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Genetics week 12 notes

by: Becca Sehnert

Genetics week 12 notes Bios 206

Becca Sehnert
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These are my notes over material that will be on the final! (OTHER WEEK 12 UPLOAD IS INCORRECT. ACCIDENTALLY UPLOADED WEEK 11, THIS IS THE CORRECT WEEK 12.)
Dr. Christensen
Class Notes
Genetics, Biology
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bios 206 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Week 12 (I think) TEST MONDAY WEDNESDAY Microplasmas –bacteria without cell walls with small genomes, 485 genes Wanted to put genome of one organism into another to make it the first one Endonuclease used to cut 5’ end of single strand so you can anneal 2 chromosome parts together to build chromosome fragments Yeast combined them into a circle Transform related species (look like eyeballs) membrane and cytoplasm of one organism with a completely artificially synthesized genome Determine if the genes were essential, non-essential, or quasi-essential Had to return some non-essential genes because the cell would not grow They think there needed to be redundancy of function Some they could delete that they thought were essential Put genes into 4 groups of function (cytosolic metabolism, cell membrane, preservation of genome information, and expression of genome information [Largest]) NOT TALKING ABOUT RNA FRIDAY Guest lecture How to derive GMOs? Humans have 25,000 genes. “We have the genome sequenced” = don’t know exactly what they do, blueprint in working document 20 chromosomes of proteins • Recombination at telomere • Glycine max from Glycine soja –took a lot of work to get rid of non needed genes • Teosinte –corn is more different than humans and chimps Variation at UNL • Conventional has 57000 genes and round up ready has 57001 genes • Plant hybrids and put male and female chrom into sister chromatids to get recombination • Promoter tells gene where, when, and how much to produce gene • Integration event X regeneration = functional transformant • Plant tissue culture –can go through somatic embryogenesis (monocots) or organogenesis (form shoot or root, then flip it, dicots) • Plant transformation – o Microprojectile bombardment –most common o Agrobacterium-mediated transformation –bacteria cell forms extreme growth § A bunch of proteins involved (took 10 labs 20 years to figure out) § Chemotaxis –help signals from plant and moves toward the higher concentration § This activates a gene to make tDNA that moves through the pore § Results in crown gall o Say “hey lets take out these bad genes and put in the genes we want in the plant and let it replicate and send it to the plant cells!” o Cut and paste genes into binary vectors instead of integrating into Ti plasmid. • Hairy roots –like a sweet potato, natural GMO • Bolistics –by a strawberry breeder o No biological process, just shoot it in like a shotgun Cross black flower and black and white and get all white –endogenous genes Zinc finger –make up depends on where will bind. • Make gene editing Agrobacterium use 4 protein pathway Bacteria –sit on needle 3 protein and what they insert is transcription actors. • Effectors that act as transcription factors have many little parts. CRISPR –adaptive immune system Zinc finger Talons Cas


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