Notes for 4/3 to 4/8
Notes for 4/3 to 4/8 CHEM - 10060 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nick Manning on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM - 10060 - 001 at Kent State University taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY I in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
WEEK OF 4/4 – 4/8 NOTES IONIZATION ENERGY Ionization Energy – closely related to effective nuclear charge, energy when one mol of electron is removed by a gas, forming a cation - INCREASES across a period - DECREASES down a group o Because of shielding on the outer e-, more shielding means easier to pluck an electron off IE1 < IE2 <IE3 due to the removal of more and more electrons *review examples of removal of electrons from the PowerPoint slides and class ELECTRON AFFINITY Electron affinity- E change occurring when 1 mol of e- is gained by 1 mol of gas atoms/ions - Usually negative because the nucleus attracts the extra e- - Bigger atoms means it is easier for an electron to join the outskirts = high EA - DECREASES down a group - INCREASES across a period o These trends are not very smooth though and the noble gases are excluded REVIEW IE EA - Cation formed - anion formed - Low # = e- lost quick/easily - low # = e- not gained easily - Lose e- - gain e- Reactive Metals: Low IE & Low EA Reactive nonmetals: High IE & High EA Noble Gases: High IE & Low EA PREDICTING BEHAVIOR FROM THE PERIODIC TABLE Group 1A elements: lowest IE & EA of the period - React violently with water and easily form cations Group 7A elements: high IE and highest EA of period, reactivity decreases down a group, easy to form anion Metallic Behavior Metal oxides are ionic and basic Nonmetal oxides are covalent and basic Amphoteric oxide- either acid or base, react like both ION FORMATION Main group elements tend to lose/gain e-, attain a noble gas e- configuration Isoelectronic- same # of e-, same e- configuration Isoelectronic series- all the monatomic ions that isoelectronic put together in a list Main group metals from period 4+ lose electrons, only form cations - May attain either inert pair config. or pseudo-noble gas config. EXAMPLE Sn: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2 Sn2+ (inert pair): [Kr] 5s2 4d10 Sn 4+ (pseudo-noble gas): [Kr] 4d10 RULES FOR TRANSTITION METALS Transition metals lose ns e- first, so electrons in the highest s shell. IONIC SIZE Cations are smaller than their parent atom, anions are larger than there parent atom Size INCREASES down a group Size DECREASES across a period CHEMICAL BONDING Atoms bond to gain stability, bonding increases stability, an atom is most stable when its valence e- is full TYPES OF BONDS Ionic- e- transfer, occurs between two metals of very different metallic characters; makes IONS Covalent- e- sharing, nonmetal and metal, makes MOLECULES Metallic- e- pooling, forms e- sea *use Lewis Dot Structures to show bonding ENERGY CHANGES IN IONIC BONDING Energy both released & absorbed in an ionic bond, Lattice energy- measure of how strongly ions attract each other; allows for comparison of bond strengths BORN-HABER CYCLE Using different processes (atomization, dissociation, Energy ionization, e- affinity) to measure the lattice energy by using Hess’s Law and adding your values together Ionic bond strength governed by Coloumb’s Law - The attraction decreases as the ion size increases - Attraction increases as charge (Q) increases F= k((Q1*Q2)/(d^2)) Larger ionic size = less lattice energy THREE STEPS FOR COMPARING IONIC COMPOUND SIZES 1. Identify Ions present 2. Compare the charges of all the ions 3. Compare the SIZES of the ions PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS -Array of ions in a crystal - Hard but brittle -Conduct electricity in solution or molten forms - Nonconductors in solid forms - No free moving ions when solid - Ions are free to move when melted
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