of society. For instance, a corporate organization is said to be socially responsible or a good citizen if, among other things, it makes safe products devoid of serious structural defects, carefully disposes of its industrial wastes without causing ecological disasters, provides equal employment opportunities irrespective of gender, race or class and contributes towards solving society‟s problems in a number of ways such as building Old Peoples‟ Homes and donating food to the poor (Matten and Crane, 2003). DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 77 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… In recent years the business strategy field has experienced the renaissance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a major topic of interest by scholars worldwide. The concept has not surfaced for the first time. CSR had already known considerable interest in the 1960s and 70s, spawning a broad range of scholarly contributions and a veritable industry of social auditors and consultants. However, the topic all but vanished from most managers' minds in the 1980s. Having blossomed in the 1970s CSR all but vanished and only re-emerged in recent years (Carroll, 1999). In Africa like the rest of the developing countries, Governments, activists and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their activities. Myriad organizations rank companies on the performance of their corporate social responsibility (CSR), and despite sometimes questionable methodologies, these rankings attract publicity. As a result, CSR has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders (Michael and Mark, 2002). Companies are therefore allocating more resources to CSR practices (Khanna, (2004) For the last 13 years, the Kenya Wildlife Service has changed the way it works by giving its wildlife conservation efforts a human face. It has done this by including corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept in its operations through working with the communities who host the wildlife on their land, as well as sharing the benefits of wildlife conservation. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept that organizations, especially corporations, have an obligation to consider the interests of customers, employees, shareholders, communities, and ecological considerations in all aspects of their operations. CSR is closely linked to the principles of Sustainable Development, which post that enterprises should make decisions based not only on financial factors such as profits or dividends, but also based on the immediate and long-term social and environmental consequences of their activities. The adoption of CSR by the KWS is hoped to have given the communities a new zeal towards wildlife conservation in which they are now expected to participate as the key stakeholders in wildlife conservation. The KWS through the Community Wildlife Service has been working with these communities since 1994, in order to gain their support for, and appreciate wildlife conservation. This proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility in minimizing human-wildlife conflict through a case study of Lake Nakuru National Park (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Considering the current human population growth rate, increasing demand for resources and the growing demand for access to land, it is clear that human wildlife conflicts will not be eradicated in the near future, however, it needs to be managed urgently. A wide range of different management tools has been developed worldwide to address HWC, but most of these are strongly site and species/genera specific and are not widely or easily accessible. Direct contact with wildlife occurs in both urban and rural areas, but it is generally more common inside and around protected areas, where wildlife population density is higher and animals often stray into adjacent cultivated fields or grazing areas. HWC has serious environmental, human health and safety, economic and social impacts and thus follows the suggestion that governments, wildlife managers, scientists and local communities need to recognize the problem and adopt measures to resolve it in the interest of human and environmental well being. Mitigative strategies attempt to reduce the level of impact and lessen the problem; while preventative strategies endeavor to prevent the conflict occurring in the first place and take action towards addressing its root causes. Some are efficient in the short-term while others show results only in the long-term; others are more effective within defined geographic regions or specific taxonomic groups (Ogada, Woodroffe, Oguge, and Frank, 2003) Nakuru town is one of the major towns in Kenya, whose population is increasing tremendously due to rural-urban migrations and expanding industrial and commercial developments. Effluent from the town is discharged into enclosed fragile ecosystem of Lake Nakuru and this can be hazardous to living organisms in the ecosystems. Threats to forests, vegetation cover and animal species like the rhino originate from several sources. First the local communities consider protected areas irrelevant and a nuisance. They do not understand the concept and inflict great disturbance to species there in. When the notion of protected areas was introduced during colonial times, it was never explained to the local population, who would logically protect the flora and fauna. Secondly, a system of protected areas is the core of any program to maintain the diversity of ecosystems, species and wild gene pools. Effective participation of the local communities in the design, management and operations should be a rule of the thumb (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Lake Nakuru National Park owes its existence to the Lake Nakuru; the biggest salty water lake in the Rift Valley of Kenya. The lake receives its water from a supply from various sources, which include River Makalia, River Njoro, River Nderit, River Lamdiak, Baharini Springs and Nakuru town sewage system (treated). The Lake Nakuru Park dates back to 1961 when the southern park of the lake was gazetted as a bird sanctuary to be protected the "greatest bird (ornithological) spectacle on earth", for the future generations. In 1964, the whole of the lake was declared a bird sanctuary. In 1968, the Lake Nakuru shores were added into the sanctuary and the whole area was upgraded to a National Park. In 1974 a northern extension was added to the park increasing its area to the current 188 Km . In 1990 Lake Nakuru was designated a Ramsar site- a signatory of the Ramsar convention, for protection of wetlands of international importance. The foundation of the Lake DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 78 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… Nakuru park food chains is the cyanophyte Spirulina platensis which can support huge numbers of lesser flamingo. Lake Nakuru National Park is managed by KWS on behalf of the Kenya government. Lake Nakuru is the only fully fenced park in Kenya (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Ecosystem diversity is threatened by the competing land use practices, especially agriculture which has to expand to meet the needs of food security for a growing population. Some species of fauna and flora may be threatened by lack of proper and effective legal and institutional machinery. In Kenya the enforcement machinery is fragmented and uncoordinated and this handicaps the sustainability of the ecosystem. To protect game farming such as elephants and rhinos, it is essential for Kenya to streamline its enforcement machinery for protection of the endangered species (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Lake Nakuru National Park management has adapted a team effort with its stakeholders named Lake Nakuru National Park Action Committee (LNNPAC). The team works together in trying to minimize and solve emerging problems in and around the park. Started in 2003 by Nakuru hoteliers and Nakuru Business Association (NBA), LNNPAC compliment the park management activities and support all conservation activities to make the park a role model of others in Kenya. It is renowned as the committee behind construction of the electric fence, upgrading the living standard of the surrounding communities such as provision of water to surrounding schools, donation of reading materials e.t.c and supporting ecosystem e.g. rehabilitating earth dams in the park during dry season e.t.c (LNNPAC, Cycle with the Rhino, 2009). 1.1 Statement of the problem Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is fast becoming a serious threat to the survival of many endangered species in the world including Kenya. Most countries have employed various strategies to counter this threat. Among the strategies employed in Kenya minimization of the human-wildlife conflicts, is the CSR strategy employed by Lake Nakuru National Park which comprises activities such as community sensitization, electric fencing, enhancement of employees‟ welfare and enhancement of quality of life for communities. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is closely linked to the principles of Sustainable Development, which posit that enterprises should make decisions based not only on financial factors such as profits or dividends, but also based on the immediate and long-term social and environmental consequences of their activities. This strategy has been in operation since the year 2005. A lot of resources; time, financial or otherwise is spent in ensuring the implementation of the CSR strategy. The concern was not whether it was implemented, but whether it was influential in the minimization of human wildlife conflicts. It is important to assess its influence considering the costs associated with strategy implementation. Corporate Social Responsibility offers a sustainable competitive advantage to an organization because it creates a good relationship between the organization and the society, which is good for business. Porter and Kramer, 2006 argue that for any company, strategic CSR must go beyond best practices. It is about choosing a unique position – doing things differently from competitors in a way that lowers costs or better serves a particular set of customers‟ needs. This involves a commitment to the organizations resources. Lake Nakuru National Park, in achieving this, has adopted the CSR strategy and has engaged in a series of CSR activities. One of the key areas prioritized and targeted by the CSR strategy is the minimization of the human-wildlife conflict. The CSR strategy must be supportive to LNNP, owing to the fast decreasing rate of the endangered species such as the rhino. Destruction of the habitat by man will affect their own economic welfare since, wildlife which attracts a lot of revenue through tourism activities, will be affected. Through established committees such as the Lake Nakuru Park Action Committee, the organization is determined to ensure that the CSR business strategy is implemented and effective. It is also recognized that despite the existence of vast opportunities and numerous strengths, there are also a number of threats that affect the performance of KWS. Poaching and human / wildlife conflicts, as well as illegal trade in wildlife products are real threats, and these pose a problem. It is worth noting that reduced HWC will result into sustained tourism and natural environment sustainability. Tourism is the second largest contributor to Kenya‟s economy. The industry‟s strength is mainly based on Kenya‟s natural attractions, which include wild game. These wildlife resources managed by KWS are the backbone of the tourism industry in Kenya. KWS accounts for 90% of Safari Tourism and about 75% of total tourist earnings. Tourism industry accounts for 21% of total foreign exchange earnings and 12% of the Country‟s GDP. The economic survey of 2005 shows that, earnings from tourism rose to KShs39.2b in the year 2004-2005 (KWS Strategic Plan, 2008 – 2012). This study, therefore, focused on evaluating the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility in minimizing human-wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru National Park. 1.3 Objectives of the study The broad objective of the study wasto establish how community sensitization influences minimization of Human Wildlife Conflicts at Lake Nakuru National Park DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 79 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… The study was guided by the following objectives: i) To determine the importance of conservation of wildlife at Lake Nakuru National Park ii) To establish the possible compensation of loss at Lake Nakuru National Park iii) To establish the environmental practices at Lake Nakuru National Park. 1.4 Research Questions i. What is the imporatance of conservation ofwildlifeat Lake Nakuru National Park ii. What are the possible measures of loss at Lake Nakuru National Park iii. What are the environmental practices at Lake Nakuru National Park 1.5 Significance of the study The study could enable Lake Nakuru National Park evaluate its investment in the Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. The findings will help the committee to evaluate the appropriateness of the Corporate Social Responsibility activities applied and then make appropriate revision of activities practiced. The findings thus, could be used by Lake Nakuru National Park and Kenya Wildlife Services in aligning the Corporate Social Responsibility activities to the Corporate Social Responsibility objectives. The findings revealed that Lake Nakuru National Park was succeeding in minimizing human-wildlife conflicts, through the adopted Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. The Government, Kenya Wildlife Services and Other stakeholders could use these findings to consolidate resources and be able to formulate workable policies geared towards the minimization of human-wildlife conflict. The study is an eye-opener research and is hoped to be used as a reference material for research in the future. In other words, it forms a basis for future investigative research related to the nature of findings as well provide additional material for research work. 1.6 Limitations of the study The study was conducted at LNNP and was influenced mainly by the prevailing physical and environmental circumstances which may not be the case in other parks within the country. The causes of human wildlife conflicts may not be the same as in other parks. It may not be possible to therefore, generalize the findings, since they only represent the population parameter at LNNP. However, the study findings touch on general aspects most which touch human related factors such as training and financing. 1.7 Basic Assumptions The assumed that target respondents provided correct and thus, reliable information which enabled the researcher to come up with reliable conclusions and recommendations. 1.8 Delimitations of the study The study was focused basically on Nakuru business community and other stakeholders. The focus was on the Lake Nakuru National Park staff, Municipal Council‟s Environmental Department. The study was carried out around Lake Nakuru National Park and its environs. Lake Nakuru National Park was chosen not just due its proximity but also, due to the high magnitude of Human Wildlife Conflicts experienced in the area. The community members and the Lake Nakuru National Park staff were interviewed for information related to Lake Nakuru National Park operations (objectives, activities and implementation). The study lasted for six months. Lake Nakuru National Park is situated north west of Nairobi City, Kenya. Lake Nakuru National Park is managed by Kenya Wildlife Service on behalf of the Kenya Government. 1.9 Definition of significant terms used in the study Corporate social and environmental disclosure (CSD): is a method used by organizations to provide information to their stakeholders regarding their social; environmental; and ethical activities and impacts. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): This is a social obligation where organization consider the interests of customers, employees, shareholders, communities, and ecological considerations in all aspects of their operations. Human Wild life Conflict (HWC): This is a type of conflict that occurswhen wildlife‟s requirements overlap with those of human populations, creating costs to residents and wild animals. DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 80 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… II. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction This Chapter contains a comprehensive review of past studies, background and progression of CSR. The section covers the definition of CSR, its evolution and the concept of CSR. The section also introduces the aspect of Strategic CSR, Corporate social and environmental disclosure. The literature review section contains past studies and references on the importance of wild life. The problem and the driving forces of human wildlife conflicts are extensively discussed. This section also covers solutions to human wildlife conflicts from past studies. Other areas covered include the concept of environment and sustainable development; Eco-tourism; and the empirical review section. The chapter is completed with a conclusion, conceptual framework and a summary and gaps section. 2.4 Community Sensitization This section of the literature review touches on the Community sensitisation aspect. 2.4.1 Sensitization on the importance of Wildlife The local community needs to be sensitized on the importance of human wildlife so they may appreciate the value of conserving wildlife. The importance of wildlife is appreciated by the Kenya Government. Obviously Kenyan government has been aware very early of wildlife importance since it generates a significant income indirectly from tourism. Tourism has become the second biggest activities sector, providing 19% of the Gross Margin Product, when agriculture contributes to 26% (ISS, 2006; UNECA, 2005). Therefore in 1945, the National parks ordinance was declared, setting up 59 national parks and reserves which represent 8% of the territory. The sector has also created employment for its people. The wild creatures and the wild places are not only a source of wonder and inspiration but an integral part of our resources and future livelihood and wellbeing. 2.4.2 Sensitization on Solutions to Human Wildlife Conflicts Social marketing is a step by step approach to motivate specific people (often referred to as stakeholders or key audiences) to take some specific, measurable action or actions for the good of the community. A comprehensive and fully integrated social marketing approach may often not be possible due to a financial implication (Kotler, 1992). Public awareness or public education is the work of making people aware of a certain set of facts, ideas, or issues. Social marketing often utilizes public awareness or education campaigns to inform key audiences and predispose them to appropriate action, but takes this process further to get people to act on their changes in a community rather than stop at simply informing people (Kotler, 1992). In many cases, government agencies or non-profit organizations have launched campaigns to raise awareness, but most of these campaigns have not been able to change the behavior of those whose actions could limit the impact of invasive. An emerging group of campaign planners, drawn from academic research in social sciences and commercial marketing experience, are proposing new techniques that can be used. This can be used not only to raise awareness but also persuade both public and policymakers to act to solve the problem. It can as well provide with the tools to approach the problem systematically with well tested techniques in influencing human health, the environment or other issues with social benefits. The local community needs to be sensitized on the following aspects related to the minimization of Human Wildlife Conflicts (Kotler, 1992). Waste management systems that restrict wildlife access to refuse Good standards of waste management are important to avoid attracting wild animals to human settlements and to prevent wild populations being augmented and artificially sustained by human induced food availability. Each stage of waste handling should be addressed, from collection to transportation to disposal. Compensation systems HWC carries significant economic costs to humans and compensation is a measure which aims to alleviate conflict by reimbursing people for their losses. Compensation systems rely on giving out monetary payments or licenses to exploit natural resources, allowing the hunting of game or the collection of fuel wood, timber and fodder from inside protected areas. In Kenya, compensation schemes are very problematic. The compensation received for loss of human life or injury is not sufficient to cover funeral expenses or hospital bills. It also does not take into consideration the impact of such incidents on dependent children who are often taken out of school because of the lack of funds to pay their fees (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 81 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… Insurance programmes Livestock and crop insurance is often proposed as an innovative solution to mitigating the impact of HWC, but it is yet to be experimented broadly. It covers crops and livestock from the risk of wildlife attacks and involves the villagers and local governing bodies paying a premium share of the insurance and allows rural inhabitants to make a minimum annual cost and to be refunded in the event of crop or livestock losses. In addition, the local governing bodies or the forest department are relieved of significant financial expenses, from not having to administer compensation schemes (Madhusudan, 2003). Incentive programmes Incentive programmes are based on subsidies. They offset the cost of conservation and demand the adoption of conservation-friendly practices, creating tolerance towards wildlife through the exchange of benefits. Guarding Monitoring herds and active defense are essential features of animal husbandry in East Africa, where human herders are effective and fearless in warding off predators. In this region, herders are reported to challenge and scare away dangerous carnivores such as lions, hyenas and cheetahs with nothing more than simple weapons like spears, knifes or firearms (Patterson et al, 2004) Northern Kenya, the presence of human guards, dogs and human activity were associated with lower rates of livestock attacks by large predators (Ogada et al., 2003). 2.2.2 Driving forces to human wildlife conflicts: A set of global trends has contributed to the escalation of HWC worldwide. These can be grouped into human population growth, land use transformation, species habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, growing interest in ecotourism and increasing access to nature reserves, increasing livestock populations and competitive exclusion of wild herbivores, abundance and distribution of wild prey, increasing wildlife population as a result of conservation programmes, climatic factors and stochastic events. Human population growth Demographic and social changes place more people in direct contact with wildlife: as human populations grow, settlements expand into and around protected areas as well as in urban and sub-urban areas. In Africa, human population growth has lead to encroachment into wildlife habitats, constriction of species into marginal habitat patches and direct competition with local communities (IUCN, World Park Congress, 2003) Land use transformation This driving force is very much associated with the previous one, as the transformation of forests, savannah and other ecosystems into agrarian areas or urban agglomerates is a consequence of the increasing demand for land, food production, energy and raw materials. In Kenya, in many areas with abundant wildlife, such as Samburu, Trans-Mara, Taita and Kwale, conflict is intensified by land use fragmentation and the development of small-scale farming. In fact, state and trust ranches have been subdivided and sold as smallholdings and cultivated with commercial horticultural crops (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). In the Asian State of Gujarat, on the periphery of Gir National Park and Sanctuary, intense and escalating conflicts with Asian lions (Panthera leo persica) and leopards (Panthera pardus) are due to the rapid and extensive change in land use associated with the conversion of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and great millet (Pennisetum typhoides) fields into sugarcane (Saccharum offinarum) and mango (Mangifera indica) cultivation (Vijayani and Pati, 2002) Species habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation Species habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are also interconnected with population growth and land use change. Again, this is a further aspect of the issues discussed above. In Sumatra, the alteration of forest areas into agriculture and grazing land has restricted the Sumatran tiger‟s (Panthera tigris sumatrae, home range to a few patches of forest (Nyphus and Tilson, 2004). Growing interest in ecotourism and increasing access to nature reserves Recreational activities and growing public interest in charismatic species, such as large carnivores and endangered species have increased the human presence in protected areas and raised concern about capacities to manage and regulate public access and large-scale use of protected areas. Associated with the four global trends is a fifth cluster connected to alteration of natural food and water availability. DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 82 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… Increasing livestock populations and competitive exclusion of wild herbivores Growing densities in livestock populations can create an overlap of diets and forage competition with wild herbivores, resulting in overgrazing and decline or local extinction in wild herbivore populations (Mishra et al 1997). In India domestic animals outnumber wild ungulates within protected areasand it has been ascertained that livestock graze in 75% of wildlife sanctuaries and 39% of protected areas.Under thesecircumstances, livestock becomes an important source of prey for predators. Abundance and distribution of wild prey Many authors recognize that when native prey is abundant, wild predators consume it in preference to livestock and that impoverishment of prey populations is one of the major causes of carnivores shifting their diets to livestock. Clearly, this is due to the ease of capture and limited escape abilities of livestock (Mishra et al, 2003). In Venezuela, Hato Peneracommercial cattle ranch, the correlation between alteration of prey availability and local livestock depredation is evident by the fact that the highest depredation rates have been recorded in areas where prey abundance and diversity are relatively low (Polisar, Maxit, I., Scognamillo, Farrell, L., Sunquist, and Eisenberg,2003). Increasing wildlife population as a result of conservation programmes Beyond the ongoing problems of HWC, new questions have emerged. In recent years, the successful recovery of declining or near extinct species populations (Fall and Jackson, 2002) through wildlife management and protection from overexploitation has led to new conflicts. Sanctuary in the Indian state of Gujarat doubled the Asian lion (Panthera leo persica) population between 1970 and 1993. European settlement almost exterminated wolves. Recent recovery programmes, however have contributed to the decolonization by wolves of their original home range, including rural areas; and in the process have increased the potential for conflict, especially where domestic livestock is a major economic activity Musiani, M., Mamo, Boitani, Callaghan, Gates, Mattei, Visalberghi, Breck, and Volpi, (2003). Climatic factors Although not often mentioned, perhaps because they cannot be controlled, climatic trends are an important cause of HWC. Seasonal changes in rainfall are directly correlated with predation intensity in Kenya. In Tsavo National Parks, Patterson et al. (2004) quantified a positive association between monthly rainfall and attacks, demonstrating that in this region lions are more likely to attack livestock during seasonal rains. During drought periods, ungulates spend most of their time near a limited number of water sources and thus they are easily found and killed; when rain fills seasonal pools, lions disperse into their habitat, change their diets, and prey on easier targets. However, contrary to the Kenya Tsavo case, wild predators are more likely to attract attention and attack domestic animals in the dry season months, when the vegetative cover does not facilitate the hunting strategies of lions and leopard are based on surprise (Burtler, 2000). Stochastic events (e.g. fire) Stochastic events like fire are sporadic events which are difficult to forecast and prevent, yet also have an impact on human wildlife conflicts. During 1997 -1998, an El – Nino Southern Oscillation caused droughts and fires, a combination of factors, which resulted in the destruction of large areas of Sumatran forests. During that period, tigers fleeing burning areas near Berbak National Park were reported to have killed a person (Nyphus and Tilson, 2004). 2.2.3 Other causes of conflict in Kenya Lack of electric fence that contain the animals from moving out of the park and people from entering the park, this allows illegal movement in and out of the park. People leaving around the park fetch fuel wood from the park for domestic use. People also trap animals for game meat which is sold illegally to the other community members. The animal‟s habitats having been deprived of its food and shelter will move out of the parks in search of better living conditions. This event causes conflicts. There is lack of education and awareness on importance of conservation of the ecosystems. The neighboring communities view the park as the preserve of the tourists. The communities need to be sensitized on the importance of conservation and made part of it if sustainability is to be realized (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Poverty is also considered as part of the causes of conflict. Many communities living around the park have low incomes and therefore turn to the resource available in the park. They get firewood collected from the parks to prepare food and illegal brews for sale. Drought has also had an effect on human wildlife conflict. During harsh periods of the drought as in the year 2009 in Kenya, there was prolonged lack of rains; there is scarcity of food both for the animals and the people. The animals tend to get out of the parks in search of food in DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 83 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… peoples farms and homes. The people on the other hand hunt game meat for survival (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Hunting as a hobby is another cause of conflict. In some communities especially the pastoralists, hunting is considered as a way of life. If you kill a lion you are considered a hero. This encourages people to go on killing sprees, thus endangering the already endangered species. Also in some communities, some people look for herbs which are used for the medicinal purposes. This destroys nature and its beauty since some of the trees are not renewable and denying some animals its habitats. This is rampant since people are seeking herbal treatment lately Poaching is also considered another cause of conflict. Poaching is mainly targeting animals such as elephants and rhinos for their economic activities. The horns are lucrative business to poachers (Kenya Wildlife Services, 1996). Community sensitization This is considered a powerful tool by many scholars. Information or knowledge transfer has a great influence behaviour change. Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) strategy has proved effective in so many instances, for example the case in managing HIV / AIDS spread and on so many instances of taming unwanted human practices. III. Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction This chapter presents the methodology which was used in data collection and analysis, Research design, location of the study, population of the study, sampling procedure, sample size, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis. 3.2 Research Design This study was guided by Correlational research design. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2000) in a correlational research, researchers investigate possible relationships among variables without trying to influence those variables. The correlational research design enables the researcher to assess the degree of relationship that exists between two or more variables. It analyses the correlations between two or more variables. In this study, the researcher attempted to determine the relationship between CSR strategy and minimization of human wildlife conflict at LNNP. CSR activities are the independent variable while minimization of HWC is the dependent variable. Koul (1988) observes that magnitude of the relationship between the variables is determined by the use of coefficient of correlation. This study provided the results in terms of qualitative and descriptive data. 3.3 Target population of the study Lake Nakuru National Park is situated in Rift Valley Province and managed by KWS on behalf of the Kenya Government. The area of the study was within Nakuru town. Shao (1999) defines a population or universe as the aggregate of all the elements. A population is be defined in terms of elements (in this context it refers to employees). The target population of this study included 165 employees of the Lake Nakuru National Park and Nakuru Municipal Council‟s Environmental Department. LNNP staff were classified according to the Departments. The general employees provided information about the CSR objectives, activities, and implementation relative to human wildlife conflict, while the Municipal Council‟s Environmental Department provided information regarding environmental concerns resulting from wildlife resource management levels. The study targeted 5 Departments at the LNNP. Table 3.1: Lake Nakuru National Park population Department Number of employees 25 Community Issues Department 5 Marketing Department Human Resources Management 5 Security Department 100 Support staff 30 Total 165 The population therefore was made up of 165 employees of LNNP and ten (50) Nakuru Municipal Council‟s Environmental Department staff. The sample size was calculated on the basis of the population above. DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 84 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… 3.4 Sample size and sample selection Dillon (1994) defines sampling as the identification of a group of individuals or households who can be reached by mail, by telephone or in person and who possesses information relevant to solving the problem at hand. The sample size was determined by the following sampling techniques. In this technique the researcher purposely targeted a group of 10 employees of the Nakuru Municipality‟s Environment Department. The study used a sample size which was computed as follows: n(x ÷ y) = z Where: n = the total target sample size for the category of LNNP staff. x = Department‟s number of staff y = Total number of employees at LNNP z = Sample size from the department Therefore, the sample size was 60 as shown in the table. Table 3.2: Sample size determination Department Number of employees Sample size Community Issues Department 25 9 Marketing Department 5 2 Human Resources Management 5 2 Security Department 100 36 Support staff 30 11 Total 165 60 The study gave an equal chance of representation on gender basis, but in the case of odd numbers, except security department, preference is given to the female targets. 3.5 Research Instruments McDaniel and Gates (2001) and Lancaster, Withey and Ashford (2001) define a questionnaire as a set of questions designed to generate the data necessary to accomplish the objectives of the research project. Two sets of questionnaire containing both structured and unstructured questions werer used to make it as easy as possible for the respondents to provide the necessary information. In this study a qualitative and quantitative research tool, was used. The questionnaire was more systematic and structured and aims at obtaining information from respondents in a direct and open manner. According to Hair(2000) results obtained from personal interviews are quantifiable easily and the questionnaire and personal interview have a potentially high degree of reliability. Shao (1999) points out that, interviews may be structured, consisting of direct questions to obtain factual data, or indirect (semi – structured), allowing more flexibility on the part of the interviewer in setting questions in an indirect manner, or probing for answers. The study used a drop and pick method, and this exercise was administered by the researcher personally. The questionnaires used for the study was divided into three sections namely Part A, Part B and Part C. Part A was used to obtain personal information of the respondents in both sets of questionnaires. Part B was used to collect information related to the influence of the Corporate Social Responsibility activities practiced at LNNP, on the minimization of human wildlife conflicts (the extent, reasons for involvement in CSR activities). Part was useful in obtaining information related to the effectiveness the CSR activities in the minimization of human wildlife conflicts and also information on the measures for the enhancement of the influence of the activities in the minimization of human wildlife conflicts at the LNNP. 3.6 Reliability of instruments Reliability of an instrument is a measure of the degree to with which it measures a variable and gives consistent data (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). The Questionnaire was pre-tested amongst the employees at Lake Nakuru National Park. This enabled the researcher to determine the effectiveness of the questionnaire. 10 questionnaires were used for the exercise. The questionnaires were distributed to the LNNP‟s departments as follows: Security Department 6, Support staff 2 and the Community Issues Department 3. The responses were evaluated to assess their relation with the research objectives. The findings of the pre – testing were used to modify and improve the questionnaire, thus enhancing the reliability and validity of the data collection instrument. 3.7 Validity of instruments Mutai, (2000) argues that an instrument can be validated by proving that its items or questions are representative of skills or characteristics that it is intended to measure. The study also relied on advice from DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 85 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… experts to determine if the items were representative sample of the skills and traits which comprised the area to be measured. The developed questionnaires were submitted to an expert to seek an independent and professional opinion as to their content and structure. Upon the expert‟s advice, the study improved on the structure and content of the instruments. 3.8 Data collection procedures Data was collected through a drop and pick method. The questionnaires were delivered to the LNNP offices and distributed to the identified respondents upon authorization from the management. The questionnaires were then collected after two days, to allow the respondents ample time to respond to all the questions accurately. The questionnaires for the MCN employees were also distributed upon authorization from the MCN management. The questionnaires were also collected after two days. Upon completion of the data collection exercise, the stage that followed was data analysis. 3.8 Data Analysis techniques Zikmund and d‟Amico (2001) define this stage as the statistical and qualitative considerations of data gathered by research. Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlations and non parametric tests) were computed. In this study the analysis of the data was performed with the aid of SPSS and Ms Excel and the findings were presented in chapter four using tables, and graphs to make interpretation. 3.9 Ethical Considerations The study ensured that appropriate authorization was obtained from the Municipal Environmental Department office and the Management of the Lake Nakuru National Park, prior to collection of data from the target population. The study also informed the respondents of the purpose of the study and assured them of the confidentiality of the information provided. To determine the Independent Variable -Number of Strategic plan Questionnaire Nominal Frequencies, Corporate Social Community sensitizations Reports Ordinal means and Responsibility sensitization programs - CSR Records Ratio percentages activities practiced in Electric fencing undertaken activities Friedman minimizing Human -Employees carried out ranking tests Enhancement of Wildlife Conflicts. employee welfare Commitment to - Employee Quality of life to the work performance communities (water -Number of projects provision, sanitation undertaken services) IV. Data Analysis, Presentation, Interpretation And Discussion 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents findings of the study. The study sought to identify the Corporate Social Responsibility strategic objectives on Lake Nakuru National Park in minimizing Human Wildlife Conflicts; to determine the Corporate Social Responsibility activities practiced by the Lake Nakuru National Park management in minimizing Human Wildlife Conflicts; to assess the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility strategy in minimizing human-wildlife conflict; and to find out the measures used by Lake Nakuru National Park in ensuring the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility strategy in minimizing human-wildlife. Data was therefore, collected from the Lake Nakuru National Park employees and Nakuru Municipality employees to accomplish the study. Table 4.1: Response rate Category of respondents Target No. of questionnaires No. of questionnaires returned Response rate Lake Nakuru National Park employees 60 54 90% Nakuru Municipality employees. 10 10 100% The study was able to get a response from 54 respondents out of the 60 questionnaires distributed to the Lake Nakuru National Park employees; that is a response rate of 90%. The rest of the respondents did not return the questionnaires citing reasons such as forgetfulness, misplacement and lack of time. The study was also able to get a response of 100% from the questionnaires distributed to the Nakuru Municipality employees as shown in the table. 4.2 Presentation of findings This section contains the presentation of findings arising from data analysis. DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 86 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… 4.2.1 Demographic Characteristics of the respondents 184.108.40.206: Gender of the respondents The gender of the respondents is given in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Gender of the respondents LNNP employees MCN employees Total Frequency Percent Male 32 7 39 61% Female 22 3 25 39% Total 54 10 64 100% The total number of respondents was 64 which was made up of 61% male and 39% female respondents was used for the study. This implied that most people employed in the two areas were male. At LNNP, most of the persons interviewed from all departments were female. However, this is reflective of gender imbalance in the quest to minimize human wildlife conflicts. Women need to be involved in the strategy. 220.127.116.11: Age of the respondents The age of the respondents from both categories is given in the Table 4.3. Table 4. 3: Age of the respondents Age bracket LNNP employees MCN employees Total Frequency Percent Below 25 years 14 1 15 23% 26-35 years 32 6 38 59% 36-45 years 6 2 8 13% Above 45 years 2 1 3 5% Total 54 10 64 100% The study interviewed 38 respondents aged between 26 and 35 years, 15 respondents aged 25 years, 8 respondents aged between 36 and 45 years, and 2 respondents aged above 45 years. The age is an indicator of the potential of the employees to minimize human wildlife conflicts. The age bracket with the majority (26 and 35 years) is the energetic age in human life cycle. At this stage the employees are able to move with the required speed and deliver required results with ease. 18.104.22.168: Highest academic qualification The Highest academic qualification of the respondents is as shown in the Table 4.3. Table 4.4: Highest academic qualification Educational level LNNP staff MCN staff Total Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percent Primary school level 4 4 6% 7.4 Secondary school 24 2 26 41% 51.9 College level 12 6 18 28% 74.1 University level 14 2 16 25% 100 Total 54 64 100% The research findings show that most of the respondents (41%) indicated secondary school level as their highest academic qualification, 25% indicated University level, and 28% indicated College level, while 6% indicated Primary school level as their highest academic qualification. This implied that most of the people interviewed were educated enough to comprehend the implication of Human Wildlife Conflicts. 22.214.171.124 Suggestions to support Community sensitization Suggestions to support Community sensitization are given in Table 4.15. Table 4. 5: Suggestions to support Community sensitization Frequency Percentage Involve the community in wildlife conservation 28 19% Free park visits by community members 16 11% Offering lessons during visits 16 11% Conducting regular baraza 14 9% 22 15% Community to be sensitized on compensation in case of injury / death caused by wildlife Community to be educated on possible crops that are not likely to be 29 20% destroyed by baboons DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 87 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… The Government to provide more funding for community sensitization 23 16% Total 148 100% The respondents gave various suggestions towards supporting Community sensitization for minimization human wildlife conflicts. The suggestions are shown in the table: The employees suggested that for community sensitization to be effective LNNP was to: involve the community in wildlife conservation; organize free park visits by community members and offer lessons during the visits; conduct regular barazas; to sensitize the Community to be sensitized on compensation in case of injury / death caused by wildlife and to educate the community on possible crops that are not likely to be destroyed by baboon. They also suggest that the Government to provide more funding for community sensitization. 4.4Discussion of the Findings This section is a discussion of the findings presented above. 4.4.1 General information on the respondents in respect to CSR and HWC minimization The study was carried using a sample made up 59% male and 41% female employees from the Lake Nakuru National Park. Majority of the respondents interviewed (32 employees) were aged between 26 and 35 years while 14 employees were aged 25 years. Secondary school level was cited as the highest academic qualification attained by most respondents. It is established from the study that most of the LNNP staff interviewed had worked with the Lake Nakuru National Park for a period of above 2 years. The study also interviewed ten Municipal of Nakuru employees from the Environment Department, whereby a sample made up 70% male and 30% female respondents was used. Majority of the respondents were aged between 26 years and 35 years and most of them indicated that their highest level of education was College level.It is also established that majority of the LNNP staff were aware of the concept of corporate social responsibility. The findings reveal that the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities (Community sensitization, Enhancement of employee welfare and Improved Quality of life to the community) were practiced to a large extent. All the MCN staff indicated that they were familiar with Corporate Social Responsibility actions of the Lake Nakuru National Park. Majority of MCN staff agreed there were cases of human-wildlife conflicts in Lake Nakuru National Park and agreed that Lake Nakuru National Park works in collaboration with Municipal council of Nakuru in the minimization of human-wildlife conflicts.Most of the respondents (employees from the Lake Nakuru National Park) were directly involved in the implementation of the CSR activities and they also indicated that the objectives of the above activities mentioned to them. 126.96.36.199: Employees involvement in the CSR activities Employees‟ involvement in the CSR activities is given in Table 4.10. Table 4. 6: Employees involvement in the CSR activities Employees involvement Frequency Percent Yes 38 70.4 No 16 29.6 Total 54 100.0 The research findings were: Yes (70%) and No (30%). Majority of the respondents interviewed at the LNNP were directly involved in the implementation of the CSR activities and therefore provided the study with first hand information. 188.8.131.52: Mentioning of the objectives of the CSR activities to the staff at KWS The response to whether the objectives of the CSR activities are mentioned to the staff at KWS is indicated in Table 4.11. Table 4. 7: Mentioning of the objectives of the CSR activities to the staff at KWS CSR objectives Mentioning Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Yes 36 66.7 66.7 No 18 33.3 100.0 Total 54 100.0 The research findings were: Yes (67%) and No (33%). Most of the LNNP employees were aware of the objectives of the CSR objectives of minimizing human wildlife conflicts had hence contributed to their attainment. DOI: 10.9790/487X-17237792 www.iosrjournals.org 88 | Page Role Of Community Sensitization Influences Minimization Of Human Wildlife… 4.2.2: Influence of community sensitization in the minimization of Human Wildlife Conflicts at Lake Nakuru National Park. 184.108.40.206: Reasons behind Community sensitization by LNNP According to the LNNP employees the reasons for LNNP‟s involvement Community sensitizationare as shown in the Table 4.12. Table 4.8: Reason behindCommunity sensitization by LNNP Frequency Percentage To change the people's perception towards conservation of 28 25% wildlife Educate the community on the importance of park life (wild life) 26 23% Campaign against human wildlife conflicts 26 23% To enhance community's appreciation of conserving wild life 20 18% To remove ignorance from the community especially in respect 11 10% species and eco systems Total 111 100% The reasons behind community sensitization were: to change the people's perception towards conservation of wildlife; Educate the community on the importance of park life (wild life); Campaign against human wildlife conflicts; to enhance community's appreciation of conserving wild life and to remove ignorance from the community especially in respect species and eco systems 4.4.2 Influence of community sensitization in the minimization of Human Wildlife Conflicts at Lake Nakuru National Park. The objectives for community sensitization were: to change the people's perception towards conservation of wildlife; Educate the community on the importance of park life (wild life); Campaign against human wildlife conflicts; to enhance community's appreciation of conserving wild life and to remove ignorance from the community especially in respect species and eco systems. Community sensitization was cited by both the MCN staff and LNNP staff as effective in minimizing human wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru by most respondents. The employees suggested that for community sensitization to be effective LNNP was to: involve the community in wildlife conservation; organize free park visits by community members and offer lessons during the visits; conduct regular “barazas”; to sensitize the Community to be sensitized on compensation in case of injury / death caused by wildlife and to educate the community on possible crops that are not likely to be destroyed by baboon. They also suggest that the Government to provide more funding for community sensitization 220.127.116.11: Effectiveness of Community sensitization The effectiveness of Community sensitization is given in the Table 4.13. Table 4. 9: Effectiveness of Community sensitization Observed N Expected N Residual Highly Ineffective 2 10.8 -8.8 Ineffective 2 10.8 -8.8 Neutral 14 10.8 3.2 Effective 24 10.8 13.2 Highly Effective 12 10.8 1.2 Total 54 Community sensitization is effective in minimizing human wildlife conflict at Lake Nakuru National Park with an observed number of 24 respondents indicating effective and 12 indicating highly effective. These values are above the expected number of 10.8.The sensitization of the local community on the importance of wildlife conservation, Waste management systems that restrict wildlife access to refuse, Compensation systems and Incentive programmes was an effective intervention in the minimization of human wildlife conflicts. The effectiveness of Community sensitization form the MCN‟s perspective is given in the Table 4.14. Table 4. 10: Effectiveness of Community sensitization in minimizing human wildlife conflicts Observed N Expected N Residual
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