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INTEGRATION OF QUALITY, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND HEALTH & SAFETY STANDARDS Optimizing Business Improvement and Minimizing Risk: Recent Trends By Amy Carlson, Amadeus Innaada Published: February, 2003 The Compliance™ Compliance Process Control Abstract Over the last several decades, companies managed their quality, environmental, health and safety (QEHS) requirements through traditional hardcopy means, via a collection of disparate systems. Due to several market factors companies will have to develop strategies and systems to accomplish more efficient QEHS management. Technology innovation and a merging of QEHS regulatory philosophies now allow companies to achieve business improvement through the integration of their QEHS requirements throughout the enterprise. This paper discusses the available technologies allowing integration of the QEHS standards within an enterprise, the benefits of the integration, and the various success criteria and pitfalls of integrating these standards within an enterprise. 2 • The various levels and scope of integration Introduction and how these differ from the points of Over the last several decades, companies integration. managed their quality, environmental, • The potential for optimization of risk occupational health and safety (QEH&S) management, compliance tracking, business improvement and efficiency enhancement, requirements through traditional hardcopy and strategic business planning through means, via a collection of disparate systems (point solutions). This proliferation of individual integration. systems throughout an organization was not a • Key success factors for planning and implementing an integrated system. deliberate means to foster compliance silos within a company, but rather the natural response to several factors including; disparate Standards Comparison timing of the differing regulations, technology limitations for flexibility and integration, The International Organization for bifurcation of core business and Standardization (ISO) has developed several ancillary/support functions, and the different families of standards through its technical philosophies of the EH&S prescriptive-based, committees for the standardization of quality command-and-control regulations compared to management systems (QMS), environmental the continuous improvement cycle and management systems (EMS), and occupational performance based underpinnings of the ISO Health and Safety management systems quality standards. (OSHAS) across the global community. Due to several market factors, including Although these international standards are not increased competition, globalization of the intended to be used to create non-tariff trade marketplace, increased visibility of corporate barriers or to increase or change an governance, and regulatory influences, most organization’s legal obligations, neither do they companies will have to develop strategies and diminish the requirements affecting an 3 systems to accomplish more efficient QEH&S organization. Rather they promote a methodology or a system that organizations can management throughout the enterprise in order to maintain profitability and market share. follow to enhance their quality, environmental, Technology innovation and a merging of or H&S processes. QEH&S regulatory philosophies now allow The Occupational Health & Safety companies to achieve business improvement Management Systems (OHSAS 18000) series of through the integration of their QEH&S specification was originally created from the requirements throughout the enterprise. British Standard for Occupational Health and The following sections will discuss the Safety Management Systems (BS8800;1996) and is comprised of two parts; the 18001 available technologies allowing integration of the quality, environment, health & safety specification and the 18002:2000 specification. standards within an enterprise, the benefits of The first provides the standard for which an organization can be certified against for their the integration, and the various success criteria and pitfalls of integrating these standards OHS management system. The second provides within an enterprise. guidelines for the implementation of 18001. It should be noted that the OHSAS 18000 Specifically, the sections discuss: specification is not yet a standard. For • The similarities and the differences between simplicity, this paper will refer to the quality the standards that will provide enablers and and environment standard and the health and barriers to the integration. safety specifications collectively as “Standards”. • Recent trends and evolution of systems in the industry. ISO14000 family of standards, developed personnel who are responsible for process and by ISO Technical Committee 207, was developed equipment operations. Within H&S, the to ensure that companies doing business stakeholders are typically an individual or globally would carry out their operations in a population within the company itself that is way that did not diminish the environment. affected by an incident. These standards provide organizations with the elements of an effective environmental Second, there are several articles that differ between the standards. For example, a management system (EMS) that can be major element of the 14001 standard is for the integrated with other management requirements organization to determine aspects of their to assist organizations to achieve environmental and economic goals. activities, services or products that may significantly impact the environment. The H&S Since these standards were both patterned standard’s focus is on hazard identification, off of the ISO 9000 family, there are many whereas, the quality standard contains a clause common elements between all of the standards. for the evaluation of suppliers and their The common elements include: products and services. • Policy Third, the continuous improvement cycle • Defined Organization, Structure, and and performance based underpinnings of the Responsibilities EMS and OHSAS standards differ • Training philosophically from the prescriptive-based, • Standard Documentation • Document Control command-and-control regulations promulgated • Control of Essential Operations by US EPA and OSHA over the last several decades. Thus, an effective environmental and • Defined and Documented Standard Practices H&S system is inherently more complex in that • Nonconformances and Corrective/Preventive Actions it must also address a myriad of specific 4 • Record System regulatory driven requirements. • Internal Audits Relation of Regulations to International • Management Review Standards Although the high-level management Over the last several decades regulations processes of quality, environment and H&S are have been promulgated in accordance with comparatively similar, there are a few distinct federal, state, and local laws that generally differences at the detail level, which affect the control releases of various pollutants to the feasibility of a complete systems integration. environment via the different media (air, water, land). The result has been a myriad of First, the extent and type of downstream stakeholders is different between the quality, individual requirements that each organization environment and H&S processes. Within quality, must meet for controlling and tracking its releases into the environment. Consolidation of the stakeholders most affected by the these requirements (air, water, etc.) has been organization’s processes include the customers. These customers then drive the requirements done under some permitting programs. However, the goal of these programs has been back to the organization, an intrinsic the compliance of emissions with limitations. As stakeholder. The upstream stakeholders in the value chain include the suppliers. Within such, the focus of most organizations over the last several decades has not been management environment, the downstream stakeholders system centric (e.g., EMS, HMS, QMS), but include various populations, regulatory bodies, citizen groups and other entities. Although rather management information system centric (e.g., EMIS, HMIS, QMIS). The MIS, a subset or suppliers can influence environmental impacts, component of a management system, was usually the upstream stakeholders within environmental management are mainly developed to specifically store volumes of data comprised of the organization’s operational and produce prescribed reports, with less integration. Some of the more important emphasis on continual improvement cycles. changes are: Within the last few years, the US EPA has • Migration to the Web. The World Wide Web joined states and businesses in experimenting has quickly become one of the most effective mechanisms at reaching large populations with new approaches, patterned off of the ISO standards, which will achieve levels of with real-time information. For example, it environmental protection beyond compliance took a span of 38 years from the inception of the radio to reach 50 million users, the levels. From this work, the National number generally regarded as the widespread Environmental Performance Track program was developed. The Performance Track is a acceptance threshold. The same number of users was reached by personal computers and voluntary program intended to reward and the World Wide Web in 16 and 4 years, recognize facilities and organizations with a respectively. proven record of regulatory compliance, an As a result of the widespread proliferation of operational EMS, and a demonstrated the Internet, this mechanism has quickly commitment to continued improvement and become one of the best ways of accessing and outreach to the local community and public. using quality, environmental, health and safety information. OSHA and the EPA have The agencies increasing align with the standards philosophies making a more spent millions of dollars web enabling regulatory standards, guidance documents comprehensive integration of all standards and and compliance data for use by the general requirements possible. public. They have established a link path Like ISO standards, the Performance Track conformity that allows an organization to program is not intended to diminish an insert regulatory information within documents. organization’s responsibility to comply with all applicable regulations and requirements. The advancements in web technology allow: Therefore, any integration in standards must 5 ▯ Faster startup of use of a system due to a also be inclusive of all regulations and minimal installation process. requirements promulgated apart from the ▯ Higher accessibility by professionals: standards. Anyone who has Web access, a Web browser, and the system’s password can generally access the system. No special software is needed on the professional’s Recent Trends and machine. Advancement of Systems in • Evolution to ERP II: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions have been available the industry on the market for several decades. A term Because of the vast amount of coming into vogue recently is ERP II that denotes the second generation of ERP information that an organization must track, solutions. These are ERP solutions that extend analyze and report, and because the whole beyond just essential business functions into concept of standards integration centers around all aspects of a company’s activities. An a common and consistent framework for example is an ERP that tracks EHS housing all of the organization’s information, it information as well as HR information. is apparent that an electronic information • Up-To-Date: Version enhancements are management system is intrinsically tied to the simply made on the central server, not concept of standards integration. needing to be sent to each individual PC. This also reduces the total cost of ownership due Advances in information technology over to reduced maintenance costs. the last several years now make it more • Focus on integration: With the advances on appealing and feasible than ever to utilize an the web and the need to be more competitive electronic solution to assist with standards globally, more organizations are requiring access of information across the enterprise. example, a person conducting an audit to This means that core systems are being monitor the questionnaire and track the integrated to share business critical data. results on their PDA and transmit the data to • Collaborative: With the higher accessibility of the system from the field. the technology to more of the value chain, the systems are becoming more collaborative in nature. • Transformation of data-centric to Optimization of Business knowledge-centric: Business Intelligence and data mining are also becoming a bigger part Practices of QEH&S solutions, with the ability to pull Due to several market factors, including external and corporate data and analyze, increased competition, globalization of the trend, and track the data. marketplace, increased visibility of corporate • Wireless technology: Finally, even web-based governance, and regulatory influences, most solutions cannot meet the needs of all companies will have to develop strategies and stakeholders. Some users within the organization may not have Internet/intranet systems to accomplish more efficient QEH&S management throughout the enterprise in order access or may have transient tasks that make entry of information into a PC infeasible. As to maintain profitability and market share. Technology innovation and a merging of such, wireless technology is continuing to be developed and integrated with many QEH&S regulatory philosophies now allow solutions. This wireless technology allows, for companies to achieve business improvement Reduce liabilities 6 Ensure compliance Regulatory Financial • Minimized risk of • Lower legal and regulatory review and Create consulting costs fines Business • Lower workers’ • Satisfied regulatory compensation requirements Reduce Value insurance expenses • Enhanced compliance costs • Reduced systems reputation costs • Ability to move into Integrate • Less litigation international markets operations exposure • Minimized and • Less fines avoided compliance requirements •productivitysiness • Valuable working Increase relationships with productivity • Lower training costs oversight officals Organizational • Employee retention • Enterprise viability • Standardized behavior driving consistency in product quality • Focus on core business activities • Safer workplace • Cleaner environment • Positive community relations Figure 1: Multi-faceted Business Value through the integration of their QEH&S (integral) or at least remain competitive requirements throughout the enterprise. (functional). A task that is responded to on a day-to-day basis falls on the tactical end of the Figure 1 shows just a few of the multi- timing scale. A task that occurs on an as- faceted benefits that can be realized throughout an organization from the utilization of an needed basis falls to the strategic end of the timing scale. information management system for standards integration. The results of accurate, consistent Tasks, whose level of performance may data across the enterprise that is accessible at affect the ability of the organization to operate, the right time for the right individuals means fall on the business integral end of the that an organization can experience Enterprise perceived importance scale. Tasks, whose level Improvement through reduced costs (less time of performance may affect the ability of the looking for facts and data), better productivity organization to operate competitively, fall on (not having to key in data twice), and reduced the business functional end of the perceived liabilities (being able to track who has accessed importance scale. Based on these scales, the what information when, and making sure the categories for QEH&S system benefits fall into most current information is available). compliance, risk management, efficiency, and According to Gartner Group, 50 percent of an strategic business planning aspects. organization’s information may be lost with a Generally, the benefits an organization common framework. achieves with an Information Management The aforementioned benefits can be System progresses with the maturity of the grouped into four general categories as shown system. An organization almost always starts to in Figure 2. This matrix identifies two key use a system to demonstrate their in-compliance scales, the timing scale and the perceived status. Focuses on integration, reporting, and an importance scale that delineate the four easy-to use graphical user interface move the categories of benefits. The horizontal axis shows organization into efficiency. Focuses on 7 the activities that are more responsive or urgent evaluation, business intelligence, and in nature (tactical) to those which are important verification priorities move the organization but more proactive in nature (strategic). The into risk management. And finally, focusing on vertical axis indicates activities that an total value chain integration provides a organization must perform to stay in business powerful strategic business planning platform. Integral Compliance Risk Management Tactical Strategic Efficiency Strategic Business Planning Functional Figure 2: Perceived Importance Scale essentially ‘running in the same direction’ most Standards Integration likely to meet a compliance objective. The With the enhanced promotion of EMS common philosophy or policy will dictate through EPA’s performance track and the essentially how many more successive levels of addition of the OHSAS standard, the concept of integration that the organization will participate “standards integration” is being utilized more in. A common policy or a general mandate widely throughout the industry and proliferated from corporate is generally needed before the in the literature. Even so, there remains some next level of standards integration, platform confusion on the precise definition and integration, can be achieved. implications of standards integration The third level of integration involves a throughout an organization. The confusion stems mainly from the fact, that at face value, common systems platform. This entails the organization centralizing and standardizing the standards integration seems to be a single framework for the collection, evaluation, and concept. However, there are several levels at which the standards can be integrated. These distribution of QEH&S data throughout the enterprise, most effectively done through the levels are distinguished by the stakeholders use of an information management system or a affected by the integration and by the conceptual granularity between the levels. group of information management systems with common architecture or data exchange Levels of Integration interfaces. The platform integration should not The five levels of standards integration are: only considers traditional EMS component but 1. Common Programs also EMIS reporting functionality. A common 2. Common Policy platform promotes the accessibility and transfer 3. Common Platform of information within the application among 4. Common Process 5. Common Parameters (data) the stakeholders in the organization. Web based technology is one of the mechanisms allowing 8 The first level of integration involves a organizations to deploy their applications more different group of stakeholders, namely the extensively throughout the enterprise. standards organizations and regulatory bodies. The fourth level of integration is For integration to be successful at this level, it is incumbent upon these organizations to standardization of management processes across the enterprise, meaning that the form, style, formulate standards and regulations with order, and transmission of data relating to common elements across all processes. Where this is not possible, the organizations must align quality, environment, and H&S are all handled in a similar manner. Quite simply, templates for like processes as much as possible. This allows data entry, data viewing, data analysis, and an organization to develop a consistent policy across quality, environment, and H&S without a reporting are constructed and are used significant amount of varying elements. throughout all of the various processes. In the second level of integration, the It should be noted that this is the level where the greatest integration may occur. The organization establishes a policy that reflects singular most important commonality in the general goals and objectives of the organization related to quality, environment, and H&S. These quality, environment and H&S standards is that they are all based on a continual improvement general goals mean that the organization is all process that is comprised of smaller environment and H&S at the higher level is tied subprocesses such as policy determination and to the ability to provide a common process training. As shown in Figure 3, the general mapping and workflow engine across all areas. processes are comprised of subprocesses that are In fact, because the ISO 9001:2000 standards comprised of activities, which are comprised of rely heavily on process mapping, much of this a series of steps. Each of the three standards work is completed for the implementation for has, for the most part, a similar overlying environmental and health & safety requirements process and subprocesses. The commonality at through the implementation of the quality the most granular level is that the activities and requirements. steps needed to carry out each of the processes in the organization, whether quality, Examples of some of the similarities between the QEHS processes are shown in Table 1. environment or H&S is linked with the task management. The ability to integrate the processes and subprocesses across quality, Processes Process Mapping & Workflow Subprocesses Activities Task 9 Management Steps Figure 3. Hierarchy of Processes Table 1. Similarities between Quality, Environmental, and H&S standards processes. ISO-related Common Elements Quality Environmental H&S Process Process Mapping Workflow System Workflow Processes Activities Task Management Workload Tasks from Action Plans Task Tracking Audit Questions QMS Audits EMS Audits OHSAS Audits Questionnaires Environmental H&S Inspections Scheduling Audits Audit Findings and Observations Links with Action Plans Training Required Training Management EPA Program OSHA Required Management Training Tracking Requirements Requirements Training Course and Instructor Class Scheduling Results Tracking Skill Level and Experience Tracking Nonconformance Detection Out of Spec (OOS) Emission Incidents (N/C) Investigation Process Failures Exceedances Audit Findings Decision Record Keeping Emission Violations Medical Completion Violations Recordkeeping Surveillance Verification Deviations Violations Results 10 Audit Findings Risk Assessment Detection Process Changes Site Assessment Job Hazard Root Cause Risk Management Assessments Assessment Criteria Plans Process Safety Links with CAPA Disposal Option Assessments Affected Entities Assessment Ergonomics Evaluations Evaluation Criteria Supplier Evaluations Training Evaluations Training Evaluation Results Customer Significant Evaluations Evaluation History Complaints Aspect/Impact Root Cause Links with N/C Training Evaluations Evaluations Links with CAPA Investigations Investigation Criteria Process Failure Spill Investigations Accident Investigation Results Investigations Release Investigations Investigation History Investigations Links with N/C Links with CAPA Corrective Action Plans From Quality Audits From Env. Audit From H&S Audits Action/Preventive Status Tracking Process N/C Site Evaluations JHA AVciintions Etc.SA Emission Accidents ISO-related Common Elements Quality Environmental H&S Process Document Approval Quality Programs Environmental H&S Programs Management Review Cycles and Policies Programs and Policies and Controlled Access/Distribution Policies Permits Plans (Confined Space) Permits KPI Parameters and Limits Quality Criteria Targets Targets Tracking of Performance over Time Project Management Project Plans Quality Plans Environmental Health & Safety Project Resources Project Plans Projects Project Tasks NEPA Tracking Construction Project Status Projects Business Intelligence Analytics Customer Emission Levels Over Accident Rates Trending Complaints Time Compared to Compared to Industry Bureau of Labor Statistic Rates EMR Calibration Instrument Specifications Quality Systems Ambient Monitoring Indoor Air Quality Calibration Results Calibration Calibration Instrument Links to CAPA Monitoring System Calibration Calibration Measurements and Monitoring Data Specification Batch/Lot Testing Continuous Emission Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Data Collection Scheduling Laboratory Testing Monitors Testing and Data Collection O.O.S Samples Outfall Monitoring Monitoring 11 Results Analysis Waste Profiles Hearing Results Trending Stack Testing Respirator Alerts Escalation Document Approval Permit Requirements Regulation Imminent Requirements N/C Emergency Response Requirements Open Requirements CAPA Policy Changes Overdue Items Incident Investigations E-mail connectivity Alerts Policy and Programs Policy and Programs Policy and Task Closure Programs Document Routing Management Review Reports N/C Significant Impacts OSHA Violations Trending Customer Emissions Stanisicesnt Anomalies Satisfaction Permit Violations Hazards ID Supplier Histories As stated previously, the actual content of data would be input in one location but the data will be dependent upon the application available throughout the enterprise. Because to quality, environmental, or H&S processes. there are differences in the standards as noted Because of the differences in the standards, the previously, not all data collected for quality will data utilized within the quality, environment be utilized for environmental or H&S standards. and H&S processes will not completely overlap. So data at the most granular level may not be Therefore, there will be slightly less integration utilized across all processes. However, those in the fifth level of Parameter Integration. data should be available across all the processes The fifth level of integration involves the for utilization if and when necessary. Some of normalization and accessibility of common data the integration points between the quality, environment, and H&S standards are provided throughout the enterprise. This means that data in Table 2. collected for quality would be available for environmental management and vice-versa. The Table 2. Integration of Elements of Quality, Environment, and H&S systems Element Common Fields Quality Environment H&S Organizations Names Suppliers/ Agencies Agencies Locations Customers Citizen Groups Work Contact Information Compensation Groups Organizational Name Assigned Processes Assigned Equipment Assigned Work Structure Hierarchy Responsibilities Group 12 Assigned Persons Person Profile Roles Locations Name Processes Release Points Industrial Hygiene Hierarchy Coordinates Equipment Name Guarantees ProduOtitn TLaogck-Out Type Calibration Schedules SCpocfeined Supplier, Vendor, etc Information Installation/Operation Dates Responsible Materials Name Product & Services Hazard Ingredients FMPA Ratings Location IIuality Tier PPE Receipt Specifications Waste Tracking Supplier TRI Related Process NESHAPs Inventory Name Expiration Dates Maximum Quantities Storage Quantity onsite Location Quantities recovered Global Picklist Name UOM UOM UOM Categories Description Element Common Fields Quality Environment H&S Parameters Name Targets Pollutants Safety Indicators Assigned Equipment Assigned Materials Assigned People Limits Requirements Name Policy Requirements Permit Requirements Regulatory Tasks Plan Requirements Requirements Due Dates Policy Responsible Requirements Training Name None Regulatory Citation Regulatory Courses Citation Instructors Class Dates Due Dates Results fields Participants Employee/User Work Profile Skills Certification Status Lost time Position Experience (Responsible Official, Disability Gender etc.) Accidents Date hired Emergency Contact Illnesses WCI Claims Questionnaires Questions Different Processes Different Processes Different Question Criteria for Affected Affected Processes Affected Evaluation Question Answer selections Action Plans and Task Related CAPA Related Permit Related CAPA Tasks Responsible N/C or Requirement Due Date etc. Progress Status 13 Cost Management Cost Category Training Costs Permit Filing Fee WCI Costs Costs Product N/C Costs Permit Application Accident LTI Costs Fee Medical Costs Emissions Fee Disposal Costs Incident Incident Customer Affected Management Incident Date Supplier Implicated Source Process affected Amount of Chemical Severity of Factors Spilled Accident Affected Population/Equipment Program Objectives Program Name Quality Program Environmental H&S Program Objective Program Ties to Hazards Related Documents Ties to Aspects Reevaluation Date Responsible Measuring & Parameter Process Affected Frequency Work Area Monitoring Measurement Date Type of Sample Area or Individual Measurement Type Flow Weighted Measurement Location Level of Detection Person measuring Results Measuring Method Margin of Error The thoroughness of the standards company, including QEH&S, it is imperative integration is dependent not only upon “what” that a management system be accessible is being integrated (i.e., the levels of throughout the enterprise and not just at a site integration) but also the “extent” that the level. As a specific example, compliance with integration is occurring (i.e., the dimensions of many environmental regulations is integration). The integration of standards across demonstrated through reports that roll-up data the processes (quality, environment and H&S on a site level. As a result, the management processes) is only one dimension of the systems have been site-focused rather than integration. There are at least two other enterprise-wide, specific to each process, and dimensions that must be considered. These are not accessible throughout all levels of the discussed in the following section. organization. These silos of information increase the amount of redundant and Three dimensions of integration inconsistent data thereby reducing efficiency As stated previously, the dimensions of integration refer to the extent within an and elevating compliance risks. organization that the elements of the standards Enterprise data does not mean that all are integrated. Figure 4 shows the three personnel will have access to all company dimensions that must be considered in order for records. A technically robust security system the organization to optimize their standards can limit records that are restricted to just the integration. These dimensions include personnel who need to view, add, edit, and integration throughout the enterprise (the delete them. This means that a corporate official organizational structure and physical locations), with appropriate security privileges can compile integration throughout the business processes enterprise-wide reports and analytics quickly (including quality, environment, H&S), and from one common framework. Trending integration throughout the complete value chain analyses could then be conducted for the entire (stakeholders). As shown in the figure, the enterprise instead of by one site at a time. 14 expansion of integration along these three Not only must the system be deployed dimensions is bounded by the organization’s resource limitations, driver constraints, and throughout the many locations and companies of a organization for trending purposes, but tactical needs. For example, resource limitations also throughout the stakeholders within the company and the stakeholders in the business’s value chain. As an example, suppliers may want to have access to the supplier evaluation history, performed on their company. This may resodrivers enhance their performance against the criteria by evaluating trends in their performance. needs Stakeholders Processes, Q,E,HS Enterprise Key Success Factors for Integration Figure 4: Integration Expansion No two organizations will have identical processes, organizational structures and goals. may not make it possible for all data captured Therefore, a successful integration strategy at within an inventory system be fed real-time one company may not work well at another. into a quality system. In this case, only certain However, there are some elements that are critical fields may be integrated. common to successful integrations. These In order to more effectively evaluate elements include: corporate performance in all areas of the 1. Need-centric approach. With a need-centric 3. Holistic approach. The approach must not approach, the organization focuses on those only be need-centric but also holistic. This aspects where a true gap exists between the type of approach refers back to the discussion goals/requirements of the organization and of the dimensions of integration. A successful the current performance. The gaps are integration will consider all of the processes assessed in the areas of compliance, and entities within and outside of the efficiency, risk minimization, and strategic business optimization to determine true needs start versus wants. This approach is based on a careful balance of drivers versus resources and includes prioritization of all the identified needs. A good needs assessment will follow the “reciprocal funnel” approach. The Tactical Needs reciprocal funnel, shown in Figure 5, is the Assessment approach whereby the subset of highly visible needs are expanded through brainstorming, investigations, and other analyses to consider Strategic the totality of needs in the organization, including all strategic objectives. Once the needs are identified, the requirements are Requirements determined by filtering the needs based on Identification priorities and objectives to produce a Tactical requirements matrix. Final prioritization is based on tactical considerations, namely resource feasibility, to determine the ‘must- haves’ versus the lower priority items. end 2. Well-planned process. In the global environment, most organizations want 15 standardization across their enterprise, Figure 5: Reciprocal Funnel Approach to including standardization in their solutions Requirements Determination and data feeding the solution. The temptation with any project that utilizes commercially organization in the integration strategy. This available software to fulfill its system does not mean that the entire integration integration needs is analogous to the purchase of a new car without the permission to drive project is rolled-out at all of the sites in the organization in parallel. It does mean that all it until the owner’s manual is read. There is of the dimensions of the organization be the desire to begin immediately loading the data into the database after the application is considered during the planning process to ensure that integration in one area does not installed. However, the standardization of the diminish the value of the integration in data going into the solution can be an issue because of the differing regulations, another area. For example, a materials management system may be integrated to a languages, data collection and reporting QEH&S management system to provide processes, and organizational structures across the enterprise. Therefore, even with information on the inventory located at each site. Without consideration of environmental commercially available software, the and H&S regulations, the system may not be organization must carefully plan the implementation process to ensure that there is set up to accept hazardous chemical data or personal protective equipment (PPE) sufficient stakeholder input, consolidation of information, respectively. These data would be data, clearly defined roles, and a traceable process. The planning and documentation critical in performing essential environmental and H&S functions within the company. phases of the integration should constitute the 4. Phased deployment approach. A phased majority of the time spent on the project. approach involves deployment of the Corp Indicators/Trends Management Reports/Alerts Browser Users GUI Figure 6: System Users vs. Basic Acceptance Criteria integrated solution at a selected group of the graphical user interface (GUI). For the locations prior to the rollout over the entire group of users that will use the application enterprise. The phasing can be done by more extensively, the main focus is often the location, by system functionality, by reports and the capability of the system to stakeholder groups, or by a combination of all track action items and delinquent items three. This allows the organization to identify through alerts and notifications. The derived any revisions that are necessary to their value of the system for the corporate user is planning process and approach prior to the
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