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▯ Examinee Score Interpretation Guide SM Effective October 1, 2003 Nature of the Test Table 1 Table 2 The Graduate Management Admission Test▯ (GMAT▯) is sponsored and directed by the Percentages of Examinees Tested From Percentages of Examinees Tested From Graduate Management Admission Council▯ (GMAC), an international organization of 138 January 2000 Through December 2002 January 2000 Through December 2002 (Including Repeaters) Who Scored Below (Including Repeaters) Who Scored Below graduate schools of management. Educational Testing Service▯ (ETS▯) develops the test. Specified Verbal and Quantitative Scores Specified Total Scores Your GMAT scores are intended to assist you, academic counselors, and admissions officers in predicting your academic performance in the first year of graduate manage- Percentage Percentage Total Percentage Total Percentage ment school. GMAT scores are used by about 1,700 graduate management programs Below Below Scaled Score Below Scaled Score Below Scaled ScoreVerbal Scaled Scoreuantitative 750-800 99 500 38 throughout the world, and more than 1,000 of these programs require GMAT scores from 740 98 490 35 each applicant. 45-60 99 51-60 99 730 97 480 32 The GMAT measures general verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills that are 44 98 50 95 720 97 470 29 43 98 49 90 710 95 developed over a long period of time and are associated with success in the first year of 42 96 48 86 460 25 study at graduate schools of management. Theverbalsection of the test measures the 41 94 47 82 700 93 450 23 abilityto understand and evaluate what is read and the ability to recognize basic conven- 40 91 46 80 690 92 440 21 39 89 45 78 680 90 430 18 tions of standard written English. Theantitativesection tests basic mathematical skills 38 86 44 73 670 89 420 16 and understanding of elementary conceptsas well as the ability to reason quantitatively. 37 84 43 71 660 87 410 14 The analytical writing sections of the test measure the ability to think critically and com- 36 81 42 66 650 85 400 13 35 77 41 64 640 81 390 11 municate complex ideas throughwriting. The GMAT does not measure achievement in 34 72 40 62 630 79 380 10 such specific fields as economics and accounting. 33 70 39 57 620 77 370 8 32 67 38 55 610 74 360 7 31 62 37 52 600 70 350 6 Your Score Report 30 60 36 48 590 67 340 5 29 57 35 43 580 64 330 4 The GMAT yields four scores: verbal, quantitative, total, and analytical writing. Unofficial 28 52 34 41 570 61 320 3 scores from the verbal and quantitative multiple-choice sections, and the total score, are 27 46 33 39 560 57 310 3 available immediately after you completethe test. Official GMAT score reports, which in- 26 44 32 35 550 54 300 2 25 39 31 31 540 51 290 2 clude the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) score,are mailedto examinees and desig- 24 36 30 29 530 46 280 2 nated score report recipients approximately two weeks after the test. 23 31 29 25 520 44.5 240-270 1 You can use this guide to interpret the unofficial multiple-choice scores you received 22 29 28 24 510 41 200-230 0 21 25 27 20 at the test center or the official scores sent from ETS by mail. 20 21 26 18 Number of Examinees 676,604 19 17 25 15 Mean 528 Verbal, Quantitative, and Total Scores. The verbal and quantitative scores range 18 15 24 14 Standard Deviation 112 from 0 to 60, although scores below 9 and above 44 on the verbal measure or below 7 17 12 23 12 and above 50 on the quantitative measure are rare. Both scores are on a fixed scale; thus 22 10 16 10 scores obtained at any GMAT test administration can be compared. The verbal and 15 7 21 9 Table 3 quantitative scores measure different constructs and are not comparable to each other. 14 6 20 8 Percentages of Examinees Tested From Total scores range from 200 to 800. 13 4 19 7 January 2000 Through December 2002 12 3 18 6 Analytical Writing Score. The single number that constitutes the AWA score is an 11 2 17 4 (Including Repeaters) Who Scored Below average of the ratings given to both writing tasks, which are themselves averaged scores. 10 1 16 4 Specified AWA Scores 9 1 15 4 Each response is given two independentratings. If the two ratings are either identical or 0-8 0 14 3 AWA Score Percentage Below within one point of each other on the rating scale, they are averaged. For instance, if a 13 2 6.0 97 response receives two ratings of 5, the score is obviously 5. If a response receives one 12 2 5.5 90 7-11 1 5.0 78 rating of 5 and a second rating of 6, the score is 5.5. 0-6 0 4.5 60 If the two ratings for a response differ by more than one point (for instance, ratings of 3 and 5), the ratings are called discrepant, and another evaluationis required.If the No. ofExaminees 676,604 No. ofExaminees 676,604 4.0 39 Mean 2M7ean 35 3.5 21 discrepant ratings are 3 and 5 and the third rater assigns a rating of 4, the average (4) iStandard Deviation 9Standard Deviation 10 3.0 10 used. However, if the third rater assigns a rating of 5, the low score of 3 is discarded, and 2.5 4 the final score assigned is 5. Because oofngoing training and monitoring, discrepant 2.0 2 0.5-1.5 1 ratings are rare. 0.0 0 Once both essays have been scored, the scores are averaged to provide an overall Number of Examinees 674,899* AWA score. A test taker who received a score of 5 on the analysis of an issue essay Mean 4.0 and a score of 4 on the analysis of an argument essay would, for example, have a total Standard Deviation 1.0 AWA score of 4.5. The same AWA score can result from various combinations of ratings. For example, an *Not all examinees received essay scores during this overall score of 4.5 (rounded to the nearest half-point interval) would be assigned to a test time period. taker with ratings of 5 and 6 on the first topic and 3 and 3 on the second topic, as well aspecial Notations on Your Report. A score imprinted with “Delayed or Absent” may to a test taker with ratings of 5 and 5 on the first topic and 4 and 4 on the second topic.indicate that there is a delay in the score reporting process. People who registered for but did not take the test should interpret this message as confirming their absence. People Percentages (%) Below. In addition to the scaled score, your score report contains who took the test should interpret it as “scores delayed.” Score delays may result from percentages (%) below. The percentage below indicates the percentage of examinees such problems as late receipt at ETS of the record of responses, examinee errors, or im- who scored below you based on the scores of the entire GMAT testing population for the pending security investigations. A score report marked “Delayed or Absent” should not most recent three-year period. The percentages below are important in considering how affect application files at graduate schools. an applicant for admission to a particular management school compares with everyone tested in a specified period. Tables 1, 2, and 3 provide information for the most recent three-year testing period. The percentages below may changefrom year to year, and score reports will incorporate the most current data available. Copyright © 2003 by the Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. GMAT, Graduate Management Admission Test, and Graduate Management Admission Council are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council. Educational Testing Service, ETS, and the ETS logos are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Score Report for Graduate Management Programs Commonly Asked Questions If, when you took the test, you designated graduate management programs to receive ● How will admissions officers interpret my GMAT scores? your scores, the schools will receive similar reports of your scores. In addition to your Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test have two important characteristics: GMAT verbal, quantitative, total, and analytical writing scores and percentages below, a school’s report may contain copies of your essays. Results from your three most recent — They are reliable measures of certain developed mental abilities that have been found to be important in the study of management at the graduate level. In repeated studies test administrations within the last five years are reported to the schools, including test of the effectiveness of the GMAT, ithas consistently been found that the test scores administrations for which scores are not available because of absences or other are good, although imperfect, predictors of academic success in the first year of circumstances. The names of institutions that youhave selected to receive your scores are study at graduate schools of management. not reported to other institutions. — Unlike undergraduate averages, which vary in their meaning according to the If you did not designate recipients for your score reports or want to send your scores to more schools, you can do so by requesting the additional score reporting service. grading standards of institutions, GMAT scores are based on the same standard for all who take the test. GMAT scores earned by different people can be compared directly, whereas undergraduate averages cannot. Additional Score Reporting Service ● What are appropriate uses for GMAT scores? If you want your scores sent to institutions you did not designate when you tested, you The following are normally appropriate uses for GMAT scores: may request the additional score reporting service. Score reports will be mailed within — for selection of applicants for graduate study in management two weeks after receipt of your request at ETS, and you will receive an examinee copy. — for selection of applicants for financial aid based on academic potential You will be charged a fee for each additional score report requested. — for counseling and guidance Toorder, call Customer Service at 1-609-771-7330 (credit card required). You may The following are normally inappropriate uses for GMAT scores: also complete an Additional Score Report Request Form and mail or fax it with the — as a requisite for awarding a degree appropriate fee or VISA, MasterCard, or American Express information to the address — as a requirement for employment, for licensing or certification to perform a job, or for given on the form. You can download this form from the Web site at www.mba.com or use the form located in the center of theGMAT Information Bulletin. If you donot include job-related rewards (raises, promotions, etc.) — as an achievement test the correct fee or credit card information, your request will be returned to you. For more information, please consult the “Guidelines for the Use of GMAT Scores” If you have taken the GMAT more than once, your scores from the latest test date— and from the two most recent tests taken within the lastfive years—willbe reported. Only printed in theGMAT Information Bulletin. scores from the three most recent test dates within the last five years will be reported on ● Should my GMAT scores influence my decision about the schools to the additional score report. which I will apply? Because scores that are more than five years old present special interpretation It is not uncommon for people who have taken the GMAT to overinterpret their scores; problems, many institutions will not accept them. At your request, the GMAT program that is, they may decide where to apply — or whether to apply at all — solely on the will release scores for tests taken between October 1983 and June 1998 but will send with basis of test performance. These people may be doing themselves a disservice because the score report a statement indicating the special nature of the scores. You could be admissions officers generally treat GMAT scores as only one of several predictors of required by some institutions to take the GMAT again and supply more current scores. performance in graduate business school. GMAT scores more than 20 years old cannot be reported because all records older than The test may not accurately reflect the abilities of someone who is not proficient in 20 years are destroyed. English. Applicants are urged to provide admissions officers with all possible informa- tion in addition to GMAT scores and undergraduate record (e.g., recommendations; Reliability and the Error of Measurement evidence of motivation, commitment, and special accomplishments; scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language [TOEFL], if relevant). It is important to know that test scores are not precise measures. The scores actually obtained on any given occasion are an approximation of your true performance, and ● Do GMAT scores relate to other test scores? persons who take the GMAT more than once will probably not receive the same scores Although the GMAT scales may appear similar to scales for other tests, comparisons of a person’s GMAT scores with scores on other general admission tests (such as the General each time. It is not possible, of course, todetermine whetherthe scores people actually Test of the Graduate Record Examinations) are not appropriate. The scales are not earn are higher or lower than their true performance. Oneadvantage of objectivetests, such as the GMAT, is that the chance variation can be estimated statistically and taken directly related, and scores cannot be interpreted as if they were the same. into account by those who use scores. A value known as the standard error of measure- ● How does the Analytical Writing Assessment contribute to my scores ment reflects the potential variation in obtained scores. For recent administrations of the on the GMAT? GMAT,the standard error of measurement for the total score is about 28 points. This Analytical writing scores, which range from 0 to 6, are computed separately from scores means that chances are about two out of three that the reported GMAT total score is on the multiple-choice sections of the test and have no effect on the verbal, quantitative, within 28 points above or below a score reflecting the true performance. For verbal and or total scores. For specific information about how AWA scores are determined, refer to quantitative scores, the standarderrors of measurement are about 2.8 points. “Analytical Writing Score” on the reverse side. Reliability indicates the degree to which individuals would keep the same relative standing if they were to take the test more than once. For recent administrations of the ● How could retaking the test affect both my scores and my chances of admission? test, average reliability for the GMAT total score is 0.93 (perfect reliability is 1.00). Some examinees do take the GMAT more than once. No matter how many times a person Average reliability is 0.90 for the verbal score and 0.91 for the quantitative score. takes it, however, the score report will contain only the current and the two most recent previous scores, and these scores will probably be different (see “Reliability and the Error of Measurement”). When someone has more than one set of scores, an admissions Validity of the Scores The validity of graduate admission test scores can be described as the degree to which officer may have evidence that one set is likely to be a more accurate reflection of ability the scores relate to, or predict, a measure of performance in the graduate program itself. than another; if not, the scores may be averaged. For specific information about how schools use scores from multiple test administrations, contact the school to which you The predictive validity of GMAT scores has been estimated by examining their relation- are applying. ship to first-year grades in graduate management programs. Since 1978, the Graduate Management Admission Council has conducted many studies of the validity of GMAT ● Can I now cancel my scores? scores and other preadmission measures through its Validity Study Service. In all the You have the opportunity to cancel your scores at the end of the test administration. studies, GMAT scores, undergraduate grade point averages, and average grades for the Once your scores have been reported, ETS cannot honor a request to delete either these first year of graduate work were obtained. scores or any previous scores from your permanent score record. During 2001-02, 111 validity studies were conducted for 83 graduate management ● Who has access to my scores? schools that provided verbal, quantitative, and AWA scores for their students. For these Toprotect your right to control the distribution of your scores, reports are released only studies, correlations between GMAT verbal, quantitative, and AWA scores and first-year at your specific written request; every recipient must be designated by you, either at your management school grades ranged from .16 to .65. (Correlation is stated as a coefficient for which +1.00 indicates perfect accuracy of prediction.) Correlations between GMAT test administration, in a letter, or on an Additional Score Report Request Form. verbal, quantitative, and AWA scores combined with undergraduate grade point averages Educational Testing Service will not release your scores at the request of institutions or fellowship agencies except for use in research studies that are approved by the Graduate and first-year management school grades ranged from .21 to .66. Across the 111 Management Admission Council and that preserve your anonymity and that of the studies, the median (average) correlation of combined GMAT verbal, quantitative, and institution(s) you have attended. Note: Your score record and the documents you AWA scores with first-year grades was .42; the median correlation between undergraduate completed that are retained at ETS may be released to third parties (e.g., government grade point averageand first-year grades was .25. When GMAT scores were combined with undergraduate grade point average, the median correlation was .47. These results agencies, parties to a lawsuit) if requested pursuant to a subpoena. indicate that, although GMAT scores are generally better than the undergraduate record for predicting average grades in the first year of graduate study, the best predictor is a combination of GMAT scores and undergraduate grade point average. 60826-04072 • U83E450 I.N. 997919 ®®
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